Shared Flashcard Set

Aero 1 Review
N/A
164
Aviation
Graduate
06/07/2011

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Term
 Define Scalar
Definition
 Represents only magnitude
Term
 Define Vector
Definition
 Represents magnitude and direction.  Used to represent displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force.
Term
 Define Force
Definition
 A push or pull exerted on a body.  Force = Mass x Acceleration
Term
 Define Mass
Definition
 Quantity of molecular material that comprises an object.
Term
 Define Volume
Definition
 Amout of space occupied by an object.
Term
 Define Density
Definition
 Mass per unit volume.
Term
 Define weight
Definition
 Force with which a mass is attracted toward the center of earth by gravity.
Term
 Define Moment
Definition
 wector quantity equal to a force (F) times the distance (d) from the point of rotation that is perpendicular to the force.  M=F*d
Term
 Define Work
Definition
 scalar quantity equal to the force times distance of displacement. W=F*s
Term
 Define Power
Definition
 (P) Rate of doing work per unit of time
Term
 Define Energy
Definition
 Measure of a bodys capacity to do work.
Term
 TE =
Definition
 TE = PE + KE
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 Ability of a body to do work because of position or state. PE = Hieght x weight = mgh
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 Ability of a body to do work because of its motion KE = 1/2mV2
Term
 What are Newtons 3 Laws
Definition
 Law 1 - Equillibruim Law 2 - Acceleration Law 3 - Interaction (EAI)
Term
 Newtons 1st Law
Definition
 A body at rest tends to stay at rest, a body in motion tends to stay in motion in a straight line at a constant velocity unless acted on by some unbalanced force.
Term
 Newtons 2nd Law
Definition
 an unbalanced force acting on a body produces an acceleration in the direction of the force that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.
Term
 Newtons 3rd Law
Definition
 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Term
 Give a flight example of Newtons 1st Law
Definition
 An aircraft in equillibrium flight
Term
 Give an example of Newtons 2nd Law
Definition
 Airplanes thrust causing it to move forward.
Term
 Give a flight example of Newtons 3rd Law
Definition
 Thrust produced by a jet engine.
Term
 Define Equillibrium flight.
Definition
 absence of acceleration, either linear or angular.  Equilibrium exists when the sum of all forces and the sum of all moments aroudn the center of gravity equal zero
Term
 Defined trimmed flight
Definition
 Trimmed flight exists when the sum of the moments around the CG is zero.
Term
 Tell me about being in trimmed and equillibrium flight.
Definition
 Equillibrium = Trimmed Trimmed does not always = equillibrium because you can be trimmed into a turn.
Term
 Define Static Pressure
Definition
 pressure each air particle exerts on another.  Fore acts perpendicualar to any surface the air particles collide with.
Term
 Air density
Definition
 Total mass of air particles per unit volume.
Term
 Define Temperature
Definition
 Measure of the average kinetic energy of the air particles. (T)
Term
 Average Lapse Rate
Definition
 Temperature decrease with an increase in altitude. 2 degrees C 3.57 degrees F
Term
 Humidity
Definition
 Amount of water vapor in the air.
Term
 As humidity increases, air density _______
Definition
 Decreases
Term
 Viscosity
Definition
 Measure of the air's resistance to flow and shearing.
Term
 Air Viscosity increases with an increase in _______
Definition
 Temperature.
Term
 Local Speed of Sound
Definition
 Rate at which sound waves travel through a particular air mass.
Term
 LSOS is dependant only on ___________
Definition
 Temperature
Term
 As the Temperature of Air increases, the LSOS ___________
Definition
 Increases
Term
 State the relationship between humidity and air density
Definition
 As humidity increases, air density decreases.
Term
 State the relationship between temperature and LSOS
Definition
 As Temprature increases, LSOS increases.
Term
 State the relationship between altitude and Temperature, Pressure, density, and LSOS
Definition
 Temp, pressure, density, and LSOS all decrease with an increase in altitude.
Term
 The 5 Major Aircraft Compenents are:
Definition
 Fuselage, Empenage, Landing Gear, Wings, Engine
Term
 What is the largest factor that increases stall speed.
