Term

Definition
a description or analysis of a phenomenon that involves specific Measurements of data. 


Term
Quantitative research is best used when.... 

Definition
generalizability to a larger population
the determanation of statistical, quantifiable differences between groups is important
statistical analysis of data is required 


Term
Quantitative research (cont..) 

Definition
 Provides best means for understanding populations of individuals and for describing this understanding in terms of numerical descriptors
 proper use of sampling: findings observed can confidently be generalized to the population from which the sample was drawn
 proper sampling plus large sample size provides the basis for numerical and statistical descriptions
 data analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistical procedures, providing insight into pop attitudes, perceptions and behaviors



Term

Definition
Research is the systematic collection of info from respondents in order to better understand and/or predict some aspect of their attitudes or behaviors 


Term

Definition
 Analytical
 descriptive
 Both are important to ad researchers in both the private and academic sectors



Term

Definition
attempt to describe and explain why certain situations exist anf typically involve testing hypotheses 


Term

Definition
attempt to picture or document current conditions, ie descriptive things at a particular point in time. 


Term
Methods for collecting survey info:


Definition
 Personal interviews
 Telephone interview
 mail survey
 online survey



Term

Definition
 occur when interviewer admins a survey to a respondent in a facetoface setting
 intercept/prerecruited
 when questionairre is very long/complex
 when use of visual stimuli
 high cost and time consuming
 difficult to obtain random sampling
 (CLOSED ENDED 20 MIN IS TOO LONG)



Term

Definition
 entail the admin of a survey questionaire via phone
 Assisted by CATI( computer assisted Telephone Interviewing)
 Lower marginal cost ( not neccissarily true)
 true random sampling
 questionaire must be relativly short and simple
 difficult to collect sensitive data, like income



Term

Definition
 entails mailing each potential respondent a package containing a cover letter, the survey, questionaire, instructins for completion and return, a stamped envelope adressed to the research co.
 cost efficenecy
 respondent convenience
 low response rate (2025% is good)
 limited questionaire length and complexity
 extended timing



Term

Definition
 Using the internet
 Survey monkey
 social networking
 research co. in second life
 cost and time efficient
 panel survey w/ incentive
 no true random sampling
 need technical support



Term
Criteria for selection data collection method:


Definition
 Cost? online and mail
 timing requirements?online and telephone
 sample, interview, admin control?personal interview
 sample characteristics?
 small homogeneous personal I and mail
 large heterogenousoline and telephone
 Accuracy/Complexity of topic & Q? online, mail phone
 interview length?
 longmail and online
 shortonline and telepone
 response ratepersonal>interview>mail



Term
*****Experiment Goal***** 

Definition
to determain causality the effects of change in one area on one or more other area 


Term
Components of an experiment 

Definition
at least one dependent on independent variable, and manipulation 


Term

Definition
 what the researcher is interested in explaining
 The DV in an experiment is the criterion or measure used to evaluate the influence of the IV



Term

Definition
used to explain changees in the dependent variable.
 manipulated in some systemic way



Term
****Establishing Causality**** 

Definition
 experiments go beyond the what/why of problem in order to arrive at the "why"



Term
Three kinds of evidence are needed to support the assumption taht variable 'a' "causes" variable 'b' (establishing criteria) 

Definition
 Correlationvariable 'b' has to change in value when variable 'a' changes
 sequence vb must appear after va has appeared, or must change after va has changed
 absence of other causal factors



Term

Definition
Refers to the extent that one can eliminate alternative explanations for the observed experimental results 


Term
External validity Examples 

Definition
natural
survey
outside:better 


Term
Internal Validity example 

Definition
experiment research as is manipulated
inside:better 


Term

Definition
 refers to the steps involved in conducting an experiment. an experiment design does not have to be a complicated series of statments, diagrams and figures; it may be as simple as"
Pretest >Experimental treatment>Postest
 2 designs discussed here are often reffered to as "experimental" design



Term
True Experimental design differs from quasiexperimental design in 2 ways: 

Definition
 Control group
 random assignment
 Control groups are important becuase almost nothing starts at '0'



Term
Afteronly, no control group ( design model) 

Definition
AKA one group posttest only



Term
beforafter, no control group (design model) 

Definition
AKA, one group pretest posttest
 Bad design, still cant know for sure wether the experimental treatment was responsible for the change in the DV or if change was a result of extraneous factors
EXPERIMENTAL 0_{1} X 0_{2}
CONTROL N N N 


Term
Afteronly, W/ control group 

Definition
AKA pretest only with control
 a good design, both post measures are take at the same time, controlling for history. maturation, instrumentation and testing effects
EXPERIMENT R X 0_{1}
CONTROL R N 0_{2}



Term
BeforeAfter, with control group 

Definition
BEST EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
 AKA pretestpostest with control
 best, establishes all three criteria for causality, correlation, sequence and control
EXPERIMENT R 0_{1} X 0_{2}
CONTROL R 0_{3} N 0_{4}



Term

Definition
 the way that abstract, unobservable concepts are linked to observable events
 the way researchers use an observable events to draw inferences about concepts that may not be directily observable ie attitude toward a brand



