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Abnormal Psychology
11th edition abnormal psych

Additional Education Flashcards




Psychopathology definition
~study of the development and treatment of mental disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Definition: Apprehension (fear) over an anticipated problem
~fear is usually associated with this disorder
~"fight or flight"
~specific phobias, panic disorder, genearalized anxiety disorder, OCD, posttraumatic
~someone with 1 anxiety disorder will most likely experience another

Etiology: genetic; traumatic exp, Classical conditioning(learned)

Treatments: Exposure to fear, systematic desensitization; sedatives, benzos, antidepressants,SSRI

Factors leading to anxiety:
-gender:women twice likely than men;women will report more than men
-OCD equal in men/women
Culture:varies across cultures
-views on mental health play role
Genetic: some genes may elevate risk
Environment: severe stressor before anxiety
Cognitive: believe bad things will happen, learned behavior(modeling)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
~persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or urges and the need to repeat the acts
~type of anxiety disorder
~hoarding is an example, comorbid with depression and other anxiety
Etiology: activity in orbitofrontal cortex
Treatment: "exposure and response prevention" expose and refrain from compulsion(washing)
-Hoarding=de-cluttering sessions, organization
-cognitive approach on OCD
Panic disorder
Definition: excessive worry about having a panic attack.
Symptoms: heavy breathing, increased heart beat, nausea, chest pain, dizziness
DSM-4: must experience recurrent panic attacks; change behavior due to worry for a month.
-DSM4 has two types: with or without agoraphobia=panic attack in public places
Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD)
Category-Anxiety Disorders

Etiology:develops over a period of time and may not be noticed until it is significant enough to cause problems with functioning.

Symptoms:general feelings of anxiety such as mild heart palpitations, dizziness, and excessive worry. irritable, muscle tension; symptoms for at least 6 months


Medication and/or psychotherapy have been found to be helpful, especially therapy aimed at teaching the client how to gain control over the symptoms.
Category-Anxiety Disorders


By definition, PTSD always follows a traumatic event which causes intense fear and/or helplessness in an individual. Typically the symptoms develop shortly after the event, but may take years. The duration for symptoms:least one month for this diagnosis.

re-experiencing the trauma through nightmares, obsessive thoughts, and flashbacks (feeling as if you are actually in the traumatic situation again). Individual avoids situations, people, and/or objects which remind him or her about the traumatic event (e.g., a person experiencing PTSD after a serious car accident might avoid driving or being a passenger in a car). very jumpy, startle easy by noises).

Exposure to fear, systematic desensitization; sedatives, anxiety meds
Category: Anxiety Disorders

traumatic event is the precursor for a phobia, which may or may not be at the conscious level.

Symptoms include either extreme anxiety and fear associated with the object or situation or avoidance. Symptoms must be disruptive to everyday functioning (such as quitting a great job merely because you have to use an elevator).

Treatment is often behavioral in nature, with the therapist guiding the client through exercises resembling the feared object or situation. Exploring underlying issues can also be beneficial.
Dissociative disorder definition
-unable to recall events, and forget their identity

-disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception.

-Dissociative amnesia, fugue, identity disorder, depersonalization disorder.

-very little research on etiology and treatment except DID-diss. identity disorder
Dissociative amnesia
Category-Dissociative Disorders

Etiology: brought on by a traumatic event.

memory gaps related to traumatic or stressful events which are too extreme to be accounted for by normal forgetting.

Memory typically returns. Therapy can be useful to help with coping skills, but is not always needed unless the individual develops excessive fears or worries, or the memory loss has a drastic effect on their everyday functioning.
Dissociative Fugue
Category-Dissociative Disorders

Etiology: This disorder is very rare and occurs most often during extreme stress (such as wartime or after a natural disaster).

Symptoms: travel away from home, an inability to remember important aspects of one’s life, and the partial or complete adoption of a new identity.

Treatment:The disorder typically dissipates on its own and it is extremely rare to last more than one month.
Depersonalization Disorder
Category-Dissociative Disorders

Etiology: As with other disorders in this category, triggered by stress, hyperventilation

Symptoms: This disorder is characterized by feelings of unreality, that your body does not belong to you, or that you are constantly in a dreamlike state.(view outside body)

Treatment: The disorder will typically dissipate on its own after a period of time. Therapy can be helpful to strengthen coping skills.

