Term
Descrive the relationship between thrust and power. 

Definition


Term
Define thrust required and power required. 

Definition
Thrust required  the amount of thrust required to overcome drag (expressed in pounds). Power required  the amount of power required to produce thrust required. 


Term
Describe how thrust required and power required varies with velocity. 

Definition
Power required is dependent on thrust and velocity. 


Term
State the location of L/Dmax on the thrust required and power required curves. 

Definition
Thrust required curve: at bottom of curve Power required curve: to the right of the bottom of cuve 


Term
Define thrust availiable and power availiable. 

Definition
Thrust availiable  the amount of thrust that the airplane"s engines are actually producing at a given throttle setting, density and velocity. Power availiable  the amount of power that the airplane's engines are actually producing at a given throttle setting, density and velocity. 


Term
Describe the effects of throttle setting, velocity, and density on thrust available and power availiable for a turboprop engine. 

Definition
Thrust availiable  max thrust availiable occurs at full throttle as velocity increases thrust availiable decreases as density decreases, thrust available decreases Power available  max power available occurs at full throttle as velocity increases power will initially increase but then decrease due to a decrease in Thrust available as density decreases power available decreases 


Term
Define Thrust horsepower, shaft horsepower, and propeller efficiency. 

Definition
THP = proeller output SHP = engine output PE = the ability of the propeller to turn engine output into thrust 


Term
State the relationship between thrust horsepower, shaft horsepower, and propeller efficiency. 

Definition
Under ideal conditions, SHP would equal THP, but due to friction in the gearbox and propeller drag. THP is always less than SHP. PE is always less than 100 percent. 


Term
State the flat rated shaft horsepower and the Navy limited shaft horsepower of the T34C PT6A25 engine. 

Definition
550 SHP(1315 ft/lbs of torque)/425 SHP(1015 ft/lbs of torque) 


Term
Define Thrust excess and power excess 

Definition
thrust excess occurs if thrust available is greater than thrust required at a particular velocity. Te = Ta  Tr power excess occurs if power available is greater than power required and will produce an acceleration, a climb, or both. Pe = Pa  Pr 


Term
State the effects of a thrust excess or a power excess. 

Definition
thrust excess  an acceleration, a climb or both. power excess  an acceleration, a climb or both. (negative thrust/pwr excess will cause a descent or deceleration or both) 


Term
State the conditions necessary to achieve the maximum thrust excess and maximum power excess for a turboprop airplane. 

Definition
Max thrust excess occurs at full throttle setting and at a velocity less than L/Dmax for a turboprop. Max power excess occurs at L/Dmax for a turboprop. 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in weight on thrust required, power required, thrust available and power available. 

Definition
Tr and Pr curves shift up and to the right (They shift to the right b/c more weight = more lift needed = an increase in velocity. they shift up because more velocity = more drag = more thrust needed) Weight changes have no effect on Ta and Pa as they do not affect the engine. 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in weight on maximum thrust excess and maximum power excess 

Definition
They decrease at every AOA and velocity 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in altitude on thrust required, power required, thrust available, and power available 

Definition
Thrust Required  curve shifts to the right Power Required  curve shifts up and to the right 


Term
describe the effects of changes in configuration on thrust required, power required, thrust available and power available 

Definition
Lowering landing gear: does not affect thrust/power available increases thrust/power required (curves move up) Lowering flaps: does not affect thrust/power available increases thrust/power required (curves move up and to the left) 


Term
describe the effect of changes in altitude on max thrust excess and max power excess and on the airspeeds necessary to achieve max thrust and max power excess 

Definition
They will both decrease (thrust excess decreases because as altitude increases, density decreases and there is therefore less thrust available)(power excess decreases because pwr available decreases and pwr required increases) The airspeed necessary to achieve max thrust and max pwr excess will INCREASE 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in configuration on maximum thrust excess and max power excess, and on the airspeeds necessary to achieve max thrust and max power excess. 

