# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

A&P Mechanics General Oral Exam
2015, All oral questions General test guide
223
Aerospace Engineering
Not Applicable
03/04/2015

## Additional Aerospace Engineering Flashcards

Term
 1-1State the formula to calculate the area of a circle.
Definition
 Area = 3.14 x radius squared
Term
 1-2State the formula to calculate the area of a rectangle.
Definition
 Area = Length x Width
Term
 1-3State the formula to calculate the area of a triangle.
Definition
 Area = 1/2 x (Base x Height)
Term
 1-4State the formula to calculate the volume of a cylinder.
Definition
 Volume = 3.14 x radius squared x Height of the cylinder
Term
 1-5State the formula to calculate the volume of a rectangle.
Definition
 Volume = Length x Width x Height
Term
 1-6What is the numerical value for the mathematical constant pi?
Definition
 3.1416
Term
 1-7Define a negative number and how it is expressed.
Definition
 A negative number is a number less than zero, and is expressed by placing a negative sign in front of the number.
Term
 1-8Define ratio and describe how it is expressed.
Definition
 A ratio is the comparison of two numbers or quantities. Expressed 3 ways: Fraction, Colon (:) or the word "to".
Term
 1-9Define a proportion.
Definition
 A proportion is a statement of equality between two or more ratios.
Term
 1-10Define percentage.
Definition
 Percentage means "parts out of one hundred."
Term
 2-1Define tolerance as it relates to aircraft drawings.
Definition
 The allowable variation (+/-). + is Max. - is Min. The sum of the plus and minus figures is called tolerance.
Term
 2-2Define clearance as it relates to aircraft drawings.
Definition
 Dimensions for tolerance signify amount of clearance allowed between moving parts. Positive allowance given for a part that is to slide or revolve upon another part. Negative allowance is given for force fit.
Term
 2-3What information can you find on the title block of an aircraft drawing?
Definition
 1. Drawing number 2. Name of part or assembly 3. Scale to which it is drawn 4. Date 5. Name of the firm 6. Name of draftsmen, the checker, and the person approving drawing.
Term
 2-4Explain a dimension line and what it is used for.
Definition
 Light, solid line broken at midpoint for insertion of measurement indications. Usually drawn outside of the outline of the object and between views if more than one view is shown.
Term
 3-1Name the six simple machines.
Definition
 Lever, Pulley, Wheel and Axle, Inclined Plane, Screw, & Gear.
Term
 3-2Explain resonance and how it can be hazardous to aircraft.
Definition
 Resonance occurs when object is vibrated at its natural frequency, at which time it becomes relatively self-sustaining. Sustained vibration can cause damage to object and surrounding objects as it transfers energy to other objects.
Term
 3-3Explain the relationship between the density of fluid and the specific gravity.
Definition
 Specific gravity is equal to the density of a substance divided by the density of water. Water has specific gravity of 1. Higher the density = higher the specific gravity.
Term
 3-4Explain how specific gravity of fluids can be applied to aircraft maintenance.
Definition
 Specific gravity is used to measure density changes. Hydrometer = density of fluids to determine weight (i.e. electrolyte or fuel.)
Term
 3-5If the temp. of a confined gas in increased, what effect does it have on its pressure?
Definition
 Increasing the temp. of confined gas increases pressure.
Term
 3-6If the volume of a gas is increased, what effect does this have on the temp. if the pressure remains the same?
Definition
 Volume of gas increased while maintaing the same pressure will lower temp.
Term
 3-7If the pressure of a confined gas is increased, what effect will this have on temp.?
Definition
 Increase pressure of confined gas = temp. increase.
Term
 3-8Hydraulic and pneumatic systems both use fluids, what is the difference between these fluids?
Definition
 Hydraulic fluid = Liquid = Incompressible. Pneumatic fluid = Air = Compressible.
Term
 3-9Define density.
Definition
 Density is measurement of object's mass. Expressed in weight per unit volume, such as pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter.
Term
 3-10Define density altitude.
Definition
 Air density given as a height above mean sea level.
Term
 3-11Name the various methods of heat transfer.
Definition
Term
 3-12What are the effects of thermal expansion on aircraft?
Definition
 Metal expands when heated causing excessive stresses on structures, powerplants and other components. Must be taken into consideration when designing airframes.
Term
 3-13Name the four forces acting on an aircraft in flight.
Definition
 Lift, Weight, Thrust, Drag.
Term
 3-14Explain the four forces acting on an aircraft in flight.
Definition
 Lift = upward force created by wing.Weight = pull of gravity on airplane's mass.Thrust = force created by airplane propeller or turbine engineDrag = friction cause by air flowing around plane.
Term
 3-15Name the three axes of rotation.
Definition
 Longitudinal, Lateral, Vertical.
