# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

ACE chapter 1
cardiovascular system, Energy production in cells, cardiovascular response, guidlines for cardiovascular fitness etc.
57
Fitness
Professional
08/21/2015

Term
 The heart system
Definition
 1. the right side of the heart carries carbon dioxide. Blood is carried through the veins carrying carbon dioxide and enters the right atrium and then goes into the right ventricle, where than the heart squeezes and blood is than pushed into the lungs where the carbon dioxide is dumped and fresh oxygen is taken.    2. when the freshly grabbed oxygen enters through the lungs it is carried by proteins called hemoglobinsin the blood cells and enter the left atrium where it is lowered into the left ventricle. when the heart squeezes again, the blood is rushed towards the largest artery the Aorta where it is than transported to the rest of the body.
Term
 Systole
Definition
 is the system in heart for when it squeezes or the heart compressing.
Term
 diastole
Definition
 is the stage in the heart that expands the heart or the heart decompressing from the systole stage
Term
 cardiac output system (Q)   and how to find someones cardiac output
Definition
 1. is an outline of how much output of blood in each stroke( stroke is amount of milliliters of blood that is being pumped out of the ventricles ) and how many heart beats per minute.    2. To measure somebodies cardiac output, all they have to do is find how many times does the heart beat per minute and multiply that by how much blood is being pumped out per milliliters in the ventricles.    Formula for Q   Q= BEATS IN A MINUTE TIMES STROKE VOLUME.
Term
 What is ejection fraction?
Definition
 ejection fraction is the amount of blood that is ejected through the ventricles. During rest or no workout days, the ejection fraction is only at 50% meaning that on the days you dont workout the amount of blood that is expelled is only half. When we do workout however, the ejection fraction goes up to 100% meaning that all of the blood in the ventrcles are completely ejected.    the change from 50% to 100% is because when we work out the body needs more oxygen from the blood supply to function.
Term
 oxygen extraction in the muscles
Definition
 is the process in which fresh oxygen leaves the aorta and flows towards the muscles where at the capallarie level the oxygen is extracted. But, sometimes not all the blood is extracted from the capallaries and end up traveling back up the veins into the lungs.
Term
 ATP
Definition
 the body's main energy source, which are produced usually by fats and carbohydrates when the body is sufficient in calories, but if adequate calories are not reached than protiens from the muscles are taken to substitute for the lack of fat or carbohydrates.   AdenosineTriphosphate is the source that gives the energy for muscles to work and everything else in the body. ATP is produced through three pathways 1.areobic 2. anaerobic 3. creatine phosphate.
Term
 Aerobic mode
Definition
 is the mode that can produce the most ATP. Aerobic mode is a moderate fitness, because muscles do not become fatigue. Muscles do not become fatigue in aerobic mode, because ATP is produced from fats ( fatty acid) and carbohydrates (gluclose). Aerobic mode is centered around the mitochondria in a cell, because that is where ATP is produced and a lot more of it compared to anaerobic and creatine phosphate systems.
Term
 Anaerobic mode
Definition
 is the upper level of aerobic mode. Anaerobic mode is the level which oxygen extraction at the muscular level is lacking, and the producer of ATP in the absence of fats and gluclose is creatine phoshate and glycogen. Glycogen is a chain of gluclose that is stored in the muscles and liver and creatine phospate is stored in the muscles.
Term
 anaerobic threshold
Definition
 is the upper limit of aerobic mode or the point in which the supply in oxygen going to the muscles are not sufficient enough to supply the muscles with oxygen.
Term
 What are the By - products of ATP in aerobic mode?
Definition
 water and carbon dioxide
Term
 what are the By Products of ATP in anaerobic mode?