Definition
They will both decrease (because thrust/pwr required increase with landing gear & flaps) The airspeed necessary to achieve max thrust and max power excess will decrease. 


Term

Definition
a quantity that represents only magnitude (time/temp/volume) 


Term

Definition
a quantity that represents magnitude and direction. (displacement,velocity,acceleration,force) 


Term

Definition
push or pull exerted on a body F = ma 


Term

Definition
The quantity of molecular material that comprises an object 


Term

Definition
the amount of space occupied by an object 


Term

Definition
mass per unit volume D = m/v 


Term

Definition
the force with which a mass is attracted toward the center of earth by gravity. 32.174 ft/s^2 


Term

Definition
a vector quantity equal to a force times the distance from the point of rotation that is perpendicular to the force. M = F*d 


Term

Definition
a scalar quantity equal to the force times the distance of displacement. W = F*s 


Term

Definition
the rate of doing work or work done per unit time. P = W/t 


Term

Definition
a scalar measure of a body's capacity to do work. TE = KE + PE 


Term

Definition
The ability of a body to do work because of its position or state of being. PE = mgh 


Term

Definition
ability of a body to do work because of its motion. KE = 1/2 mv^{2} 


Term
Define total drag, parasite drag and induced drag 

Definition
Drag is the component of the aerodynamic force that is paralell to and acts in the same direction as the relative wind. Total drag is the sum of parasite and induced drag. Dt = Dp + Di Parasite drag is any drag not associated with the production of lift: friction, form, interference. Induced drag is the part of total drag associated with the production of lift. 


Term
Three types of parasite drag 

Definition
form, friction, interference 


Term
State the cause of each major type of parasite drag 

Definition
Form  (aka pressure/profile drag) caused by airflow separation from a surface and the low pressure wake that is created by that separation. Friction  drag arising from friction forces at the surface of an aircraft due to the viscosity of the air. Interference  caused by the mixing of streamlines between components 


Term
State the aircraft design features that reduce each major type of parasite drag 

Definition
Form  streamline surfaces Friction  smoothing surfaces by cleaning,waxing, painting, or polishing aircraft surfaces parasite  proper fairing and filleting 


Term
Describe the effects in changes in density, velocity and equivalent parasite area (f) on parasite drag, using the parasite drag equation 

Definition
D_{p} = ½ρV^{2}f = qf they are all directly proportional to drag so as any of them increase parasite drag increases and vise versa. if you double speed you will create 4 times as much drag. also, for density to increase altitude must decrease so altitude and parasite drag are inversely proportional. 


Term
describe the effects of upwash and downwash on the life generated by an infinite wing 

Definition
for an infinite wing the upwash exactly equals the downwash resulting no net change in lift. upwash and downwash exist any time an airfoil is producing lift. 


Term
Describe the effects of upwash and downwash on the life generated by a finite wing 

Definition
for a finite wing some of the wind flows spanwise around the wingtips and then combines with the chordwise flow which doubles the downwash (wingtip vortices) 


Term
State the cause of induced drag 

Definition
caused by parallel component of lift and acts in the same direction as drag and tends to retard the forward motion of the airplane; varies inversely with velocity and directly with angle of attack. 


Term
state the aircraft design features that reduce induced drag 

Definition
Install devices that impede spanwise airflow going around wingtips: winglets wingtip tanks missile rails 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in lift, weight, density, and velocity on induced drag using the induced drag equation 

Definition
D_{I} = KL^{2}/ρV^{2}b^{2 = }KW^{2}/ρV^{2}b^{2} Lift and Weight vary directly with induced drag so if they increase, induced drag will increase and vise versa. density and velocity vary inversely with induced drag so as they increase induced drag will decrease and vise versa. wingspan also varies inversely with induced drag. as AOA increases so does induced drag 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in velocity on total drag 

Definition
an increase in velocity will increase parasite drag and decrease induced drag and vise versa. 


Term
define and state the purpose of the lift to drag ratio 

Definition
it determines the efficiency of an airfoil. a high lift to drag ratio indicates a more efficient airfoil. 