Term
 3-16Where do the three axes intersect on the airplane?
Definition
 At the Center of Gravity (CG).
Term
 3-17Name the three flt controls that provide movement around each of the three axes and which axis they rotate upon.
Definition
 Ailerons = rotation about longitudinal axis.Elevator = rotation about lateral axis.Rudder = rotation about vertical axis.
Term
 3-18Define angle of attack.
Definition
 Angle between the chord line and the relative wind.
Term
 3-19Explain a stall on an aircraft in flight.
Definition
 Stall occurs when the angle of attack becomes too great, the airflow separates from the wing area, and lift is destroyed.
Term
 3-20Explain the relationship between force, area and pressure.
Definition
 Force applied to object is the product of pressure exerted on object multiplied by the area of pressure that is being applied to object (Force = Pressure x Area).
Term
 3-21Name the five forces or stresses that affect aircraft structures.
Definition
 Tension, Compression, Torsion, Bending, Shear
Term
 3-22Explain the force of tension.
Definition
 Tension = force trying to pull object apart.
Term
 3-23Explain the force of compression.
Definition
 Compression = force trying to crush object.
Term
 3-24Explain the force of torsion.
Definition
 Torsion = stress experience by object when twisted.
Term
 3-25Explain the force of bending.
Definition
 Bending = Compression + Tension at the same time. Compression is experienced on the inside of a bend. Tension is experienced on the outside of a bend.
Term
 3-26Explain the force of shear.
Definition
 Shear = stress experienced by object when force tries to cut or slice object.
Term
 3-27Name the two forms of energy and explain each.
Definition
 1. Potential energy = energy at rest (stored energy.)2. Kinetic energy = energy in motion.
Term
 4-1What is the purpose of weighing an aircraft?
Definition
 To determine the aircraft's empty weight and center of gravity for safe and efficient operations.
Term
 4-2.1Define the term Datum as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 Also known as the 'reference datum,' the Datum is the imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes.
Term
 4-2.2Define the term Arm as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 Horizontal distance from reference datum to center of gravity (CG).
Term
 4-2.3Define the term Moment as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 The product (result) of the Weight of an item multiplied by its Arm. (Weight x Arm = Moment)
Term
 4-2.4Define the term Tare as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 Items (chocks) used to hold aircraft on scale as it is weighed.
Term
 4-2.5Define the term Ballast as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 A weight that is installed or carried on an aircraft to move the center of gravity (CG) within its allowable limits. (think counterweight)
Term
 4-2.6Define 'residual fuel/oil' as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 Fuel that remains in sumps and lines when system is drained from inlet to fuel metering system, with aircraft in level flight attitude. *Weight of residual fuel is part of the empty weight of aircraft.*
Term
 4-2.7Define 'moment index' as it applies to weight and balance.
Definition
 The moment (weight x arm) divided by a reduction factor such as 100 or 1,000 to make the number smaller and reduce the chance of mathematical errors in computing the center of gravity.
Term
 4-3Explain when a moment is positive or negative.
Definition
 The algebriac sign of the moment is determined based on the location of the datum.
Term
 4-4When does an aircraft have to be weighed?
Definition
 When required by a maintenance program, when there is a change in equipment or aircraft is modified, or if the weight and balance paperwork is lost, destroyed or otherwise inaccurate.
Term
 4-5What are the two primary reasons for an aircraft to be weighed and balanced?
Definition
 Safety and Efficiency.
Term
 4-6When preparing to weigh an aircraft, where will you find the "leveling means" for the aircraft?
Definition
 In the Type Certificate Data Sheet for aircraft.
Term
 4-7How is tare weight dealt with once the aircraft is weighed.
Definition
 Subtract Tare weight from total weight to find correct weight.
Term
 4-8Define MAC and when it is used.
Definition
 Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) is an imaginary airfoil with the same characteristics of an actual airfoil. *The center of gravity (CG) on large acft is given in a percent of MAC.*
Term
 4-9 How are the aircraft's 'center of gravity' and the 'center of lift' related?
Definition
 The most efficient condition for an acft is to have a point where balances fall at the aircraft's center of lift. *Little or no flt control force needed to keep acft straight and level.* In terms of stability and safety, this condition may not be desirable.
Term
 4-10What is an adverse loaded CG check?
Definition
 Weight and Balance check to determine that no condition of legal loading can move the acft's CG outside of its allowable limits.
Term
 5-1What does the code "1100" tell us about aluminum?
Definition
 Code means 99% pure aluminum.
Term
 5-2How can you tell if a piece of metal is titanium or stainless steel?
Definition
 1. Spark test: titanium gives off brilliant white trace ending in white burst.2. Moisten titanium and use it to draw a line on glass. Will leave dark line if titanium.