Definition
 Weight
Term
 State the relationship between pressure, temprature, and density using the General Gas Law
Definition
 P=pRT While density is constant - Increasing Pressure will increase temprature. While pressure is constant - there is an inverse relationship between density and temperature.  Increasing temp will decrease density Increasing density will decrease temp
Term
 All changes in aircraft pitch occur about the?
Definition
 CG
Term
 If doubled ________ causes the greatest increase in lift.
Definition
 Velocity.
Term
 What is the equivalent to ƒ
Definition
 A combo of an aircrafts cross sectional area presented to the relative wind and other aircraft surfaces which air flows.
Term
 True or False Vortices can cause one or both wings to stall on a trailing aircraft.
Definition
 True
Term
 p.e. is
Definition
 The ability of the prop to turn engine output into thrust.
Term
 Define, Compare, Contrast an aircraft and an airplane.
Definition
 Aircraft-any device intended for use in air. balloon, glider, etc. Airplane - Heavier than air fixed wing aircraft driven by an engine and supported by the dynamic reaction of airflow over its wings. Aircraft describes a broad range - airplane is a more specific flying machine.
Term
 List and describe 3 major control surfaces.
Definition
 Ailerons - (and spoilers) control roll Rudder - attached to the vert stab and controls yaw Elevator - horizontal part of empenage that controls pitch
Term
 List and Describe the 5 major components of an airplane
Definition
 Fuselage - Basic Structure Wing - Produces Lift Empennage - Provides greatest stabilizing influence Landing gear - ground taxi, shock absorbing Engine - provides thrust for flight
Term
 List and define the components of the airplane reference system.
Definition
 CG - point at which all weight is considered to be concentrated. All forces and moments take place around it Longitudinal Axis - Passes from nose to tail of airplane Lateral Axis - Wingtip to wingtip Vertical Axis - Passes vertically through the CG
Term
 Describe the orientation between the components of the airplane reference system.
Definition
 The reference system consists of 3 mutually perpendicular axes intersecting at the CG
Term
 List and describe the motions that occur around the CG
Definition
 Roll or Lateral control - movement of lateral axis around the longitudinal Pitch - movement of the longitudinal around the lateral Yaw or directional - Movement of longitudinal around the vertical.
Term
 Define Wingspan
Definition
 (b) length from wingtip to wingtip
Term
 Define Chord Line
Definition
 infinately long straight line drawn through the leading edge and trailing edge of an airfoil
Term
 Chord
Definition
 measure of the width of the wing or other control surface measured along the chordline from leading edge to trailing edge.
Term
 Tip Chord
Definition
 CT - Chord Measured at the wingtip
Term
 Root Chord
Definition
 CR - Chord at wing centerline
Term
 Average Chord
Definition
 (c) average of every chord from root to tip
Term
 Wing Area
Definition
 (S) apparent surface area of a wing from tip to tip S=b*c
Term
 Taper
Definition
 Reduction in the chord of an airfoil from root to tip.  The T34 and T-37 are tapered to reduce weight, improve structural stiffness, and reduce wingtip vortices.
Term
 Taper Ratio
Definition
 λ = CT/CR Ratio of tip chord to root chord
Term
 Sweep Angle
Definition
 Angle between a line drawn 25% aft of the leading edge and the lateral axis Λ
Term
 Aspect ratio
Definition
 AR = b/c Ratio that shows lift
Term
 Wing Loading
Definition
 WL = w/S Ratio of weight to surface area.  Tends to be an inverse relationship between AR and WL
Term
 Angle of Incidence
Definition
 Angle between the airplane's longitudinal axis and the chordline of it's wing
Term
 Dihedral Angle
Definition
 Angle between the spanwise inclination of the wing and the lateral axis. The T-34 and T-37 both have dihedral wings to improve lateral stability.
Term
 Describe the advantages of a semi-monocoque fuselage
Definition
 Semi monocoque aircraft have skin transverse frame members, and stringers which share stress loads and may be rapidly repaired.  T-34 and T-37 have semi monocoque
Term
 Describe full cantilever wing construction.