Term
state the importance of L/D_{Max} 

Definition
produces the minimum total drag parasite drag and induced drag are equal produces the greatest lift to drag ratio most efficient AOA any movement away from L/Dmax will increasee drag 


Term
State the advantages and disadvantages of tapering the wings of the T34 

Definition
Advantages: they reduce weight, improve stiffness and reduce wigtip vortices Disadvantages: Even stall progression of tapered wings (ailerons are at wingtip and plane will loose lateral control) 


Term
state the purpose of wing tailoring 

Definition
the purpose of wing tailoring is to create a root to tip stall progression and give the pilot some stall warning while ensuring that the ailerons remain effective up to a complete stall 


Term

Definition
a decrease in angle of incidence from wing root to wing tip 


Term
describe aerodynamic twist 

Definition
a decrease in camber from wing root to wing tip 


Term
state the types of wing tailoring used on the T34 

Definition
aerodynamic twist and geometric twist (3.1 °) 


Term

Definition
the angle between the horizon and the airplane's longitudinal axis 


Term

Definition
the path the airplane's center of gravity follows as it moves through an air mass 


Term

Definition
airflow the airplane experiences as it moves through the air; equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to flight path 


Term

Definition
the angle between the relative wind and the chordline of an airfoil 


Term

Definition
a line drawn halfway between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing 


Term

Definition
when the mean camber line is above the chordline 


Term

Definition
when the mean camber line is below the chordline 


Term

Definition
when the mean camber line is coincident with the chordline 


Term

Definition
the point along the chordline where all changes in the aerodynamic force takes place (located 2327 percent of the length of the chord from the leading edge) 


Term

Definition
height of the airfoil profile. the point of max thickness corresponds to the aerodynamic center 


Term

Definition
airflow that travels along the span of the wing parallel to the leading edge; does not produce lift 


Term

Definition
air flowing at right angles to the leading edge of an airfoil. the only airflow that produces lift 


Term

Definition
force that is the result of pressure and friction distribution over an airfoil and can be resolved into 2 components: lift and drag 


Term

Definition
the component of the aerodynamic force acting perpendicular to the relative wind 


Term

Definition
the component of the aerodynamic force that acts parallel to and in the same direction as the relative wind 


Term
describe the effects on dynamic pressure, static pressure and the aerodynamic force as air flows around a cambered airfoil and a symmetirc airfoil 

Definition
symmetric airfoil  at zero AOA there will be identical velocity increases and static pressure decreases on the upper and lower surfaces and therefore there will be zero net lift. cambered airfoil  even at zero AOA the airflow above the wing will be faster than that below the wing and the static pressure on the top of the wing will therefore be lower than under the wing creating a pressure differential and therefore producing a lifting force. 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in AOA on the pressure distribution and AF of cambered and symmetric airfoils 

Definition
incresasing the AOA on any airfoil causes the area of the streamtube above the wing to decrease and produces a greater velocity increase above the wing than below which will increase the pressure differential which will increase the magnitude of the aerodynamic force 


Term
Describe the effects of changes in density, velocity, surface area, camber, and angle of attack on lift 

Definition
increase in density = increase in lift increase in velocity = increase in lift increase in surface area = increase in lift increaes in camber = increase in lift increase in AOA = increase in lift(up to ClmaxAOA) 


Term
List the factors affecting lift that the pilot can directly control 

Definition
??? AOA???velocity???camber???SA??density?? need to ask instructor becaues we have gotten several different answers 


Term
compare and contrast the coefficients of lift generated by cambered and symmetric aifoils 

Definition
At zero AOA: a positive cambered airfoil has a positive C_{L} a negative cambered airfoil has a negative C_{L} a symmetric airfoil has a C_{L }= 0 


Term

Definition
that layer of airflow over a surface that demonstrates local airflow retardation due to viscosity; it grows in thickness as it moves aft over the surace of an airfoil 