Definition
 lactic acid, heat and hydrogen ions
Term
 what are enzymes and kinds of enzymes
Definition
 enzymes are protiens that the body uses to metabolize fatty acids and carbohydrates.    2. the first kind of enzymes proteins are found in the aerobic mode these enzymes are the ones that help break down the fatty acids and carbohydrates that will help form the ATP in aerobic mode. The other enzymes are found in anaerobic mode where these enzymes break down the carbohydrates for the anaerobic ATP.    The carbohydrate enzymes found in aerobic mode are different from the enzymes that break down anaerobic carbohydrates.
Term
 Met or metabolic equivalent
Definition
 are measurements in how much energy is required for an activity. The higher the MET the higher the energy cost is needed. The higher the MET the more ATP a person can make effeciently at higher levels of areobic mode without going above anaebolic threshold.
Term
 What is the formula for VO2 max or maximal oxygen consumption
Definition
 cardiac output X oxygen extraction = VO2 max
Term
 changes in oxygen delivery
Definition
 When a client is starting a workout the cardiac output increases to help supply suffcient amount of oxygen for a given activity. In depth, when a client starts their workout as cardiac output is increased blood is shunted from the abdominal area which is a process called Vasodilation( the vessels increasing in size) which allows blood from the abdomen to reach active muscles. The vessels also shrink into size called Vasocontriction.    when a person is active the SBP (systolic blood pressure) increases, which mean that when the body is active the systolic phase increases, and so blood can effectively reach active muscles.
Term
 Changes in cardiac output
Definition
 stroke volume and beats per minute changes during aerobic exercises. During rest, the heart expands the ventricles to open them more to fill more blood in the ventricles so it can store more oxygen to the working muscles. Not only does the stroke volume is increased, but so does the heart beat. The beats per minute changes to fill more blood and so it can also shunt more oxygen to the working muscles. In short, ejection fraction goes from 50% to 100%
Term
 is heart rate determined by age yes or no?
Definition
 yes
Term
 how to achieve maximum cardiac output
Definition
 increased maximum stroke volume multiplied by maximum heart rate will give you your maximum cardiac output.
Term
 What are the benefits of regular aerobic activity that affects the oxygen extractions in the capallaries?
Definition
 Regular aerobic training can create more capaillaries pathways for more oxygen delivery and extraction. What also increases in volume is cells start to form more mitochondria and protein enzymes become more active. the others are lower heart rate, higher stroke volume and a higher anaerobic threshold. The more aerobically fit a client becomes the more they effectively burn fat, but also the body is able to produce ATP at a higher aerobic level.    Some other benefits also include the body being able to use more fatty acids to make ATP at a submaximal level, the body is able to produce less lactic acid during endurance runs and lastely the body is able to store more glycogen in the skeletal muscles.
Term
 What is the over load principle?
Definition
 is the ability to increase the volume of venous return to the heart to help increase the cardiopulmonary system(aerobic)  and the skeletal muscle system ( strength training)    To achieve increase cardiopulmonary system and skeletal system there mustbe four rules to follow 1. the exercise must be the right type 2. the duration of the workout must be at least a certain amount of time to improve the system 3. the exercise must be done at a specific intensity 4. how many days will you be doing it.
Term
 What is muscle pump
Definition
 rythmatic large working muscles when flexed pushes against the veins causing more blood to go back into the heart more effeciently.
Term
 what is principle of specificity of taining
Definition
 choosing the right exercise to help increase a desired system. Basically, if we are talking about aerobic exercises than we need to use rythmatic movement and use large muscles.
Term
 What are the ranges for fitness improvement
Definition
 50% to 85% of oxygen consumption must be reached and when these are reached the heart rate should be in the ranges of 60% to 90%   and beginners that are trying to lose weight can see improvement at 40% of VO2 MAX
Term
 What is one of the best ways to see if a clients heart rate is in the right zone
Definition
 checking their pulse during rest after workout.
Term
 what test do you use to check if a client is reaching hyperventilation
Definition
 the talk test
Term
 What is interval fitness
Definition
 is fitness that is perferably designed for athletes to aid them in their sports designed to be high intensity.