Term

Definition
Step 1: ID and define concept of interest
Step 2: specify an observable event
Step 3: evaluate and revise the observable event 


Term
Stage 1: revise (measurements) 

Definition
 ID concept of interest
 conceptan invented name for property of object, person, state, event
 Develop conceptual definition
 conceptual defthe central/ core idea of concept
 Develop operational defination
 operational D: translation of the concepy into one or more observable events by explicity describing the most important observable, defining characteristics of the concept



Term
Stage 2: Observable events (measurements) 

Definition
 ID the appropriate level of measurement
 consists of "rules for assigning #'s to objects in such a way as to represent quantities of attributes
 we measure the attributes/characteristics, of objects and not the objects themselves
 the definition is broad and does not specifiy exactly how the numbers are to be assigned
 numbers must be assigned so they properly reflect the properties of the attributes



Term

Definition
 Nominal
 ordinal
 interval
 ratio



Term
Nominal Level of measurement 

Definition
LOWEST>FREQUENCY>RAW #'S>PIE CHARTS/ BAR GRAPHS
 #'s merely used to ID attributes, also implies equivalence
 classification of the measured characteristic or attribute..
 gender, age, income, etc
 dichotomous, multiple choice, checklist, etc



Term
Ordinal level of Measurement 

Definition
% and or bargraph
 posses ID, equivalence and meaningful order
 mathmatical meaning: order
 rank, etc
 ordinal measures can't provide any insights into the relative distance between ranked objects



Term
Interval Level of Measurement 

Definition
MEAND AND STANDARD DEIVATION
 all the properties of ordinal scale and intervals btwn adjacent
 mathmatical meaning with arithmetic operations such as addition/subtraction
 themometer, time
 ranking, likert, semantic differential



Term

Definition
HIGHEST
 scale posses a natural or absolute zero
 age
 constant sum



Term

Definition
Collect information at the highest appropriate level 


Term
Stage 2 :Observable events 

Definition
ID appropriate question type 


Term
Stage 3: Evaluation and revision 

Definition
 develop the mesurement instrument
 evaluate and revise instruments
 pilot study should be conducted to asses the reliabilty and validity of any untested measures



Term

Definition
degree to which a measure is stable, free from random error and yeilds consistent results over multiple admins 


Term

Definition
extent to which the survey questions or measurement procedure actually measures what is intended to measure. 


Term
Developing Closeended Questions 

Definition
 Nominal
 dichotomous questions
 multiplechoice questions
 Ordinal
 interval
 ratio



Term
Interval Level Question:Semantic Differntial scale 

Definition

 in its most common form it asks a respondent to rate an object on a number of itemized, sevenpoint scales bounded on each end by one of two bipolar adjetives :
The Celebrity was..
Attractive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unattractive
Not Classy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Classy 


Term
Interval level Question: Likert Scale 

Definition
 Asks a respondent to indicate his degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of specific statements:
The Celebrity St. Agree agree neutral .....
Trustworthy: 1 2 3 .....
Attractive : 1 2 3 


Term
Developing openended question 

Definition
 Question must be truly openended
 how satisfied are you w/ product____
 what are your thoughts towards____
 Must explicity probe responses:
 is there anything else?
 does anything else come to mind?
 should be singleminded:
 do any strengths of sauve come to mind?



Term
Considerations in Question Development (survey) 

Definition
 Explicitly state respondents task in simple language
 use simple active sentences and common language
 avoid bias
 avoid multiple informational requests in a single question
 avoid assumptions
 justify requests for personal info



Term
Create questionaire Components: Intorduction 

Definition
 An explicit/ implicit reference to importance
 general info on rationale and goals of research
 an explicit request for participation
 reassurence that he task of participating is not too burdensome or time consuming
 need for truthful answers
 promise of confidentiality
 reassurence that this is real, legitimate research



Term
Create Questionaire Components: Main Body 

Definition
 Begin with simple, non threatening, interesting, easy to answer questions
 group questions on the smae topic together; complete one topic before moving to another
 within a topic move from the most general to specific
 place difficult/ sensitive questions at end
 avoid biasing q's appearing later in the questionaire with q's asked earlier in the questionaire
 address the most important topics first



Term
Self Survey: Essential Elements 

Definition
 Paper stock
 quality of paper stock makes important impression
 white always acceptable
 paper should be 8.5x11"
 standard number 10 business envelope best for most surveys.