Definition
 All bracing is internal
Term
 Define steady airflow
Definition
 Exists if at every point in the airflow static pressure, density, temprature, and velocity remain constant over time.  A particle of air follows the same path as the one in front of it.
Term
 Define Streamline
Definition
 The path that air particles follow in a steady airflow.
Term
 Streamtube
Definition
 A collection of streamlines forms a streamtube, which contains a flow just as effectively as a tube with solid walls.  Streamtube is a closed system.  Therefore total mass and energy remain constant
Term
 Continuity Equation
Definition
 A1V1=A2V2
Term
 Describe the relationship between airflow velocity and cross sectional area within a streamtube using the continuity equation.
Definition
 If the cross sectional area decreases on one side of the equation, velocity must increase on the same side so both sides remain equal. Velocity and area in a streamtube are inversely related.
Term
 Give Bernouli's equation
Definition
 PT = PS + q Total Pressure AKA Head Pressure is = static pressure + dynamic pressure.
Term
 List the components of the pitot-static system
Definition
 Pitot tube, static pressure source, black box.
Term
 The Pitot Tube Collects?
Definition
 Total Pressure
Term
 Static Pressure Port Collects?
Definition
 Ambient static pressure
Term
 The Black Box Does What
Definition
 Takes static pressure and subtracts it from total pressure.  The remaining static pressure is = to dynamic pressure and displayed in the cockpit.
Term
 IAS
Definition
 Indicated Airspeed - Indication for dynamic pressure the airplane is creating during flight.
Term
 CAS
Definition
 IAS corrected for instrument error.
Term
 EAS
Definition
 Equivalent airspeed - CAS corrected for compressibility error. EAS = TAS at sea level on a standard day.
Term
 TAS
Definition
 True Airspeed - actual velocity at which the airplane is moving through an air mass.
Term
 M
Definition
 Mach - Ratio of airplanes true airspeed to LSOS
Term
 Mcrit
Definition
 Critical mach number - the mach number where sonic flows will start to be experienced somewhere on the airplane.
Term
 Describe the effect of altitude on Mach and critical Mach number
Definition
 As altitude increases mach# would increase because LSOS is decreasing.
Term
 Define Pitch Attitude
Definition
 Angle between an airplane's longitudinal axis and the horizon.
Term
 Flight Path
Definition
 The path described by an airplanes CG as it moves through an air mass
Term
 Relative Wind
Definition
 Airflow the airplane experiences as it moves through the air. Equal in magnitude and opposite direction of FP
Term
 AOA
Definition
 Angle between the relative wind and the chordline of an airfoil. FP, RW, AOA should never be inferred from pitch attitude.
Term
 Mean Camber Line
Definition
 line drawn halfway between the upper and lower surfaces
Term
 Positive Camber
Definition
 If mean camber is above the chordline
Term
 Negative camber
Definition
 If the mean camber is below the chordline.
Term
 Symmetric Airfoil
Definition
 If the mean camber line is coincident with the chordline.
Term
 Aerodynamic center
Definition
 Point along the chordline where all changes in aerodynamic force take place.
Term
 Airfoil Thickness
Definition
 Height of the airfoil profile.  Point of max thickness corresponds to the AC
Term
 Spanwise flow
Definition
 Airflow that travels along the span of the wing parallel to the leading edge.  Does not produce lift.
Term
 Chordwise flow
Definition
 air flowing at right angles to the leading edge of an airfoil.  It produces lift.
Term
 AF
Definition
 aerodynamic force - force that is a result of pressure and friction distribution over an airfoil.  LIFT AND DRAG
Term
 Lift
Definition
 Component of airodynamic force (AF) acting perpendicular to the relative wind.
Term
 Drag
Definition
 D - component of aerodynamic force acting parallel and in the same direction as the relative wind.
Term
 Describe the effects on q, static pressure, and AF as air flows around a symmetric airfoil.
Definition
 At zero AOA velocity increases and static pressure decreases the same on the upper and lower surfaces.  Since there is no pressure differential perpendicular to the relative wind, no lift is created.
Term
 Describe the effects on q, static pressure, and AF as air flows around a cambered airfoil.
Definition
 Produces uneven pressure distribution at zero AOA.  Because of positive camber velocity above is greater than above and pressure below is greater than above and creates lift.
