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A&P Orals General
The A&P Oral test questions for the General section
218
Aviation
04/09/2013

Term
 1.1 What is the basic unit of voltage?
Definition
 The volt.
Term
 2.1 What is the basic unit of current?
Definition
 The amp.
Term
 3.1 What is the basic unit of resistance?
Definition
 The ohm.
Term
 4.1 Which law of electricity is the most important for an aircraft mechanic to know?
Definition
 Ohm's law.
Term
 5.1 What are the three elements in Ohm's law?
Definition
 Voltage, current, and resistance (volts, amps, and ohms).
Term
 6.1 What are five sources of electrical energy?
Definition
 Magnetism, chemical energy, light, heat and pressure.
Term
 7.1 What four things affect the resistance of an electrical conductor?
Definition
 The material, the cross-sectional area, the length and the temperature.
Term
 8.1 How can you tell the resistance of a composition resistor?
Definition
 By a series of colored bands around one end of the resistor.
Term
 9.1 What three things must all electrical circuits contain?
Definition
 A source of electrical energy, a load to use the energy, and conductors to join the source and the load.
Term
 10.1 What is the purpose of a capacitor?
Definition
 To store electrical energy in electrostatic fields.
Term
 11.1 What is the basic unit of capacitance?
Definition
Term
 12.1 Why should electrolytic capacitors not be used in an AC circuit?
Definition
 They are polarized. An electrolytic capacitor will pass current of one polarity, but will block current of the opposite polarity.
Term
 13.1 What is meant by inductance?
Definition
 The ability to store electrical energy in electromagnetic fields.
Term
 14.1 What is the basic unit of inductance?
Definition
 The henry.
Term
 15.1 What is meant by impedance?
Definition
 The total opposition to the flow of alternating current. It is the vector sum of resistance, capacitive reactance and inductive reactance.
Term
 16.1 How can you find the polarity of an electromagnet?
Definition
 Hold the electromagnet in your left hand with your fingers encircling the coil in the direction the electrons flow. Your thumb will point to the north end of the electromagnet.
Term
 17.1 In what units is impedance measured?
Definition
 In ohms.
Term
 18.1 What is the basic unit of electrical power in a DC circuit?
Definition
 The watt.
Term
 19.1 What is meant by a kilowatt?
Definition
 1,000 watts.
Term
 20.1 What happens to the current in a DC circuit if the voltage is increased but the resistance remains the same?
Definition
 The current increases.
Term
 21.1 What are three types of DC circuits, with regard to the placement of the various circuit components?
Definition
 Series, parallel and series-parallel.
Term
 22.1 How many cells are there in a 24-volt lead-acid battery?
Definition
 12
Term
 23.1 What is the specific gravity of the electrolyte in a fully charged lead-acid battery?
Definition
 Between 1.275 and 1.300.
Term
 24.1 What is the range of temperatures of the electrolyte in a lead-acid battery that does not require that you apply a correction when measuring its specific gravity?
Definition
 Between 70 degrees and 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Term
 25.1 What instrument is used to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte in a lead-acid battery?
Definition
 A hydrometer.
Term
 26.1 How is a lead-acid battery compartment treated to protect it from corrosion?
Definition
 Paint it with an asphaltic (tar base) paint or with polyurethane enamel.
Term
 27.1 What is used to neutralize spilled electrolyte from a lead-acid battery?
Definition
 A solution of bicarbonate of soda and water.
Term
 28.1 How high should the electrolyte level be in a properly serviced lead-acid battery?
Definition
 Only up to the level of the indicator in the cell.
Term
 29.1 What precautions should be taken in a maintenance shop where both lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries are serviced?
Definition
 The two types of batteries should be kept separate, and the tools used on one type should not be used on the other.
Term
 30.1 Why is a hydrometer not used to measure the state of charge of a nickel-cadmium battery?
Definition
 The electrolyte of a nickel-cadmium battery does not enter into the chemical changes that occur when the battery is charged or discharged. Its specific gravity does not change appreciably.
Term
 31.1 What is used to neutralize spilled electrolyte from a nickel-cadmium battery?
Definition
 A solution of boric acid and water.
Term
 32.1 What is meant by electromagnetic induction?
Definition
 The transfer of electrical energy from one conductor to another that is not electrically connected
Term
 33.1 How many ohms are in a megohm?
Definition
 One million (1,000,000).
Term
 34.1 What part of an amp is a milliamp?
Definition
 One thousandth (0.001).
Term
 1.2 What is meant by tolerance on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 The allowable plus or minus variation from the dimension given on the drawing.
Term
 2.2 What is meant by clearance on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 The amount of space, or separation, that is allowed between two components or parts.