Term
 What is fitness interval training
Definition
 type of training that is designed for the general public to help improve general fitness. Its created to be moderate to vigorous. Its designed to slowly reach anaerobic threshold and once it is reached the workout intensity is slowly decreased.
Term
 What are the benefits of warming up
Definition
 causes muscles and connective tissure to increase in heat which in turn causes the likely hood of soft tissue to be torn. It also helps blood flow to easily leave the abdominal area and reach the active muscles that need more oxygen for the exercise.
Term
 What happens if you go straight into a intense workout without warming up
Definition
 the body will try to rapidly raise the heart rate to get the oxygen into the active muscles.
Term
 what is the adequate heart rate you want your heart to be at when cooling down
Definition
 heart rate should be between 18 to 20 beats every ten seconds to let the body reverse the blood shunt.
Term
 What are the benefits of daily aerobic exercise
Definition
 benefits are smaller appetite, able to have more calorie intake. It can helps increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin and this helps with people who have type 2 diabetes. Daily aerobic can help increase skeletal system.
Term
 What are the four leading causes for cornary artery diseases and why
Definition
 1. lack of aerobic exercise 2. high blood pressure (hypertension) 3. smoking 4. high blood cholesterol levels.   2. people who lack aerobic exercise are usually obese or overweight. high blood pressure is usually found in overweight people as well. aerobic exercise also helps people who smoke because it acts as a incentive aid the urge to not smoke. Lastly, regular moderate aerobic exercise helps permote good cholesterol.
Term
 Altitude training
Definition
 when working in higher altitudes clients need to exercise at a lower level to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the air, and continue to slowly progressively improve as the body becomes accostomed to the altitude. it takes two weeks to see a significant improvement in altitude change at altitudes of 8,000 feet. But altitudes of 12,000 takes up to four to five weeks to fully become accostmed to the altitude, but improvement can be notice within four to five days of training.
Term
 When does the altitude improvement start to go away after a client goes back to lower altitudes
Definition
 three to four weeks.
Term
 Working in Heat
Definition
 When a client is working in hot enviroments blood vessels near the skin open up and blood runs near the skin to release the heat in the body that is raising body temp. When clients work in hot humid enviroments it can be harmful, because sweat cannot evaporate in the humidity.    it is importand to also drink between 3 to 6 ounces every ten minutes and letting the body evaporate sweat. The cooler the water a person drinks the better because cold water can empty more rapidly in the stomach and goes into the intenstines to be absorbed.
Term
 working in cold climate
Definition
 urine production is increased, and body only has enough body heat to keep from having injuries during workouts. It is important to wear clothing in layers to prevent too much from evaporating during rest. It is reccommened to also wear a hat, while working in cold enviroments, because a lot of heat can escape throught the scalp.
Term
 What are the three types of muscles cells in the body
Definition
 1. cardiac cells are unique in structure and function these cells are only found in the heart.  2.smooth muscle cells are found inside the arteries and in the walls of the intestines. These cells help for shunting blood.  3. skeletal muscles cells are banded together to create a skeletal muscle and these are the only cells that are under voluntary movement and causes movement around the joints.
Term
 what is slow twitch muscles
Definition
 slow oxidative muscles are fibers that are made for aerobic exercises and because of this there fibers have a lot more mitochondria and hold a lot more blood, which means more oxygen is supplied.
Term
 What is fast twitch muscle fibers
Definition
 fast oxidative fibers have two types type IIa is a oxidative that has a lot more mitochondria than fast oxidative fibers than type IIb, but not as much as slow twitch fibers. Type IIb fibers are dominany glycogen
Term
 Fast twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers distribution
Definition
 Fast and slow fibers varie in different muscles such as comapring the fibers in a bicep to the fiber distribution in quads.    People do not have the same amount of fibers compared to other people. Some people have more fast twitch or slow twitch fibers in certain muscles than others.