-will need to rule out schizo, ptsd, boderline
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Category: Dissociative Disorders

Etiology: DID is associated with severe psychological stress in childhood, most often ritualistic sexual or physical abuse.
-(split to deal with trauma)

Symptoms: existence of more than one INDEPENDENT identity or personality within the same individual. The identities will ‘take control’ of the person at different times, with important information about the other identities out of conscious awareness.
-headaches, hallucinations, suicide

Treatment: Treatment is difficult: including secrecy on the client’s part (unlike the misrepresentation in the media), making him or her reluctant to seek help, and the difficulty in diagnosing the disorder once the client presents. Typically, an individual with DID will require many years of treatment.
-comorbidity: anxiety; depression
Somatoform Disorders
-soma means body
-psychological problems that take physical form(person experiences bodily symptoms with no physical basis)
-Malingering-faking pain
Somatoform disorders
-Pain Disorder-complain about pain
-Body Dysmorphic-imagine an ugly appearance(ocd)
-Hypochondriasis-fear of disease
-Somatization disorder-complain about pain/issues(doctor)
-Conversion Disorder:motor skills stop
-Psychodynamic treatment: cognitive and antidepressant meds
-Cognitive behavioral approach:
1:ID emotions that trigger pain
2:change cognitions
3:change so they stop pain role and act on social interactions
What types of mood disorders does the DSM-IV recognize?
Two types:
-involve depression symptoms(major depression and dysthymic disorder)
-those that involve manic symptoms(bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymic)
Definition of mood disorders
inappropriate, exaggerated, or limited range of feelings.
Major Depressive Disorder(uni-polar depression)
Category:Mood Disorders

Etiology: influenced by both biological and environmental factors.
Examples:lack of a support system, stress, illness in self or loved one, legal difficulties, financial struggles, and job problems. These factors can be cyclical in that they can worsen the symptoms and act as symptoms themselves.
-MUST have depressed mood for at least 2 weeks and 4 additional symptoms

-depressed mood (such as feelings of sadness or emptiness)
-reduced interest in activities that used to be enjoyed, sleep disturbances (too much/little)
-loss of energy
-difficulty concentrating, making decisions that used to be made fairly easily
-suicidal thoughts or intentions.

Treatment: can combine both pharmacotherapy(anti depressants) and psychotherapy. Medications used to treat this disorder include Prozac, Paxil, Wellbutrin, and Zoloft.
-Psychotherapy helping the patient understand the factors involved in either creating or exacerbating the depressive symptomotology.
-may include a history of abuse (physical, emotional, and/or sexual), maladaptive coping skills/ Environmental factors, a poor social support system and difficulties related to finances or employment.
Dysthymic Disorder
Category:Mood Disorders
Etiology:Not as much research; there is support for a biological undertone as well as maladaptive ways of coping with the environment.

Symptoms:Depressed mood for most of the day, ongoing for at least two years + two symptoms.
-there must be two or more of the following symptoms: under– or over eating, sleep difficulties, fatigue, low self-esteem, difficulty with concentration or decision making, and feelings of hopelessness.
-There can NOT be a diagnosis of Major Depression for the first two years of the disorder, and has never been a manic or hypo-manic episode.

Treatment:Similar to Major Depression, treatment could include medication and/or therapy.
Bipolar Disorder
Category: Mood Disorders
Etiology:biological component for this disorder, with environmental factors

Bipolar I: For a diagnosis of Bipolar I disorder, a person must have at least one manic episode.
-Mania is an intense;euphoric,indestructible
-elevated self-esteem, talkative, have flight of ideas, reduced sleep, and be easily distracted. lead to severe difficulties in these areas, such as spending much more money than intended, making extremely rash business and personal decisions, involvement in dangerous sexual behavior, and/or the use of drugs or alcohol.
-Depression is often experienced as the high quickly fades and as the consequences of their activities becomes apparent, the depressive episode can be exacerbated.