Term
 3.2 What information is given in the title block of an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 The name and address of the company who made the part, the name of the part, the scale of the drawing, the name of the draftsman, the name of the engineer approving the part and the number of the part (the drawing number).
Term
 4.2 How are dimensions shown on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 By numbers shown in the break of a dimension line.
Term
 5.2 How can you know that the aircraft drawing you are using is the most current version of the drawing?
Definition
 By the number in the revision block and by the log of the most recent drawings.
Term
 6.2 How many views can there be in an orthographic projection?
Definition
 Six.
Term
 7.2 How many views are used to show most objects in an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 Three.
Term
 8.2 What is the purpose of a center line on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 This is the line that shows the center of the object in the drawing.
Term
 9.2 What is a fuselage station number?
Definition
 The distance in inches from the datum, measured along the longitudinal axis of the fuselage.
Term
 10.2 Where is the title block normally located on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 In the lower right-hand corner of the drawing.
Term
 11.2 What is the purpose of a cutting plane on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 It shows where an object has been cut to allow an auxiliary drawing to be made. The arrows on a cutting plane show the direction the auxiliary drawing is viewed.
Term
 12.2 How is the alternate position of a part shown on an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 By a thin line made up of a series of long dashes separated by two short dashes.
Term
 1.3 Where must a record be kept of the current empty weight and the current center of gravity of an aircraft?
Definition
 In the aircraft flight manual or weight and balance records required by 14 CFR §23.1583.
Term
 2.3 What is meant by the datum that is used for weight and balance computations?
Definition
 A readily identified reference chosen by the aircraft manufacturer from which all longitudinal locations on the aircraft are referenced.
Term
 3.3 Why are the distances of all of the items installed in an aircraft measured from the datum when computing weight and balance?
Definition
 This makes it possible to find the point about which the aircraft would balance (the center of gravity).
Term
 4.3 What are two reasons weight and balance control are important in an aircraft?
Definition
 For safety of flight and for most efficient performance of the aircraft.
Term
 5.3 What is meant by moment in the computation of weight and balance?
Definition
 A force that tends to cause rotation. It is the product of the weight of an object in pounds and the distance of the object from the datum in inches.
Term
 6.3 How do you find the moment of an item that is installed in an aircraft?
Definition
 Multiply the weight of the item in pounds by its distance from the datum in inches.
Term
 7.3 What is meant by the arm of an item that is installed in an aircraft?
Definition
 The distance, in inches, between the center of gravity of the item and the datum.
Term
 8.3 Why must we consider the category under which an aircraft is licensed when we compute its weight and balance?
Definition
 The different categories under which an aircraft can be licensed have different maximum gross weights and different center of gravity ranges.
Term
 9.3 Where can you find the leveling means that are specified for a particular aircraft?
Definition
 In the Type Certificate Data Sheets for the aircraft.
Term
 10.3 Where is the arm of an item installed in an aircraft recorded?
Definition
 In the Type Certificate Data Sheets for the aircraft.
Term
 11.3 What must be done to find the empty weight of an aircraft if it has been weighed with fuel in its tanks?
Definition
 The weight of the fuel and its moment must be subtracted from the weight and moment of the aircraft as it was weighed.
Term
 12.3 What is meant by the tare weight that is used in a weight and balance computation?
Definition
 The weight of the chocks and other items that are used to hold the aircraft on the scales.
Term
 13.3 What must be done to the tare weight when an aircraft is weighed?
Definition
 It must be subtracted from the scale reading to find the weight of the aircraft.
Term
 14.3 What is meant by minimum fuel as is used in the computation of aircraft weight and balance?
Definition
 No more fuel than the quantity necessary for one-half hour of operation at rated maximum continuous power. It is the maximum amount of fuel used in weight and balance computations when low fuel may adversely affect the most critical balance conditions.
Term
 15.3 What is meant by the maximum zero fuel weight of an aircraft?
Definition
 The maximum permissible weight of a loaded aircraft (passengers, crew, cargo, etc.), less its fuel.
Term
 16.3 What is meant by undrainable fuel?
Definition
 The fuel that is left in the tank, lines and components when the aircraft is placed in level flight position and the fuel drained at the main fuel strainer. This is also called residual fuel.
Term
 17.3 Describe the way you would find the empty weight and empty weight center of gravity of an airplane if there are no weight and balance records available.
Definition
 The aircraft is weighed, and the empty weight center of gravity is computed. These values are recorded in new weight and balance records that are started for the aircraft.
Term
 18.3 What is meant by permanent ballast for an aircraft?
Definition
 Weight that is permanently installed in an aircraft to bring the empty weight center of gravity into allowable limits.