Term
 Describe the effects of changes in AOA on the pressure distribution and AF on cambered and symetric airfoils.
Definition
 AOA on any airfoil causes area of the streamtube above the wing to decrease.  This creates greater velocity above which in turn creates a greater pressure differential and increases AF
Term
 Describe changes in density
Definition
 Increase in density or velocity will create more lift.
Term
 Describe the effect of surface area
Definition
 More surface area will create more lift
Term
 Describe the effects of camber
Definition
 an increase in camber will produce more lift
Term
 Describe the effects of AOA
Definition
 Increase in AOA will produce greater lift.
Term
 List the factors affecting lift the pilot can directly control
Definition
 AOA, Velocity, Density, Surface area, Camber
Term
 Compare and contrast CL generated by cambered and symmetric airfoils.
Definition
 Positive Camber - @ Zero AOA  positive camber airfoil makes positive CL Negative Camber - @ Zero AOA negative camber airfoil makes negative CL Symmetric Airfoil - @ Zero AOA symmetric airfoil makes no positive or negative lift.
Term
 Lift equation
Definition
 L = qSCL
Term
 Describe the relationship between weight, lift, velocity, and AOA IOT maintain level flight.
Definition
 IOT maintain level flight while increasing AOA velocity must be decreased.  Otherwise the aircraft would climb. Velocity and AOA are inversely related in level flight.
Term
 Define boundry layer
Definition
 Layer of airflow over a surface that demonstrates local airflow retardation due to viscosity.
Term
 List the two types of boundary layer airflow
Definition
 Laminar Turbulent
Term
 Laminar flow
Definition
 monecules move smoothly along in streamlines. Produces little friction but is easily separated from surface.
Term
 Turbulent Flow
Definition
 Streamlines break up and flow is disorganized and irregular.  Higher friction drag, adheres to upper surface better, delays boundary layer seperation.
Term
 State the advantage/disadvantage of laminar flow
Definition
 Adv - little friction DisAdv - Easily seperated from surface
Term
 State the advantages and disadvantages of turbulent flow.
Definition
 Adv - adheres to airfoil and delays boundary layer seperation. DisAdv - High friction drag.
Term
 State cause and effect of boundary layer seperation.
Definition
 -Adverse pressure gradient impedes flow of boundary layer -If boundary layer does not have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome adverse pressure gradient the lower levels of the boundary layer will stagnate. -The boundary layer will seperate from the surface and cause the airfoil to lose the suction pressure that causes lift.
Term
 Define stall and its cause and effect.
Definition
 Stall - A condition in flight where an increase in AOA has resulted in a decrease CL The only cause of a stall is the exsessive AOA beyond CLMAX
Term
 Define and state the importance of CLmax
Definition
 is the peak coefficient of lift and any increase of AOA beyond CLmax will decrease CL
Term
 Define and state the importance of CLmax AOA
Definition
 is known as the stalling AOA or critical AOA and the region beyond CLmaxAOA  is the stall region.
Term
 List the methods of stall warning in the T-34 and T-37
Definition
 AOA indicators Rudder pedal shakers stick shakers, horns, buzzers, warning lights, electronic voices.
Term
 T-34C stalling AOA
Definition
 29 - 29.5 units.
Term
 Define stall speed.
Definition
 The minimum TAS required to maintain level flight at CLmaxAOA
Term
 Describe the effect of weight on stall speed
Definition
 A reduction in weight will decrease stall speed.
Term
 Describe the effect of altitude on stall speed.
Definition
 An increase in altitude will increase stall speed.
Term
 Describe the effect of thrust on stall speed.
Definition
 Power on stalls will be less than power off stalls because at high pitch attitudes part of the weight of the airplane is being supported by the vertical component of thrust.
Term
 State the purpose of high lift devices
Definition
 Reduce takeoff and landing speeds by reducing stall speed.
Term
 State the effect of boundary layer devices on the coefficient of lift, stall speed, stalling AOA.
Definition
 Coefficient of lift is increased Stalling AOA is increased Stall Speed is decreased.
Term
 What are the two types of boundary layer control devices.