Term

Definition
 Formatting affects the general appearence of the instrument and the likelihood that respondents will complete and return
 layout
 break up into sections



Term

Definition
 Dont send a fat envelope
 think as to how enclousures are inserted



Term

Definition
A portion, piece, or segment regarded as representation of the whole; a small part of anything designed to show the style, quality, and nature of whole 


Term

Definition
 The population of interest is small and identifiable
 sampling migh eliminate important cases from the study
 credibility requires the consideration of all memebers of the target population



Term

Definition
 Can't survey the whole population or universe
 characteristics of samples can be generalized to populations



Term

Definition
 a group of or class of subjects, variables, concepts or phenomena
 parameter: a characteristic of population



Term

Definition
 A subset of the population that is representative of the entire population
 static: characteristic of a sample



Term
3 important factors in sampling 

Definition
 sample can consist of animated or unanimated objects
 can be evaluated in terms of efficiency
 can be evaluated in terms of generalizations (most important in sampling) that it provides



Term
Defining Target Population: Demographic 

Definition
 The demographic of the target pop definition specifies the relevant age, gender, income or other related characteristics of the pop of interest



Term
Defining Target Population: Geographics 

Definition
 specifies the geographic areas in which the target population resides



Term
Defining target population: behavior 

Definition
 specifies relevant categoryor productrelated behavior



Term
Select Sample Method: Probability samples 

Definition
let a researcher estimate sampling error, calcualate reliability, statistically determaine the sample size required for a specific degree of confidence, and confidentiality generalize the findings to the sample universe (exspensive and considerable time)



Term
Select Sampling Method: nonprobability 

Definition
are quick and inexspensive to obtain. Research conducted amoung nonprobability samples is easy to design and carry out. ( cannot calculate sampling error and limited confidence in generalizing the findings) 


Term
***Probability Sampling Define*** 

Definition
the process of selecting elements or groups of the element (such as households or individual) from the population described in the target population definition in a way that gives each element in the population a known calcuable nonzero pobability of inclusion in sample 


Term
Forms of Probability Sampling 

Definition
 Simple random
 systematic random
 stratified random



Term

Definition
 frequently used in ad research
 each member of the pop has a known equal chance for inclusion in the research
 a simple random sample can provide comparable estimates w/o having to survey entire population



Term
Systematic Random Sampling 

Definition
 typically provide data identical to simple random samples woth added advantage of simplicity typically provide data identical to simple random samples woth added advantage of simplicity
 step: count the number of elements on lst determine desired sample size compute a skip interval select a random place on list select and interview each element at appropriate skip interval



Term
Stratified Random Sampling 

Definition
 It must be used when you suspect that large variation in the variable being studied and that this variation is due to or correlates with observable characteristics in the universe being sampled
 three step process
 the classification criteria that defines the strata are ID
 each element in the sample frame is assigned to one and only one stratum
 independent random samples are selected from each stratum



Term

Definition
 an estimate of how statics may be expected to deviate from parameters when sampling randomly from a given population.
 it occurs when measurement taken from a sample do not correspond to what exists in the population.
 an error free sample is highly unlikely
 process of determining with a certain amount of confidence the difference between a sample and the target population



Term

Definition
an estimate, plus or minus, of the value of the population estimate; it states the range in which we beliebethe true population estimate lies. 


Term

Definition
 the mathematical expression of our confidence that the population lies within the confidence interval
 a confidence level of 95% means that there is a 95% probability that the op estimate from research lies within the defined confidence interval



Term
Basic Concepts for Sampling Error: Sample Distribution 

Definition
the frequency with which observations in a sample are assigned to each category or point on a measurement scale 


Term
Basic Concepts for Sampling Error: Population Distribution


Definition
The frequency with which all units or observations n a population would be assigned ot expected in each category or point on a measurement scale 


Term
Basic Concepts for Sampling Error: Frequency 

Definition
 The frequencies with which a particular value of a static would be expected when sampling randomly from a given pop
 distrubutions of sample means (frequency)
 standard ettor is the Standard deviation of the sampling distribution



Term
Normal Distribution Curve 

Definition
 A definition of a particular functional relation between 1) deviations about the mean of a distribution and 2) the probability of these different deviations occuring
 theoretical distribution



Term

Definition
SE=√pq/n
p=sample %
Q=100p 


Term

Definition
 Data Analysis plays an important role in the turning quantity of data into defensible, actionable sets of conclusions and reports.
 Obtain info and insights from data



Term

Definition
 An unorderd array of responses



Term

Definition
 A typical frequency distribution table consists of two columns the possible values of the variable in the form of categories and the number of occurences, or frequency, of each value



Term

Definition


Term
Which to use Mean or Median 

Definition
 Mean is perferred in general
 Median
 when thare are one or more extreme value in a data set



Term

Definition
 Measures describe the way in which the scores are spread out about a central port.
 The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution of scores.
 variance provides a mathematical index of the degree to which scores deviate from, or are at variance with, the mean.



Term

Definition
s^{2}=∑(xX)^{2}
N1
Problem: the variance is expressed in terms of squared deviations from the mean rather than in terms of the original measurements 


Term

Definition
 the square root of the variance
√S^{2}=√ ∑(xX)^{2}
N1
 SD overcomes the problems of variance not being calibrated inthe same unit as the original data by taking the sq root of the variance
 SD has the values that are smaller and easier to work with than variance
 SD provides a basis for estimating the probability of how frequently certain scores will occur based on sampling.



Term
Summary ( descriptive stat) 

Definition
 The main purpose for summary and descriptive methods of quantitative analysis are to reduce data and the enable us to see patterns and trends.
 What can be done with the data depends on which level of measurement they are.



Term

Definition