Term
 19.3 Which has the more critical center of gravity range, an airplane or a helicopter?
Definition
 A helicopter.
Term
 20.3 What equipment must be installed in an aircraft when it is weighed to find its empty weight center of gravity?
Definition
 All of the equipment that is listed in the Aircraft Equipment List as "required equipment" or as equipment that is permanently installed.
Term
 21.3 What is the significance of the empty weight center of gravity range of an aircraft?
Definition
 If the empty weight center of gravity falls within the EWCG range, the aircraft cannot be legally loaded in such a way that its loaded center of gravity will fall outside of the allowable loaded CG range. Not all aircraft have an EWCG range.
Term
 22.3 Why is empty weight center of gravity range not given in the Type Certificate Data Sheets for some aircraft?
Definition
 The empty weight center of gravity range is given only for aircraft that cannot be legally loaded in such a way that their loaded center of gravity will fall outside of the allowable limits.
Term
 1.4 Of what material are most low-pressure rigid fluid lines made?
Definition
 1100-1/2 hard or 3003-1/2 hard aluminum alloy tubing.
Term
 2.4 Is the size of a rigid fluid line determined by its inside or its outside diameter?
Definition
 By its outside diameter.
Term
 3.4 When routing a fluid line parallel to an electrical wire bundle, which should be on top?
Definition
 The electrical wire bundle should be on top.
Term
 4.4 What is the function of the lay line (the identification stripe) that runs the length of a flexible hose?
Definition
 This line shows the mechanic whether or not the line has been twisted when it was installed. The line should be straight, not spiraled.
Term
 5.4 How can you distinguish an AN fluid line fitting from an AC fitting?
Definition
 The AN fitting has a shoulder between the end of the flare cone and the first thread. The threads of an AC fitting extend all of the way to the flare cone.
Term
 6.4 Where are quick-disconnect fluid line couplings normally used in an aircraft hydraulic system?
Definition
 Quick disconnect couplings are normally used where the engine-driven pump connects into the hydraulic system.
Term
 7.4 Is the size of a flexible hose determined by its inside or its outside diameter?
Definition
 By its inside diameter.
Term
 8.4 What is the minimum amount of slack that must be left when a flexible hose is installed in an aircraft hydraulic system?
Definition
 The hose should be at least 5% longer than the distance between the fittings. This extra length provides the needed slack.
Term
 9.4 How tight should an MS flareless fitting be tightened?
Definition
 Tighten the fitting by hand until it is snug, and then turn it with a wrench for 1/6-turn to 1/3-turn. Never turn it more than 1/3-turn with a wrench.
Term
 10.4 What damage can be caused by overtightening an MS flareless fitting?
Definition
 Overtightening drives the cutting edge of the sleeve deeply into the tube and weakens it.
Term
 11.4 What kind of rigid tubing can be flared with a double flare?
Definition
 5052-O and 6061-T aluminum alloy tubing in sizes from 1/8-inch to 3/8-inch OD.
Term
 12.4 What is the principal advantage of Teflon hose for use in an aircraft hydraulic system?
Definition
 Teflon hose retains its high strength under conditions of high temperature.
Term
 13.4 What precautions should be taken when flaring a piece of aluminum alloy tubing?
Definition
 The end of the tubing must be polished so it will not crack when it is stretched with the flaring tool.
Term
 14.4 How much pressure is used to proof test a flexible hose assembly?
Definition
 This varies with the hose, but it is generally about two times the recommended operating pressure for the hose.
Term
 1.5 What is the proper type of nondestructive inspection to use for locating surface cracks in an aluminum alloy casting or forging?
Definition
 Zyglo or dye penetrant.
Term
 2.5 Explain the procedure to use when making a dye penetrant inspection of a part.
Definition
 Clean the part thoroughly and apply the penetrant and allow it to soak for the recommended time. Remove all of the penetrant from the surface and apply the developer.
Term
 3.5 Explain the procedure to use when making a magnetic particle inspection of a part.
Definition
 Thoroughly clean the part, magnetize it as directed by the appropriate service manual, flow the indicating medium over the surface and inspect it under a "black" light. When the inspection is complete, thoroughly demagnetize the part.
Term
 4.5 What inspection method would be most appropriate for checking a nonferrous metal part for intergranular corrosion?
Definition
 Eddy current inspection.
Term
 5.5 What inspection method would be most appropriate for checking the internal structure of an airplane wing for corrosion?
Definition
 X-ray inspection.
Term
 6.5 Why is it important that all engine parts which have been inspected by the magnetic particle method be completely demagnetized?
