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Abnormal Test 1
GC! Chapters 8, 9, & 10
Undergraduate 3

Additional Psychology Flashcards




unipolar depression
major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder
- no mania
major depressive episode
extreme cases can include loss of contact with reality such as delusions (bizarre ideas without foundation), or hallucinations (perceptions of things that are not present)
-marked by 5 symptoms of depression lasting for two weeks or more
major depressive disorder
-categorized by people who experience a major depressive episode with no history of mania
-often one symptom will exacerbate another
-5 affected areas of functioning
-emotions- low sad state, dejection, crying
-anhedonia- an inability to experience any pleasure at all

-motivation- lose of desire to pursue usual activities

-behavior- less active and productive
-psychomotor retardation- (vegetative signs)- lethargic, cant get going/ get out of bed

-cognitive- hold negative views of self, feelings of inadequacy, inferiority

-physical- headaches, indigestion, constipation, dizzy spells, general pain, insomnia, weight loss, anergia/ fatigue- loss of energy
manic episode
-A breathless euphoria or at least frenzied energy in which people may have exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking
-egosyntonic- no self awareness, feels normal to you
-span same 5 areas of functioning as depresion
-emotional-feel no sense of restriction, not necessarily happy, irritability, angry when people are in their way of exaggerated ambitions
-inflated self esteem- a little out of touch with reality

-motivational-want constant excitement, involvement, companionship , seek new and old friends, and interests, little awareness of overwhelming social style

-behavior-move, talk more quickly, rapidly, loudly. lots of jokes, efforts to be clever, or can complain, and have verbal outbursts

-cognitive-poor judgment/ planning- feel to good or moe to fast to consider possible pitfalls, distractibility

-physical- feelings of energy, awakeness, even with little sleep
-possible for episodes to have delusions and hallucinations
-psychomotor agitation-inability to sit still, always on the go
hypomanic episode
-mild mania- symptoms of mania that are much less severe than full mania, and cause little impairment
-elevation of mood, agitation, inflated self esteem- all just below normal manic levels
mood disorder similar to major depressive disorder, but less disabling, and much longer lasting
-not typically caused or related to specific life events
-if this leads to major depressive disorder it is called double depression
mixed episodes
swing from manic to depressive and back again on the same day
-mood cycles so fast the person cant even keep track of them
-not bipolar technically but could lead to it
bipolar disorder I & II
-dont need to have any depressive episodes to be diagnosed with this
I- full manic and depressive episodes- can be:
-mixed episodes- swing from manic and depressive and back in same day
alternation-weeks of mania followed by a period of wellness, followed in turn by depression

II-hypomanic (mildy manic) episodes alternate with major depressive episodes over the course of time
disorder marked by numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms- occur for two or more years with occasional brief breaks of normal mood
-can turn into bipolar I or II
major depressive disorder specifiers
-seasonal onset-changes with seasons- (ex. depression occurs every winter)

-recurrent- preceded by previous episodes

-postpartum- occurs within four weeks of giving birth

-melancholic- person is almost totally unaffected by pleasurable events
learned helplessness
-perception based on past experiences, that one has no control over one's reinforcements
-theory of cause of depression
-Dog is shocked and is in a contraption with a fence divinding an electrified floor-

-One condition has no shock on either side. one condition allows them tojump the fence to escape the shock, another condition has a shock on both sides, and they learn they can’t do anything- and become lethargic, and realize they have not control over conditions

---The first two conditions yield similar learning results to either dogs- one can do whatever, and the other can avoid the shock

---Dogs that became helpless that get put back into another condition that allows them to avoid the aversive stimulus you can get them to jump the fence, but they won’t do it for long, and they don’t fully recover from the helplessness

---Can never completely reverse learned helplessness, can curve it to some degree and make it a bit better, but never fully cured
becks cognitive theory- negative triad--> automatic thoughts-->cognitive biases/ distortions
-individual repeatedly interprets their experiences, themselves, and their futures in negative ways which leads next to-->

-numerous unpleasant thoughts that help to cause or maintain depression, anxiety, or other forms of psychological dysfunction- triggered by negative life events that then lead to-->

-should” statements (should do better, should have known, etc.), magnification/ minimization (making big fuss out of something that’s not a big deal,- exaggeration to situation./ making light of accomplishments- minimizing good you’ve accomplished), mind reading (assuming things wont go well, predicting things in negative way) , dichotomous thinking(thinking that the world is good or bad- black and white- extremes in thinking)) which in turn leads to a depressed mood
attribution theory
-causes that one attributes negative life events to
-tendency to think depressively
-locus of control
• Internal: you made something happen that is bad (I did badly on an exam, I am stupid)
o Countered with external: not my fault, can be attributed to other things than myself

• Global- negative trait applies to your life (I did badly on a test in bio, but im bad at everything in school, not just bio)
o Countered with specific- bad at this one thing, but not everything

• Stable- negative life situation is never going to change, its stable
o Unstable- I can change this problem its not unchangeable
diathesis stress model
• Psychological or biological venerability that is brought out due to stressful life events
o Venerability could be a genetic predisposition
o Could be a know viral infection associated with disorder
o Could be a psychological thing- like a way of thinking that is conducive to that disorder- depressogenic thinking
-could be enviornmental factor- living in dangerous area where things are out of your control

-can be avoided when a person has protective factors like good coping skills, social support, or anything else to help counter stressors
cognitive behavioral therapy
4 steps
1. increasing activities and elevating mood-schedule activities for coming week, more and more added every week- called behavioral activation