Term
 Explain Neuromuscular Anatomy
Definition
 Muscle contractions start at the brain specifically at the motor neuron site. Neurons are cells that make up the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons have neurontransmitters that have chemicals called acetylcholine, which sends impulses to the muscle fibers. When neurontransmitters and muscles come together to send impulses it is called neuromusclar junction.    In muscle fibers, there are myofibrials that have sacromeres running a long them , and running around the sacromere are sarcolemmas which amembranes and there is also the sacroplasm, which is the area where inside the sacroplasm are mitochondrias and sacroplasm reticulum, which sacroplasm reticulums only purpose is to release calcium.
Term
 what are myosin and actin and where are they located
Definition
 two main contracting proteins and they are located in the myofibrials.
Term
 How does muscle contraction work?
Definition
 muscle contraction must have two things 1. enough ATP and a impulse must be sent to the spinal cord.   A nervous impulse from the brain is sent to the neuron motor where acetylcholine is deteted and is released at the neuromuscular junction. The nervous impulse than travels to the sacroplasm where deep in it it activates the sacroplasm reticulum where calcium is released and attaching itself to troponin and tropomyosin where than it unbinds its self from the myosin. When suffcient ATP is available the Myosin head attaches itself to the actin causing the myosin to pull in the actin and causing the myofibrial to come to the center of the sacromeres.
Term
 cocentric
Definition
 is the muscles contracting making it shorter, this happends when the internal force is greater than the external force.
Term
 eccentric
Definition
 muscles lengthen, because the internal force is weak and the external force is greater the muscle is stretched.
Term
 isometric contraction
Definition
 are contractions that contract individual fibers, but the length of the muscle stays the same.
Term
 Explain all or none principle      How much a skeletal muscle contracts depends on what two factors
Definition
 muscle fibers act in a way called the all or none priniciple. The all or non principle says that when a single muscle fiber is contracted it contracts at its maximum compacity.   How much a skeletal muscle contracts depends on two factors.  1. the size of the muscle fibers, the bigger they are the stronger they are as well. 2. how many muscle fibers are activated simutaneously, which means the more fibers that are recruited the more force the fibers generate.
Term
 what is the force -velocity relationship
Definition
 states that the faster the movement is the less force is generated.
Term
 length - tension relationship
Definition
 muscles generate its maximum force when the muscle is 1.2 times longer than its rest length. What this is means is on the days we don't work the muscle fibers can only exert minimal force, but when we stretch our muscles we lengthen them causing the muscle fibers to stretch and allowing more force to be generated.
Term
 muscle fiber size
Definition
 The bigger the muscle fiber is the more force is generated. The force is in relationship to the length of the cross sectional area meaning that the more space the cross section area has to move and generate force the greater exertion it can generate. Men and women have the same length/area in terms of cross sections. Men are stronger because they have more muscle tissue.
Term
 motor units
Definition
 Are the relationship between a motor neuron and muscle fibers. One motor nerve from the spinal cord can either be under control of 5 muscle fibers or 1000 fibers. Motor units that have 5 muscle fibers are the ones that control eye movements and others like that. Motor units that control 1000 fibers are the ones that lift heavy things such as dead lifts and anything that particular. When a motor unit is called upon to contract the fibers contract all at once or not at all. Motor units can be consisted of mostly slow twitch fibers and others are fast twitch fibers.    A muscle belly can have multiple motor units and with that being said. When we lift light weights such as a light dumbell, only enough units are activated to lift the dumbell successfully and remember when it does this, the motor units that are activated are the ones that will exert maximal force. When we lift a heavy weight the body will call upon all the motor units in that particualr muscle to be activated to life the weight.
Term
 Muscle fiber adaption: Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia
Definition
 Is the process in increase size of a myofibrial and the quanity of myofibrials in the muscle belly. To be more in depth, when gains are noticed through strength training more myosin and actin and other proteins that are responsible for contraction are increased. What stimulates this is the more testerone hormone we have the production of making myosin and actin and other protein contractions.
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