Term
list and describe the types of boundary layer airflow 

Definition
Laminar & turbulent laminar  air moves smoothly along in steamlines, produces very little friction but is easily separated from the surface turbulent  the flow is disorganized and irregular, produces higher riction drag but adheres to the upper surface of the airfoil delaying boundary layer separation 


Term
state the cause and effect of boundary layer separation 

Definition
the adverse pressure gradient impedes the flow of the boundary layer which does not have sufficient Kinetic energy to overcome the adverse pressure gradient and the BL will separate from the surface 


Term
define stall and state the cause of the stall 

Definition
a condition of flight where an increase in AOA will result in a decrease in C_{L} the only cause of a stall is excessive AOA beyond C_{Lmax} 


Term
Define and state the importance of C_{Lmax }and C_{Lmax }AOA 

Definition
C_{Lmax }is the peak coefficient of lift and any increase in AOA beyond C_{Lmax }AOA produces a decrease in C_{L} C_{Lmax }AOA is known as the "stalling angle of attack" or critical AOA and the region beyond C_{Lmax }AOA is the stall region. Regardless of the flight conditions or airspeed, the wing will always stall beyond the same AOA 


Term
State the procedure for stall recovery 

Definition
the only action necessary for stall recovery is to decrease the AOA below C_{Lmax }AOA but the steps in stall recovery are: (max, relax,level) 


Term
List common methods of stall warning and identify those used for the T34 

Definition
Common methods: AOA indicators rudder pedal shakers stick shakers horns buzzers warning lights electronic voices T34: AOA indicator AOA indexer rudder pedal shakers 


Term
state the stalling AOA of the T34C 

Definition
between 29.0 and 29.5 units (reguardless of airspeed, nose attitude, weight or altitude) 


Term
define stall speed (V_{s}) 

Definition
the minimum true airspeed required to maintain level flight at C_{Lmax }AOA 


Term
Describe the effects of weight, altitude and thrust on true and indicated stall speed, using the appropriate equations 

Definition
V_{s} = √[2W/(ρSC_{Lmax })] IAS_{s} = √[2W/(ρ_{0}SCLmax_{ })] if weight increases, stall speed increases if altitude increases, stall speed (TAS) increases but indicated stall speed (IAS) does not change since ρ_{0 }is constant **power on stall speed is less than power off stall speed because at high pitch attitudes part of the weight of the airplane is being supported by the vertical component of the thrust vector. 


Term
State the purpose of high lift devices 

Definition
to increase lift at low airspeeds and to reduce takeoff and landing speeds by reducing stall speed 


Term
state the effect of boundary layer devices on the coefficient of lift, stalling AOA and stall speed 

Definition
increases coefficient of lift increases stalling AOA decreases stall speed 


Term
state the effect of flaps on the coefficient of lift, stalling AOA, and stall speed 

Definition
increases the coefficient of lift decreases stalling AOA decreases stall speed 


Term
describe different types of boundary layer devices 

Definition
fixed slots and slats fixed slots  gaps located at the leading edge of a wing that allow air to flow from below the wing to the upper surface slats  moveable leading edge sections used to form automatic slots 


Term
describe the operation of boundary layer control devices 

Definition
fixed slots  high pressure air from the leading edge stagnation point is directed through the slot, which acts as a nozzle converting the static pressure into dynamic pressure. the high kinetic energy air leaving the nozzle increases the energy of the boundary layer and delays separation slats  when slats are deployed it opens a slot 


Term
describe different types of flaps 

Definition
plain  hinged portion of trailing edge forced down into air stream to increase camber split  a plate deflected from lower sfc...creates drag due to turbulent air btwn wind and deflected sfc slotted  moves away from wing to open a slot for Boundary layer control Fowler  used on large airplanes, moves down to increase camber and aft to increase wing area and opens a slot for Boundary layer control Leading edge  change wing camber at leading edge of airfoil 


Term
state the stall pattern exhibited by rectangular,elliptical, moderate taper, high taper and swept wing platforms 

Definition
rectangular  root stall tendency elliptical  even stall progression moderate taper  even stall progression high taper  tip stall tendency swept wing  tip stall tendency 


Term
Define steady airflow, streamline and streamtube 

Definition
steady airflow  exists if at every point in the airflow static pressure, temp, density and velocity remain constant over time. A particle of air follows the same path as the preceeding particle. streamline  the path that air particles follow in steady airflow streamtube  a collection of streamlines. it is a closed system. 