Definition
 Fixed Slots Slats
Term
 Describe fixed slots
Definition
 Gaps located at the leading edge of a wing that allow air to flow from below the wing to the upper surface.
Term
 Describe slats
Definition
 movable leading edge sections that form slots
Term
 Describe the operation of fixed slots
Definition
 Leading edge air is directed through the slot, which acts like a nozzle converting static pressure into dynamic pressure.  The high kinetic energy air leaving the nozzle increases the energy of the boundary layer and delays seperation.
Term
 When slats are deployed it opens a
Definition
 slot
Term
 State the effect of flaps on coefficient of lift, AOA, and stall speed.
Definition
 Coefficient of lift is increased Stalling AOA decreases Stall speed is decreased
Term
 Describe plain flaps
Definition
 Plain flaps are simple hinged flaps that increase camber
Term
 Describe split flaps
Definition
 it is a plate deflected from the lower surface of the wing. It creates alot of drag.
Term
 Describe slotted flaps
Definition
 similar to a plain, but moves away fromt he wing to open a narrow slot for boundary layer control.
Term
 Describe the fowler flap
Definition
 Used extensively on larger aircraft.  moves down and increases camber, and aft increasing wing area and opens a slot for boundary layer control.
Term
 Describe a leading edge flap
Definition
 Changes camber at the leading edge of the airfoil.  Similar to a trailing edge plain flap.
Term
 State the stall pattern of a rectangular wing
Definition
 Strong Root stall tendancy - provides adequate stall warning and aileron effectiveness.
Term
 State the stall pattern of an elliptical wing.
Definition
 Has even lift distribution and all sections will stall at the same AOA, little warning and loss of aileron control.
Term
 State the stall pattern of a moderate taper wing.
Definition
 All sections stall at same AOA, little warning and loss of aileron effectiveness.
Term
 State the stall pattern of a high taper wing.
Definition
 Good structural stiffness but strong tip stall tendancy.
Term
 State the stall characteristics of a swept wing.
Definition
 Strong tip stall tendancy and rapidly progresses over remainder of the wing.
Term
 State the advantage and disadvantage of tapering the wings of a T-43C and T-37
Definition
 Adv - reduce weight, improve stiffness, and reduce wingtip vortices. DisAdv - Wing stalls evenly and ailerons lose lateral control.
Term
 State the purpose of wing tailoring.
Definition
 Create root to tip stall progression and give the pilot warning and ensure ailerons remain effective up to complete stall.
Term
 Geometric twist
Definition
 Reduction in the angle of incidence.
Term
 Aerodynamic twist
Definition
 Reduction in camber and or thickness from root to tip.
Term
 State the wing tailoring on the T-34C
Definition
 Geometrically twisted 3.1 degrees Aerodynamically twisted to create a reduced camber at the tip.
Term
 State the wing tailoring on the T-37
Definition
 Geometrically twisted 2.5 degrees Aerodynamically twisted to reduce camber at the tip.
Term
 Define Drag
Definition
 Is the component of the Aerodynamic Force that is parrelell to the relative wind and acts in the same direction
Term
 Define Parasite Drag
Definition
 All Drag that is not associated with the production of lift.
Term
 Define Induced drag
Definition
 Is that portion of total drag associated with the production of lift.
Term
 List the three major types of parasite drag
Definition
 Induced, Friction, Interference
Term
 State the cause of form drag
Definition
 Also known as pressure or profile drag, is caused by the airflow seperation from a surface and the wake that is created by that seperation
Term
 State the cause of friction drag
Definition
 Due to viscosity, a retarding force called friction drag is created in the boundary layer.
Term
 State the cause of interference drag
Definition
 Generated by mixing of streamlines between one or more components.
Term
 State a design feature to reduce form drag
Definition
 Streamlining
Term
 State a design feature that reduces friction drag
Definition
 Waxing or polishing
Term
 State a design feature that reduces interference drag
Definition
 Proper fairing and filleting.
Term
 Equivalent parasite area is
Definition
 equal to the area of a flat plate perpendicular to the relative wind that would produce the same amount of drag as form drag, friction drag, and interference drag combined.
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