Bipolar II: Similar to Bipolar I Disorder, different in that the highs are hypo manic, rather than manic.
-have similar symptoms but they are not severe

Medication, such as Lithium, is typically prescribed for this disorder and is the corner stone of treatment.
-Therapy can be useful in helping the client understand when a manic or depressive episode is imminent and to prepare for this.
-coping skills and support is often a focus of therapeutic treatment.
Cyclothymic Disorder
Category: Mood Disorders
Etiology: It is assumed that both biological and environmental factors play a role.
Symptoms: Like Bipolar II Disorder, symptoms of cyclothymia include periods of hypomania.(mild symptoms but must be present for at least 2 years)
-Depressive symptoms are also present as the hypomania fades. These symptoms. However, are not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode, in other words, are not as severe as those found in Bipolar Disorder.

Treatment: Treatment can include both medication to help stabilize mood and therapy to increase coping skills, build a solid support system,
-deal with stressors
Anorexia Nervosa
Most often diagnosed in females (up to 90%),
-Anorexia is characterized by failure to maintain body weight of at least 85% of what is expected,
-fear of losing control over your weight or of becoming ‘fat.’
-There is typically a distorted body image, where the individual sees themselves as overweight despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary.

-focusing on improving the individual’s health.
-therapy can be useful in helping the individual maintain normal eating habits
-explore faulty thinking which resulted in the distorted body image and excessive needs for control.
Bulimia Nervosa
Symptoms: The key characteristics of this disorder include binging and purging (elimination of the food through artificial means such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, periods of fasting, or excessive exercise).

Treatment is similar to Anorexia in that the primary focus is on restoring health,normal eating patterns, and exploring underlying issues.
Category: Psychotic Disorders
Etiology: result of a physiological condition brought out by a life stressors.Has genetic basis
-begin between adolescence and early adulthood for males and a few years later for females, as a result of a stressful period
-delusions and hallucinations, disorganized behavior and/or speech.
-Avolition:apathy;lack of motivation(hygiene)
-Alogia:reduced speech
-Anhedonia:loss of interest
-flat affect:lack of expression
-Asociality:few friends
-Disorganized speech/behavior: say and do awkward things
-catatonia:awkward movements(not purposeful)
-Inappropriate affect: inappropriate emo responses
-DSM4: symptoms for 6 months
-Medication is the most important part of treatment (anti-psychotics)
-Case management is often needed to assist with daily living skills, financial matters, and housing, and therapy can help the individual learn better coping skills and improve social and occupational skills.
Define Personality Disorder
-symptoms that are enduring and play a major role in most, if not all, aspects of the person's life.
-long-standing patterns of behavior that effect cognition, emotion, relationships, and impulse control
COMPS question:
Discuss 4 personality disorders. Provide symptoms and treatment
-Know there are 3 categories: odd/eccentric, dramatic/erratic, anxious/fearful cluster

-Paranoid Personality Disorder
-Borderline Personality Disorder
-Antisocial Personality Disorder
-Obsessive compulsive personality disorder
DSM-IV personality disorders in clusters
Cluster A (Odd/eccentric)
-Schizoid:detach from social relat./emotional expression
-Schizotypal:lack for close relationships

Cluster B (dramatic/erratic)
-Histrionic-emo/attention seeking
-Narcissistic-Grandiose,need admiration, lack of empathy

Cluster C (anxious/fearful)
-Avoidant: social inhibition, inadequacy
-Dependent: need to be taken care of
Paranoid Personality Disorder
-Odd/eccentric cluster
-suspicious of others, being harmed, deceived
-doubt loyalty, trustworthiness
-read hidden meanings
-not schizophrenia due to no hallucinations
-This will interfere with family, relationships
Comorbid: schizotypal, borderline,avoidant

Antisocial Personality Disorder
-Dramatic/erratic cluster
Etiology: symptoms are long lasting, the idea that symptoms begin to emerge in childhood or at least adolescence is well accepted.

These behaviors include difficulty with authority, legal altercations, cruelty to animals, fire setting, and a dislike or anger toward authority. This disorder is diagnosed much more frequently in males.

Symptoms: longstanding pattern (after the age of 15) of disregard for the rights of others.
-There is a failure to conform to society's norms and expectations
-history of deceitfulness where the individual attempts to con people or use trickery for personal profit.
-Impulsiveness, including angry outbursts, failure to consider consequences of behaviors, irritability, and/or physical assaults.
-reduced ability to feel empathy for other people.
-lack of remorse for wrongdoings.