Definition
 If the parts are not completely demagnetized, they will attract steel particles that are produced by engine wear and will cause damage to bearing surfaces.
Term
 7.5 Why is it important that all parts be thoroughly cleaned before they are inspected by the dye penetrant method?
Definition
 Any grease or dirt in a fault will keep the penetrant from seeping into the fault.
Term
 8.5 Why is it important that a piece of aluminum alloy be quenched immediately after it is removed from the heat-treating oven?
Definition
 Any delay in quenching aluminum alloy after it is removed from the oven will allow the grain structure to grow enough that intergranular corrosion is likely to form in the metal.
Term
 9.5 Explain the way a steel structure is normalized after it has been welded.
Definition
 Heat the steel structure to a temperature above its critical temperature and allow it to cool in still air.
Term
 10.5 Why is a piece of steel tempered after it has been hardened?
Definition
 When steel is hardened, it becomes brittle and tempering removes some of this brittleness.
Term
 11.5 What is meant by an icebox rivet?
Definition
 A rivet made of 2017 or 2024 aluminum alloy. These rivets are heat-treated and quenched, then stored in a sub-freezing ice box until they are ready to be used. The cold storage delays the hardening of the rivet.
Term
 12.5 What type of loading should be avoided when using a self-locking nut on an aircraft bolt?
Definition
 A self-locking nut should not be used for any application where there are any rotational forces applied to the nut or to the bolt.
Term
 13.5 What determines the correct grip length of a bolt used in an aircraft structure?
Definition
 The grip length of the bolt should be the same as the combined thicknesses of the materials being held by the bolt.
Term
 14.5 How tight should the nut be installed on a clevis bolt that is used to attach a cable fitting to a control surface horn?
Definition
 The nut on a clevis bolt should not be tight enough to prevent the clevis bolt turning in the cable fitting and the horn.
Term
 15.5 Why is it very important that the surface of a piece of clad aluminum alloy not be scratched?
Definition
 The pure aluminum used for the cladding is noncorrosive, but the aluminum alloy below the cladding is susceptible to corrosion. If the cladding is scratched through, corrosion could form.
Term
 16.5 What determines the size of tip that is to be used when gas welding steel?
Definition
 The thickness of the material being welded. The size of the tip orifice determines the amount of flame produced, and thus the amount of heat that is put into the metal.
Term
 17.5 How is the welding flux removed from a piece of aluminum that has been gas welded?
Definition
 It should be removed by scrubbing it with hot water and a bristle brush.
Term
 18.5 What must be done to a welded joint if it must be rewelded?
Definition
 All traces of the old weld must be removed so the new weld will penetrate the base metal.
Term
 19.5 What kind of measuring instrument is used to measure the runout of an aircraft engine crankshaft?
Definition
 A dial indicator.
Term
 20.5 What measuring instruments are used to measure the fit between a rocker arm shaft and its bushing?
Definition
 The outside diameter of the shaft is measured with a micrometer caliper. The inside of the bushing is measured with a telescoping gauge and the same micrometer caliper.
Term
 21.5 What is the smallest size cable that is allowed to be used in the primary control system of an aircraft?
Definition
 1/8-inch diameter.
Term
 22.5 What type of control cable must be used when pulleys are used to change the direction of cable travel?
Definition
 Extra-flexible cable (7 ¥ 19).
Term
 23.5 Explain the way a piece of aluminum alloy is solution heat-treated.
Definition
 The aluminum is heated in an oven to the proper temperature for a specified time; then it is removed and quenched in water.
Term
 24.5 What is meant by precipitation heat treatment of a piece of aluminum alloy?
Definition
 After a piece of aluminum has been solution heat-treated, it is held at a specified elevated temperature for a period of time. Precipitation heat-treating is also called artificial aging.
Term
 25.5 How does filiform corrosion usually appear on an aircraft structure?
Definition
 As thread-like lines of puffiness under a film of polyurethane or other dense finish system topcoats.
Term
 1.6 What is the proper way to extinguish an induction system fire that occurs when starting a reciprocating engine?
Definition
 Keep the engine running and blow the fire out. If this does not work, use a CO2 fire extinguisher directed into the carburetor air inlet.
Term
 2.6 What type of fire extinguisher is best suited for extinguishing an induction fire in a reciprocating engine?
Definition
 Carbon dioxide.
Term
 3.6 What must be done if a hung start occurs when starting a turbojet engine?
Definition
 Terminate the starting operation and find the reason the engine would not accelerate as it should.