Term
Describe the relationship between airflow velocity and cross sectional area within a streamtube using the continuity equation 

Definition
A1V1 = A2V2 if the cross sectional area decreases on one side of the equation then the velocity must increase on the same side so both sides remain equal; velocity and area in a streamtube are inversely related. 


Term
list the components of the pitot static system 

Definition
pitot tube static pressure source black box 


Term
state the pressure sensed by each component of the pitot static system 

Definition
pitot tube  total pressure static pressure port  ambient static pressure black box  calculates the dynamic pressure and displays it on a pressure gauge inside the cockput...the IAS gauge 


Term
define mach number and critical mach number 

Definition
mach number is the ratio of the airplane's true airspeed to the local speed of sound M = TAS/LSOS Critical Mach number is when supersonic airflow exists somewhere on the airplane, usually the upper surface of wing 


Term
describe the effects of altitude on Mach number and critical Mach number 

Definition
an increase in altitude will increase mach number because the local speed of sound decreases and also the increase in altitude results in a decrease in temperature which also reduces the speed of sound 


Term

Definition
the ratio of the tip chord to the root chord 


Term

Definition
the angle between the lateral axis and a line drawn 25% aft of the leading edge 


Term

Definition
ratio of the wingspan to the average chord. glider = high aspect ratio fighter = low aspect ratio AR = b/c 


Term

Definition
ratio of an airplane's weight to the surface area of its wings WL = W/S (there tends to be an inverse ratio btwn AR and WL) 


Term

Definition
the angle between the airplane's longitudinal axis and the chordline of its wing. 


Term

Definition
the angle btwn the spanwise inclination of the wing and the lateral axis. (the upward slope of the wing as viewed from the front) 


Term
Describe and state the advantages of the semimonocoque fuselage construction 

Definition
a modified version of monocoque having skin, transverse frame members and stringers which all share in stress loads and may be readily repaired if damaged. 


Term
describe full cantilever wing construction 

Definition


Term
Define, compare and contrast equilibrium and trimmed flight 

Definition
equilibrium is the absence of acceleration, either linear or angular. equilibrium flight exists when the sum of all forces and moments around the center of gravity is zero and trimmed flight is when the sum of all moments around the center of gravity is equal to zero. if you are in equilibrium flight you are in trimmed flight but the reverse is not true. 


Term

Definition
the pressure each air particle exerts on another. 


Term

Definition
mass of air particles per unit volume. density decreases with an increase in altitude 


Term

Definition
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the air particles 


Term

Definition
temp decrease linearly with an increase in altitude at a rate of 2 degrees celsius (3.57F) per 1000 ft 36000 ft. 


Term

Definition
the amount of water vapor in the air 


Term

Definition
a measure of the air's resistance to flow and shearing. air viscosity increases with an increase in temperature 


Term
state the relationship between humidity and density 

Definition
as humidity increases air density decreases 


Term
state the relationship between temperature and viscosity 

Definition
as temperature increases, air viscosity increases 


Term
state the relationship between temperature and local speed of sound 

Definition
as temperature increases local speed of sound increases 


Term
State the pressure, temperature, lapse rate, and air density at sea level in the standarrd atmosphere using both metric and english units of measurement 

Definition
English Metric Pressure 29.92 in Hg 1013.25 mb Temperature 59F 15C Average lapse rate 2C/1000ft 3.57F/1000ft Air Density .0024 slugs/ft^3 1.225 g/l LSOS 661.7kts 340.4m/s 