-next three are part of cognitive restructuring process
Step 2- challenging automatic thoughts- discuss negative automatic thoughts- individuals instructed to recognize and record them, and bring the list to the session- then test reality behind the thoughts

Step 3- identifying negative thinking and biases- client begins to recognize flaws of automatic thoughts- therapist show them how illogical thinking processes are contributing to these thoughts

Step 4- changing primary attitude- therapist help clients change maladaptive attitudes
ECT- electroconvulsive therapy
used as a last resort after all else has failed

• Two electrodes attached to patients head and electricity is passed through the brain for half a second

• Results in brain seizure that lasts between 25 seconds and a few minutes

• 6- 12 treatments over two- four weeks- most
feel less depressed after this

• in bilateral ECT- one electrode applied to each side of forehead

• in unilateral ECT- electrodes placed so that current passes only through one side

-can cause amnesia
• High spectrum light mimics properties of natural light
• Especially used in treatment of major depressive disorder with seasonal onset
• Commercially available
• Mean to mimic sunlight for people who are seasonally depressed
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
o pace maker powers electrodes that have been implanted in brodmann area 25 thus stimulating that brain area
o still in early stages
interpersonal therapy (interpersonal psychotherapy/ IPT)
treatment for unipolar depression that is based on the belief that clarifying and changing one's interpersonal problems will help lead to recovery
-family social technique
-attempts to adress any of four interpersonal problem areas :
-interpersonal role transition- major life changes- divorce, birth, etc- overwhelmed due to this- help client develop social supports and skills for new role

-interpersonal deficits- shyness, social awkwardness that make social relationships difficult- clients help assertiveness, social skills, etc

-interpersonal role dispute- when two people have different expectations of roles in relationship- help client resolve these disputes

- interpersonal loss- loss of loved one- help patient develop new ways of coping with loss, dealing with anger toward lost person
major drug classes
-MAOI's-monoamine oxidase inhibitors
o Normally brain supplies of the enzyme MAO break down, or degrade norepinephrine- MAOI’s block MAO from carrying out this activity and stop destruction of NE
o Results in rise of NE activity and reduction of depressive symptoms

-tricyclics- antidepressant drug such as imipramine that has a three ring molecular structure
-must continue to take for a length of time after symptom free, or relapse is very likely- called continuation therapy

-SSRIs- second generation antidepressants
o Increase serotonin activity without affecting norepinephrine or other neurotransmitters
o About as effective as tricyclics- also harder to OD on them than other drugs

-lithium-mood stabilizer- effective treatment for biopolar disorder
-used to stabilize manic episodes
-lowers risk of relapse
-helps with depressive symptoms but not as well
o Second messengers- chemical changes within a neuron just after neuron receives a neurotransmitter message and just before it responds- this is how mood stabilizers are thought to work- different from reuptake inhibitors that are found in antidepressants
gender differences in suicide
-women 3 x's more likely to commit suicide than men
-men who try to commit suicide are more likely to succeed than women who try- men are 3x more violent, and these methods are usually more effective
-women often use drugs, cutting, etc. where it is more easy to fail at suicide, or be found in act
atypical depression
-nickname- diagnosis is still MDD
-psychomotor agitation, hypersomnia (sleep to much)
-fidgity, always on the go, when not asleep
-symptoms are not the usual profile for MDD, sort of opposites
-suicide attempt that does not result in death
-difficult to know when this occurs- “accidents” might have been suicide attempts
-can be due to ambivalence about dying- meaning they care very much whether or not they want to die or live- so things you care about and suicide notion can be contradictory

-ex. take pills but know you'll be discovered, or not high enough dose to kill yourself- possible sign of ambivalence
clinical assessment of suicide
-ideation- nature of thoughts

-intent- strong intent, risk of suicide goes up. how strongly does person want to die? what would stop that person? (possible protective factors- ex. have child that they don't want to abandon)

- plans/ methods of killing self

-lethality- how lethal are your plans

-3-5 days a week of thinking about suicide considered imminent risk of suicide- high risk
also important to know about previous attempts- could be that person failed once before, so this time the attempt will be more violent. or could be cry for help if plan is ineffective again
suicide pact or contract
patient sings agreement with clinican saying they wont commit suicide for x amount of time, and during time seeing clinician
- talking about suicide with patient can help patient feel less isolated- pact can show that clinician truly cares about their well being
four types of people who commit suicide
-Death seekers- clearly intend to end their lives
--This can change to confusion within an hour, or day, and then change back again

-Death initiators- clearly intend to end their lives
--But act out of belief that process of death is already under way and they are simply hastening process
--Many elderly suicides, and those very sick fall into this category

-Death ignorers- do not believe that their self inflicted death will mean the end of their existence
--Believe they are trading their lives for a better or happier existence
--Child suicides tend to fall into this category- and adult believers of death cults- heavens gate, etc.

-Death darers-
--Experience mixed feelings or ambivalence in their attempt to die even after the moment of their attempt- show this ambivalence in the act itself
--Wish to die to some degree but their risk taking behavior does not guarantee death- ex. Russian roulette
durkheim suicide categories
-egoistic- people not concerened with norms of society- not integrated into society, outsiders- isolated, alienated, nonreligious

-altruistic- purposefully kill self to better something, ex. saving people, killing for a political cause)

anomic- committed by those whose social environment fails to provide stable structures
--war torn countries- people have no sense of belonging
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