Term
 4.6 What is meant by a liquid lock in the cylinder of an aircraft engine, and how is one cleared?
Definition
 Oil accumulates in the cylinders below the center line of the engine and prevents the piston moving to the top of its stroke. To clear a liquid lock, remove one of the spark plugs and turn the engine crankshaft until all of the oil is forced out of the cylinder.
Term
 5.6 What special precautions should be taken when towing an aircraft that is equipped with a steerable nosewheel?
Definition
 Be sure that the nosewheel does not try to turn past its stops. Some aircraft must have the torsion links on the nosewheel strut disconnected when they are being towed.
Term
 6.6 When starting an aircraft engine that is equipped with a float carburetor, in what position should the carburetor heat control be placed?
Definition
 In the "Cold" position.
Term
 7.6 How far ahead of an idling turbojet engine does the danger area extend?
Definition
 25 feet.
Term
 8.6 Why is it important that turbine fuel not be mixed with aviation gasoline that is used in an aircraft reciprocating engine?
Definition
 The turbine engine fuel will cause the engine to detonate.
Term
 9.6 What grade of aviation gasoline is dyed blue?
Definition
Term
 10.6 What damage is likely to occur if an aircraft reciprocating engine that is designed to use 100-octane fuel is operated with 80-octane fuel?
Definition
 Detonation will occur, which will cause such things as bent connecting rods, burned pistons and cracked cylinder heads.
Term
 11.6 What is meant by detonation in an aircraft reciprocating engine?
Definition
 Detonation is an uncontrolled burning of the fuel in the cylinder of an engine. It is an explosion, rather than a smooth burning.
Term
 12.6 What is the danger of using a fuel that vaporizes too readily?
Definition
 Vapor lock can occur in the fuel lines. This will shut off the flow of fuel to the engine.
Term
 13.6 What type of fuel is Jet-A fuel?
Definition
 A fuel with a heavy kerosine base, a flash point of 110 through 150°F, a freezing point of -40°F, and a heat energy content of 18,600 Btu/pound.
Term
 14.6 What is the significance of the two numbers, 100/130, in the dual rating of aviation gasoline?
Definition
 The first number is the octane rating or performance number of the fuel when operating with a lean mixture, and the last number is the octane rating or performance number when operating with a rich mixture.
Term
 15.6 What are two functions of tetraethyl lead that is added to aviation gasoline?
Definition
 It increases the critical pressure and temperature of the fuel, and it acts as a lubricant for the valves.
Term
 16.6 What information must be located near the fuel tank filler opening in an aircraft powered by a reciprocating engine?
Definition
 The word "Avgas," and the minimum fuel grade.
Term
 17.6 What information must be located near the fuel tank filler opening in an aircraft powered by a turbine engine?
Definition
 The words "Jet Fuel," the permissible fuel designations, or references to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for permissible fuel designations. For pressure fueling systems, the maximum permissible fueling supply pressure and the maximum permissible defueling pressure.
Term
 18.6 What action should a mechanic take while taxiing an aircraft on a runway if the tower shines a flashing red light at him?
Definition
 Taxi the aircraft clear of the runway in use.
Term
 19.6 What publication lists the standard hand signals that are used for directing a taxiing aircraft?
Definition
 ASA-AMT-G, General textbook, page 629.
Term
 20.6 What should be done to a reciprocating engine fuel system if turbine fuel is inadvertently put into the tanks and the engine is run?
Definition
 The entire fuel system must be drained and flushed with gasoline, the engine given a compression check and all of the cylinders given a borescope inspection. The oil must be drained and all of the filters and strainers checked. After the aircraft is properly fueled, the engine must be given a proper run-up and check.
Term
 1.7 Where is filiform corrosion most likely to occur on an aircraft?
Definition
 Under a dense coating of topcoat enamel such as polyurethane. Filiform corrosion is caused by improperly cured primer.
Term
 2.7 Where is fretting corrosion most likely to occur on an aircraft?
Definition
 In a location where there is a slight amount of relative movement between two components, and no way for the corrosive residue to be removed as it forms.
Term
 3.7 Where is intergranular corrosion most likely to occur on an aircraft?
Definition
 Along the grain boundaries of aluminum alloys that have been improperly heat-treated. Extruded aluminum alloy is susceptible to intergranular corrosion.
Term
 4.7 Where is dissimilar metal corrosion most likely to occur on an aircraft?
Definition
 Anywhere different types of metal come in contact with each other, especially where moisture is present.
Term
 5.7 Where is stress corrosion most likely to occur on an aircraft?
Definition
 In any metal component that is continually under a tensile stress. The metal around holes in castings that are fitted with pressed-in bushings are susceptible to stress corrosion.