Treatment:treatment options are limited.
-Some research has found long term insight oriented therapy to be effective, but getting the individual to commit to this treatment is a major obstacle.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
-Anxious/Fearful cluster
-perfectionish, preoccupied with details, rules, schedules
-pay attention to project details and don't finish
-difficulty making decisions, demand the right way(their way)
-"control freaks" serious, rigid, inflexible on moral issues.
-comorbid with avoidant, and OCD
Treatment of Personality Disorders
-People seek treatment for the Axis I disorders than Personality disorder. (ex.antisocial PD seek help for drug abuse)
-Meds are used to treat PDs, usually meds focus on the Axis I problem(ex. treat the depression)
-Day treatment:psychotherapy in group/indv
-Cognitive therapy will look at the negative effects and try to change the thought process. (way of thinking)

Borderline PD treatment:
-distrust=hard to maintain counseling relationship
-push and pull the therapist, become needy
-suicide is risk
-lithium but they abuse drugs so caution with drug treatment
-DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY(acceptance with change):Client centered empathy, cog. prob.solving, social skills training,
-identify maladaptive assumptions client holds, work to change internal representations.
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
Delusions: beliefs contary to reality
-thoughts are being placed in one's head
-Thought broadcasting: believe that thoughts are being heard by others
-behaviors are being controlled by external force(cell phone tower)
-Feel like others are plotting against
-grandiose delusions: exaggerated sences of power, identity, importance

Hallucinations:distortion/perception of experience in environment. Auditory, hear own voice but feel like it has been altered.
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Avolition: Lack of motivation for hobbies

Alogia: reduction of speech(short answers)

Anhedonia: Loss of interest for pleasure

Flat affect: Lack of expression of emotion

Asciality: Impairment in social relationships
Disorganized Symptoms (cognitive)
Disorganized speech: problem organizing speech and ideas. Difficulty sticking to the topic.

Disorganized Behavior: inability to conform to community standards(dress weird, childlike, hoard food,etc)
-Difficulty performing daily tasks
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Disorganized Schizo: speech is difficult for listener to follow.
-may have flat affect with shifts of emotion...laughter, then cry
-Behavior is disorganized

Catatonic Schizo: alternate betwn immobile to wild excitement

Paranoid: delusions ofpersecution, grandiose, auditory hallucinations.
-speech disorganized

Undifferentiated schizo: general form of schizo

Residual Schizo: shows signs but no longer meet full criteria for schizo
Sexual Dysfunctions
-DSM-IV categorizes into 4 categories: sexual desire, arousal, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain
-no diagnosis if medical or Axis I is present

Sexual Desire:low sex drive

sexual Arousal:no lube or erection

Orgasmic disorder: lack of orgasm or a continuation of orgasm

Sexual pain: pain experienced by men/women during penetration; vagina spasms=no intercourse

Treatment: anxiety reduction, desensitization, skill training, Rational emotive behavior=change thoughts that cause problems, improve communication
Gender Identity
-strong feelings of being the wrong gender, or feelings that your outward body is inconsistent with your internal sense of being either male or female.

Etiology: genetic, neurobiological(sex hormone levels), psychosocial(masculine/feminine are culturally shaped)

Treatment: Body change, sex-reassignment, can work on behavior change but the gender change is the goal.
Paraphilias and megan's law
- sexual attraction to unusual objects or activities
-fantasies, urges, behaviors last at least 6 months

Etiology: Usually men; hormones play role, inadequate social skills, alcohol trigger, childhood abuse

Treatment: Aversion therapy: image is used to sensitize the person and make them feel sick or ashamed of feeling that way.
-may not eliminate but provide greater control
-meds can be used to alter release of hormones

Megans's Law: forbid sex offenders from returning to location
Types of Paraphilia
Sexual attraction to...
-Fetish: Sexual attraction to objects
-Transvestic fetish: cross dressing
-Pedophilia: children
-Voyeurism: watching others undress or have sex
-Exhibitionism: Exposing genitals
-Frotteurism: sexual touching of unsuspecting person
-Sadism: causing pain
-masochism- receiving pain
Attention-deficit with hyperactivity Disorder
-pattern of inattention, impusivity, difficulty controlling activity, moving/talking constantly, difficulty getting along with others, behavior seems aggressive/intrusive.
-miss social cues, show off, off topic,