Term
State Newton's 3 laws of motion 

Definition
1st  a body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to remain in motion in a straight line at a constant velocity unless acted upon by some unbalanced force 2nd  F = ma, an unbalanced force acting on a body produces an acceleration in the direction of the force that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body: a = F/m 3rd  kaw if interaction  ex: thrust produced in a jet engine 


Term
identify examples of newton's 3 laws of motion 

Definition
1st  an airplane in strait and level flight at constant velocity: thrust = drag and lift = weight, when plane is in equilibrium 2nd  when an airplane's thrust is greater than its drag (in level flight) excess thrust will accelerate the airplane until drag increases to equal thrust. 3rd  thrust produced in a jet engine 


Term
state the relationships btwn altitude and temp, pressure, air density, and LSOS within the standard atmosphere 

Definition
as altitude inceases, temperature decreases, pressure decreases, and LSOS decreases 


Term
state the relationship btwn pressure, temp, density using the general gas law 

Definition
they are all directly related to pressure, if holding pressure constant and increasing temperature, density must decrease and vise versa P = row RT 


Term
define compare and contrast aircraft and airplane 

Definition
aircraft = any device intended to be used for flight in the air. airplane = a heavier than air, fixed wing aircraft driven by an engine and supported by the dynamic reaction of airflow over its wings 


Term
List and describe the 3 major control surfaces of an airplane 

Definition
ailerons  control roll rudder  controls yaw elevator  controls pitch 


Term
list and define the 5 major components of an airplane 

Definition
fuselage  basic structure of an airplane engine  provides thrust neccessary for flight wing  produce lift empennage  provides greatest stabilizing influence of all components of an airplane. Consists of aft part of fuselage, vertical and horizontal stabilizer landing gear  used for ground taxi and to absorb shock of takeoff and landings 


Term
components of airplane reference system 

Definition
longitudinal axis  passes from nose to tail of acft lateral axis  passes from wingtip to wingtip vertical axis  passes vertically through the CG 


Term
List and define the otions that occur around teh airplane CG 

Definition
roll/lateral control  movement of lateral axis around longitudinal axis pitch/longitudinal control  movement of longitudinal axis around lateral axis yaw/directional control  movement of longitudinal axis around vertical axis 


Term

Definition
the length from wingtip to wingtip 


Term

Definition
an infinitely long strait line that passes through the leading and trainling edges of an airfoil 


Term

Definition
a measure of the distance along the chordline from the leading to trailing edgge. a measure of the width of the wing 


Term

Definition
the chord at the wing tip 


Term

Definition
the chord at the wing centerline 


Term

Definition
average of every chord from wingroot to wingtip 


Term

Definition
the surface area of the wing from wingtip to wingtip, the wingspan times the average chord: S = bc 


Term

Definition
a reduction in chord from wingroot to wingtip 


Term

Definition
the instrument indication for the dynamic pressure the airplane is creating during flight 


Term

Definition
indicated airspeed corrected for instrument/installation error 


Term

Definition
calibrated airspeed corrected for compressibility error. EAS = TAS at sea level on a standard day that produces the same dynamic pressure as the actual flight condition 


Term

Definition
the actual speed of the aircraft through the air mass. it is EAS corrected for density 


Term

Definition
TAS corrected for wind. a measure of an airplanes speed over the ground. 


Term
describe the relationship btwn total pressure, static pressure and dynamic pressure within a streamtube using bernouli's equation 

Definition
Pt = Ps + q the pitot tube measures the total pressure, the static port measures static pressure and the blackbox determines the dynamic pressure by subtracting static pressure from total pressure. so if q increases then ps must decrease for total pressure to remain constant 


Term
describe the relationships btwn weight, lift, velocity and AOA in order to maintain strait and level flight using the lift equation 

Definition
L = W = qSC_{L} = ½ρV^{2}SC_{L} In order to maintain level flight while increasing AOA, velocity must decrease. otherwise lift will be greater than weight and the airplane will climg. velocity and AOA are inversely related in level flight. 