Term
 6.7 What must be done to a piece of aluminum alloy to remove surface corrosion and to treat the metal to prevent further corrosion?
Definition
 Remove the corrosion residue with a bristle brush or a nylon scrubber. Neutralize the surface with chromic acid or with some type of conversion coating. Protect the surface from further corrosion with a coat of paint.
Term
 7.7 What is used to keep corrosion from forming on structural aluminum alloy?
Definition
 An oxide coating or aluminum cladding.
Term
 8.7 How may rust be removed from a highly stressed metal part?
Definition
 By glass bead blasting, by careful polishing with mild abrasive paper or by using fine buffing compound on a cloth buffing wheel.
Term
 9.7 What tools are proper for removing corrosion from aluminum alloy?
Definition
 Aluminum wool or aluminum wire brushes. Severe corrosion can be removed with a rotary file.
Term
 10.7 What is used to clean transparent plastic windshields and windows of an aircraft?
Definition
 Mild soap and plenty of clean water.
Term
 11.7 What is used to neutralize the electrolyte from a lead-acid battery that has been spilled on an aircraft structure?
Definition
 A solution of bicarbonate of soda and water.
Term
 12.7 What is used to neutralize the electrolyte from a nickel-cadmium battery that has been spilled on an aircraft structure?
Definition
 A solution of boric acid and water, or vinegar.
Term
 13.7 What solvent is recommended for removing grease from aircraft fabric prior to doping it?
Definition
 Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) or lacquer thinner.
Term
 14.7 What can be used to repair the anodized surface of an aluminum alloy part?
Definition
 A chemical conversion coating such as Alodine.
Term
 15.7 What type of device is used to remove surface corrosion from a piece of magnesium alloy?
Definition
 A stiff hog-bristle brush.
Term
 16.7 How is the inside of structural steel tubing protected from corrosion?
Definition
 The tubing is filled with hot linseed oil and then drained.
Term
 1.8 What formula is used to find the area of a circle?
Definition
 A = 0.7854 x D2 or A = pi x R2
Term
 2.8 What formula is used to find the volume of a cylinder?
Definition
 V = 0.7854 x D2 x H
Term
 3.8 What formula is used to find the area of a rectangle?
Definition
 A = L x W
Term
 4.8 What formula is used to find the volume of a rectangular solid?
Definition
 V = L x W x H
Term
 5.8 What formula is used to find the area of a triangle?
Definition
 A = (B x H) ÷ 2
Term
 6.8 What is the significance of the constant ?
Definition
 Pi is the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of any circle.
Term
 7.8 What is the value of the constant ?
Definition
 Pi = 3.1416
Term
 8.8 What is meant by the root of a number?
Definition
 The root of a number is one of two or more equal numbers that, when multiplied together, will produce the number.
Term
 9.8 What is the eighth power of 2?
Definition
 256
Term
 10.8 What is the square root of 4,096?
Definition
 64
Term
 11.8 What is meant by a negative number?
Definition
 A number less than 0, or a number that is preceded by a minus sign.
Term
 12.8 What is meant by a ratio and how is a ratio expressed?
Definition
 A fraction that compares one number to another; for example, 6:2 is a ratio.
Term
 1.9 What records must be made of a 100-hour inspection before the aircraft is approved for return to service?
Definition
 An entry must be made in the aircraft maintenance records that describes the type of inspection, the extent of the inspection, the date of the inspection, the aircraft total time in service, and the signature and certificate number of the person approving or disapproving the aircraft for return to service.
Term
 2.9 What record must be made of the compliance of an Airworthiness Directive?
Definition
 An entry must be made in the aircraft maintenance records stating that the AD has been complied with. This entry must include the AD number and revision date, the date of compliance, the aircraft total time in service, the method of compliance and whether or not this is a recurring AD. If it is a recurring AD, the time of next compliance must be noted.
Term
 3.9 What record must be made of a major repair to an aircraft structure?
Definition
 An FAA Form 337 must be completed for the repair, and a record must be made in the aircraft maintenance records referencing the Form 337 by its date.
Term
 4.9 How many copies must be made of a Form 337 after a major airframe repair? What is the disposition of each of the copies?
Definition
 At least two copies must be made. The original signed form goes to the aircraft owner, and a copy goes to the FAA district office.
Term
 5.9 Who is authorized to perform a 100-hour inspection on an aircraft?
Definition
 A certificated mechanic who holds an Airframe and a Powerplant rating.
Term
 6.9 Who is authorized to perform an annual inspection on an aircraft?
Definition
 A certificated A&P mechanic who holds an Inspection Authorization.
Term
 7.9 For how long must the record of a 100-hour inspection be kept?
Definition
 For one year, or until the next 100-hour inspection is completed.