3 subcategories:
-Inattentive type
-Hyperactive-impulsive type
-Combined-both sets

Comorbid with substance use(equal both sex)

Etiology: genes, environmental, brain activity

Treatment:Medication(Ritalin) with behavior therapy based on operant conditioning
-parent training, classroom management, techniques
Conduct disorder
-Behaviors violate the basic rights of others and violate societal norms
-illegal behavior
-aggression, cruelty toward animals/people, property damage, lying, stealing
-lack of remorse,
-conduct disorder in childhood is criteria for antisocial disorder in adulthood
-oppositional defiant disorder is a milder form of conduct disorder(lose temper, argue w/adults, angry, annoy others
-comorbid with ADHD, learning disorders, substance abuse
-more in boys than girls, genetic background

Treatment: family interventions, parent management training(modify response to children), Multisystemic treatment(work on factors within family)
Social Phobia
Category: anxiety disorder
-unrealistic fear of social situations; being scrutinized, or exposed to new people
-avoid situations that they might behave in embarrassing ways
-fear speaking, eating, restrooms, any public activity
-usually meet criteria for avoidant PD
Treatment: exposure to fear, "go straight to the heart of danger, and there you will find safety" chinese proverb, Systemic desensitization, exposure treatment,
Etiology: may be caused by vaccines given to toddlers, mercury
-Symptoms: score below or above 70 IQ test,difficulty in the reasoning and language portion
-heightened motor skills, problems with social skills, do not greet people,
Treatment:behavioral treatment at a young age, parent training, positive reinforcers instead of edible ones.
-medicines do not work well with autism
-play therapy,
-focus on changing individual behaviors
-reward less aggressive, compliant, socially appropriate behaviors
-improve communication skills
Mental Retardation
-Axis 2 disorder
-IQ less than 70
-deficits in two areas: communication, self care, home living
-Interpersonal skills, make decisions, academic skills low
-onset before age 18
Etiology: Neurobiological, genetic(downs)
Treatment: least restrictive setting, engage in routine, early intervention programs, Operant conditioning used to teach things like eating,
-reward with praise, high fives,
-Computer programs can assist
-Deterioration of cognitive abilities that impair social functioning
-does not keep up with hygiene
-lose control of impulses
-become withdrawn, static, apathetic
-progressive with age, nonreversible
-deficits of memory
Treatment: No treatment has been found, some medications are used to treat depression and anti-psychotics

Alzheimers: memory impairment, brain tissue deteriorates,
-death after 12 years
-Trouble focusing and maintaining coherent thought
-old age disorder
-rapid onset, fluctuation as the day goes on
-Reversible by treating underlying condition
-if not detected, cognitions will decline and result in death
-underlying conditions could be: drugs, infections, fever, malnutrition,
-treat those conditions and can use anti-psychotics and should clear in weeks
borderline Personality Disorder
-Dramatic/erratic cluster
Etiology: symptoms are long lasting, the idea that symptoms begin to emerge in childhood or at least adolescence is well accepted. The negative consequences of such symptoms, however, may not show themselves until adulthood.
-There may be a history of unstable relationships, likelihood of sexual abuse, family violence, and/or neglect in the person's childhood.
-This disorder is diagnosed much more frequently in females.

Symptoms:revolve around unstable relationships, poor or negative sense of self, inconsistent moods, and significant impulsivity.
-There is an intense fear of abandonment
-cling to others, needy, feel helpless, and become overly involved and immediately attached.
-abandonment becomes overwhelming, push people to avoid getting rejected.

-people often do leave to support their distorted belief that they are insignificant, worthless, and unloved.
-may exhibit self-harming behaviors, suicide, mock suicidal attempts (where the goal is to get rescued and lure others back into the individual's life), cutting or other self-mutilating behavior.
-sudden anger,
-difficulty controlling destructive behavior

Treatment: long term; interfere with many aspects of the person's life.
-cognitive-behavioral approach; reduce those thoughts and behaviors that are seen as negative. -A combined approach may be best, but either way requires intensive time and effort.
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