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Abnormal exam 2
Exam 2
Undergraduate 3

Additional Psychology Flashcards





a feeling of apprehension about possible danger

  • less obvious danger leads to this, obvious danger leads to fear
  • All of them have biological causes, high neuroticism, and treatment
  • "Something awful may happen, and I may not be ready for it if it does"
5 anxiety disorders
  1. Specific phobia
  2. Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
  3. Panic disorder
  4. Agoraphobia
  5. Generalized anxiety disorder 
phobia (specific)

persistent fear for about six months of a specific object that presents little to no danger but leads to great avoidance.

  • causes significant impairment or distress
  • Immediate fear resembles a panic attack 
Social Phobia

fear of being humiliated or exposed to scrutiny and potential negative evaluation Of others (performing in front of others, public speaking)

  • can cause distress or impairment 


  • linked with lower SES and employment.
  • Comorbid
Panic Disorder

"Out of the blue" panics that do not appear to have been provoked by identifiable aspects of the immediate situation. 

Four or more of following symptoms occur:

  • palpitation, pounding heart
  • Sweating
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering
  • Feelings of choking 
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Nausea or abdominal distress 
  • Feeling dizzy, unsteady, light headed, or faint
  • Chill or heat sensations 
  • Paresthesias(numbness, or tingling)
  • Derealization (feelings of unreality)
  • Feelings of losing control or being crazy
  • Fear of dying 

The attacks are followed by 1 or more months of : persistent concern or worry about additional attacks, maladaptive change in behavior related to the attacks


fear of public places

  • strongly comorbid with panic disorder 

May have anxiety about two or more of the situations:

  1. using public transportation 
  2. Being in open spaces
  3. Being in enclosed spaces (shops, theaters)
  4. Standing in line or Ina big crowd
  5. Being outside of home alone 
  • Lasts about 6 months or longer 
  • Causes distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning 

collection  nuclei in front of the hippocampus involved in emotion of fear.

  • reason for panics in the brain 


generalized anxiety disorder


excessive worry and anxiety,occurring more days than not for at least six months about events or activities 

  • may find it difficult to control the worry

Associated with three or more:

  1. restlessness or feeling of feeling on edge
  2. Being easily fatigued
  3. Difficult concentrating or mind goes blank 
  4. Irritability 
  5. Muscle tension
  6. Sleep disturbance 
  • Cormorbod especially with social phobia, panic , specific, PTSD, and major depressive 
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  1. recurrence of unwanted intrusive obsessive thoughts or distressing images. Accompanied by behaviors that as ways to prevent some dreaded situation.
  2. Individual attempts to ignore of supreme the thoughts by neutralizing them with some action or forming compulsions:
  • Repetitive behavior or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession 
  • Aimed to prevent anxiety or distress or some dreaded situation but they are not connected or alistic with what they are designed to prevent 

These are very time consuming 

treatment involves exposure and response prevention: 

OCD clients rate a stimuli of anxiety on a scale from 0-100 and are asked to expose themselves to it repeatedly without engaging in usual rituals to reduce anxiety.

Body dismorphic disorder

Preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearence that are not observable or appear slight to others. 


compulsive hair  pulling
Mood disorder
  • severe alterations in mood over a long period of time 

Two key moods are: 

  1. mania- intense or unrealistic feeling of excitement and euphoria 
  2. Depression- feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection
  • unipolar depressive disorder - when a person experiences depressive episodes 
  • Bipolar disorders-  when a person experiences both manic and depressive 
  • Manic episodes- another primary kind of mood disorder, when a person shows a markedly elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by outbursts of irritability of violence. This person experiences three of the following: 
  1. Inflated self esteem 
  2. Decreased need for sleep
  3. Flight of ideas, thoughts are racing 
  4. Distractability 
  5. Increase in goal directed activity
  • Hypomanic episode- when a person feels abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable for at least 4 day. Must have 3 or more symptoms similar to mania
Major depressive disorder

When a person experiences five or more of these symptoms in a two week period: 

  1. depressed mood most of the day Or everyday and is observed by others. ( must be included, OR) 
  2. Diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all everyday activity (must be included)
  3. significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain. 
  4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day 
  5. psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
  6. Fatigue or loss of energy every day 
  7. Diminished ability to think or concentrate every day 
  8. Recurrent thoughts of death (suicide)

major depressive episodes: (unipolar major depression)  is most common and only occurs in major depression 

Bipolar disorder

another form or major depression which includes both manic and depressive episodes. 

  • Opposite of unipolar
  • Less common 
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