Term
 8.9 Can a certificated A&P mechanic supervise an unlicensed person as the unlicensed person performs a 100-hour inspection on an aircraft?
Definition
 No, a certificated mechanic must personally perform the inspection.
Term
 9.9 Where can you find a list of the basic items that must be inspected on a 100-hour inspection?
Definition
 In 14 CFR Part 43, Appendix D.
Term
 10.9 Where can you find an example of the correct type of write-up to use for recording a 100-hour inspection in the aircraft maintenance records?
Definition
 In 14 CFR §43.11.
Term
 11.9 What is done with the aircraft maintenance records that include the current status of the applicable Airworthiness Directives when the aircraft is sold?
Definition
 These maintenance records must be transferred with the aircraft when it is sold.
Term
 12.9 What is meant by a progressive inspection?
Definition
 An inspection that is approved by the FAA Flight Standards District Office in which an aircraft is inspected according to an approved schedule. This allows the complete inspection to be conducted over a period of time without having to keep the aircraft out of service as long as would be necessary to perform the entire inspection at one time.
Term
 13.9 Who is authorized to rebuild an aircraft engine and issue a zero time maintenance record?
Definition
 Only the manufacturer of the engine or a repair station approved by the manufacturer.
Term
 14.9 What action must a mechanic take if the aircraft being inspecting on a 100-hour inspection fails because of an unairworthy component?
Definition
 The aircraft maintenance records must indicate that the aircraft has been inspected and found to be in an unairworthy condition because of certain discrepancies. A signed and dated list of these discrepancies must be given to the owner or lessee of the aircraft.
Term
 1.10 What is meant by matter?
Definition
 Anything that occupies space and has weight.
Term
 2.10 What are the three basic physical states in which matter can exist?
Definition
 Solid, liquid and gas.
Term
 3.10 What is meant by pressure?
Definition
 Force that acts on a unit of area.
Term
 4.10 What is the standard sea level atmospheric pressure expressed in inches of mercury, and in pounds per square inches?
Definition
 29.92 inches of mercury and 14.69 pounds per square inch.
Term
 5.10 What characteristic of the atmosphere determines the speed of sound?
Definition
 Its temperature.
Term
 6.10 What is meant by the density of air?
Definition
 The weight of a given volume of air.
Term
 7.10 How much force is produced by 1,000 psi of hydraulic pressure acting on a piston whose area is 20 square inches?
Definition
 20,000 pounds.
Term
 8.10 What is meant by the fulcrum of a lever?
Definition
 The point about which the lever rotates.
Term
 9.10 Give an example of a first-class lever, a second-class lever and a third-class lever.
Definition
 First-class: A screwdriver being used to pry the lid from a can of paint Second-class: A wheelbarrow Third-class: A hydraulically retracted landing gear
Term
 10.10 How many cubic inches of fluid is forced out of a cylinder by a piston whose area is 20 square inches when the piston moves five inches?
Definition
 100 cubic inches.
Term
 11.10 What is meant by a temperature of absolute zero?
Definition
 The temperature at which all molecular movement stops.
Term
 12.10 What is the Celsius equivalent of a temperature of 50°F?
Definition
 10°C.
Term
 13.10 What formula is used to find the amount of work done when an object is moved across a floor?
Definition
 Work = Force x Distance.
Term
 14.10 What determines the mechanical advantage of an arrangement of ropes and pulleys?
Definition
 The number of ropes that support the weight.
Term
 15.10 What determines the mechanical advantage of a gear train?
Definition
 The ratio between the number of teeth on the drive gear and the number of teeth on the driven gear.
Term
 16.10 What will happen to the pressure of a confined gas if the temperature of the gas is increased?
Definition
 The pressure will increase.
Term
 17.10 What are three methods of heat transfer?
Definition
Term
 18.10 What is meant by the absolute humidity of the atmosphere?
Definition
 The actual amount of water that is in a given volume of air.
Term
 1.11 What is an FAA Advisory Circular?
Definition
 A publication put out by the FAA for information, rather than for regulation
Term
 2.11 What is a Federal Aviation Regulation?
Definition
 The actual law regarding the conduct of aviation activities.
Term
 3.11 Where can a mechanic find specific instructions for the maintenance of a particular aircraft?
Definition
 In the FAA-approved maintenance manual produced by the manufacturer of the aircraft.
Term
 4.11 What is the purpose of an Airworthiness Directive?
Definition
 An Airworthiness Directive is issued by the FAA to warn the owner or operator of an aircraft of a condition that has been discovered that renders the aircraft, engine or component unairworthy.
Term
 5.11 How does a mechanic record the compliance with an Airworthiness Directive?
Definition
 An entry must be made in the aircraft maintenance records stating that the AD has been complied with. This entry must include the AD number and revision date, the date of compliance, the aircraft total time in service, the method of compliance and whether or not this is a recurring AD. If it is a recurring AD, the time of next compliance must be noted.
Term
 6.11 Where can a mechanic find a list of major alterations that have been made and approved for FAA certificated aircraft?
Definition
 In the Summary of Supplemental Type Certificates.
Term
 7.11 In what part of the regulations can a mechanic find the airworthiness standards for normal, utility and acrobatic category aircraft?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 23.
Term
 8.11 In what part of the regulations can a mechanic find the airworthiness standards for transport category aircraft?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 25.
Term
 9.11 In what part of the regulations can a mechanic find the airworthiness standards for normal category rotorcraft?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 27.
Term
 10.11 In what part of the regulations can a mechanic find a list of items that must be inspected on an annual or 100-hour inspection?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 43, Appendix D.
Term
 11.11 In what information provided by the FAA can a mechanic find a list of the engines that are approved for a specific FAA certificated airplane?
Definition
 In the Type Certificate Data Sheets for the aircraft.
Term
 12.11 In what part of the regulations can a mechanic find the specifications for the identification numbers that must be displayed on an aircraft?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 45.
Term
 13.11 What type of information is issued by the manufacturer of an aircraft or engine that allows the mechanic to properly maintain the aircraft or engine?
Definition
 FAA-approved service manuals.
Term
 14.11 How does the manufacturer of an aircraft or engine keep the mechanics in the field aware of changes that affect the safety and performance of the aircraft or engines?
Definition
 By the issuance of service bulletins.
Term
 15.11 In what government publication can a mechanic find the category in which a particular aircraft is certificated?
Definition
 In the Type Certificate Data Sheets for the aircraft.
Term
 1.12 What part of the Federal Aviation Regulations gives the requirements for the issuance of a mechanic certificate?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 65.
Term
 2.12 What are the two ratings that can be issued to a mechanic certificate?
Definition
 Airframe and Powerplant.
Term
 3.12 For how long is a mechanic certificate valid?
Definition
 It is effective until it is surrendered or revoked.
Term
 4.12 What is the recency of experience requirement for keeping a mechanic certificate valid?
Definition
 The holder of the certificate must have used it technically or in a supervisory capacity for at least six months of the preceding 24 months.
Term
 5.12 For how long is a temporary mechanic certificate valid?
Definition
 For 120 days.
Term
 6.12 Is it legal for a certificated aircraft mechanic to make a minor repair to an aircraft instrument?
Definition
 No, not unless he is operating under the authority of a Certificated Repair Station approved for this operation.
Term
 7.12 Who is authorized to approve an aircraft for return to service after a major repair has been made to its basic structure?
Definition
 An A&P mechanic holding an Inspection Authorization.
Term
 8.12 Is it legal for a certificated powerplant mechanic to make a major repair to a propeller?
Definition
 No, not unless he is operating under the authority of a Certificated Repair Station approved for this operation.
Term
 9.12 In what part of the Federal Aviation Regulations can a mechanic find a list of operations that are considered to be major airframe repairs?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 43, Appendix A.
Term
 10.12 In what part of the Federal Aviation Regulations can a mechanic find a list of items that should be inspected on a 100-hour inspection?
Definition
 14 CFR Part 43, Appendix D.
Term
 11.12 Is it legal for a certificated mechanic to supervise an uncertificated person while the uncertificated person performs a 100-hour inspection on an FAA-certificated aircraft?
Definition
 No, only a certificated mechanic can perform a 100-hour inspection.
Term
 12.12 Who is authorized to conduct an annual inspection on an FAA certificated aircraft?
Definition
 An A&P mechanic who holds an Inspection Authorization.
Term
 13.12 Under what conditions can a mechanic with only a powerplant rating perform maintenance on the airframe of a FAA-certificated aircraft?
Definition
 He can perform maintenance (not the required inspections) under the supervision of a mechanic who holds an airframe rating.
Term
 14.12 Who is responsible for ensuring that all of the aircraft maintenance records are kept up to date?
Definition
 The registered owner or operator of the aircraft.
Term
 15.12 Who is authorized to perform the inspection on an altimeter that is required under 14 CFR §91.411?
Definition
 An FAA-certificated repair station approved for this particular function.
Term
 16.12 How soon must the holder of an FAA mechanic certificate notify the FAA of a permanent change in his address?
Definition
 Within 30 days of any permanent change in his address.
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