Term
 5-3Explain case hardening.
Definition
 Heat treating operation. Surface of metal is changed chemically by introducing high carbide or nitride content which produces a hard, wear-resistant surface (case) over a strong core.
Term
 5-4Name the three methods of case hardening.
Definition
 Carburizing, Cyaniding, Nitriding.
Term
 5-5Explain the special characteristics of Alclad 2024-T4.
Definition
 Alclad and Pureclad is sheet metal that consists of aluminum alloy core coated with a layer of pure aluminum to a depth of approx. 5 1/2 percent on each side.
Term
 5-6Explain the construction of a honeycomb composite material.
Definition
 Honeycomb core is made from paper, Nomex, carbon, fiberglass, or metal. Core is sandwiched together between a high-denstiy laminate or solid face and back, then held together with adhesive.
Term
 5-7Compare tensile strength of composite structures to steel or aluminum structures.
Definition
 Composite aircraft structures have a tensile strength 4 to 6 times that of steel or aluminum.
Term
 5-8Explain the term "ice box rivets."
Definition
 2017-T and 2024-T rivets that are annealed and must be kept refrigerated until driven. Refrigeration delays hardening of rivets.
Term
 5-9When are "ice box rivets" used?
Definition
 2017-T and 2024-T are used in aluminum alloy structures where more strength is needed than what regular rivets can provide.
Term
 5-10Name the two types of heat treatments applicable to aluminum alloys.
Definition
 1. Solution heat treatment2. Precipitation heat treatment
Term
 5-11Artificial aging is another term for what type of heat treatment?
Definition
 Precipitation heat treatment.
Term
 5-12Why are cork gaskets the best choice for mating rough surfaces?
Definition
 Cork conforms best to uneven or varying space.
Term
 5-13Name the classes of bolt threads and explain differences between them.
Definition
 Class of thread indicates tolerance allowed in manufacturing. Class 1=loose fitClass 2=free fitClass 3=medium fitClass 4=close fit
Term
 5-14When are self locking nuts used on aircraft?
Definition
 Used to provide tight connections in areas of severe vibration. They will not shake loose.
Term
 5-15 What are AN960 and AN970 washers used for?
Definition
 These plain washers are used to form a smooth surface & act as shim to obtain correct grip length. They prevent damage to surface and protect structure from 'dissimilar metals corrosion.'
Term
 5-16Explain the correct way to line up a hole for use with a cotter pin.
Definition
 If cotter pin does not align within torque range, change washers & try realigning again.
Term
 5-17Define grip length or range.
Definition
 Length of the unthreaded portion of bolt shank.
Term
 5-18Explain how to determine correct grip length or range when selecting a bolt.
Definition
 Grip length or grip range should equal material thickness. Use hook scale to determine material thickness. Select correct grip range by referring to manufacturer charts.
Term
 5-19Explain the standard positioning for acft bolt when installed and why.
Definition
 Unless otherwise specified, install bolts with bolt head facing up or head facing forward. This tends to prevent the bolt from slipping out if the nut is lost.
Term
 5-20Explain the use of helicoils.
Definition
 Used to restore damaged threads.
Term
 5-21What specialty fastener is best suited to secure an acft cowling?
Definition
 Camloc.
Term
 5-22Explain the primary benefit of an MS33737 instrument nut.
Definition
 Reduces magnetic influences in cockpit.
Term
 5-23Explain the industry standard for securing fasteners with safety wire.
Definition
 Arrange wire so that if the bolt or screw begins to loosen, the force applied to the wire is in the tightening position.
Term
 6-1List three methods of cleaning aircraft exterior.
Definition
 Wet wash, Dry wash, Polishing.
Term
 6-2What does wet washing NOT remove?
Definition
 Corrosion and oxide films.
Term
 6-3When would a dry wash be accomplished and what does it remove?
Definition
 When use of liquids is not desirable or practical. Removes airport film, dust, and small accumulations of dirt and soil.
Term
 6-4When would you polish an acft and what are the benefits?
Definition
 Usually performed after surfaces have been cleaned. Restores luster to surfaces and removes oxidation and corrosion.
Term
 6-5Why is keeping interior clean just as important as keeping exterior clean?
Definition
 Corrosion inside a structure can often be greater because it is difficult to reach some areas. Dropped nuts, bolts, bits or wire or other metal objects combined with moisture and dissimilar metal contact can cause electrolytic corrosion.
Term
 6-6What affect does accumulation of dirt and grease have on an air-cooled engine?
Definition
 Accumulation of dirt and grease provides insulation against cooling effect of air flowing over it. Can also cover up cracks and other defects.
Term
 6-7Define metal corrosion.
Definition
 Deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical attack that can occur internally & externally. Changes smooth surface, weakens interior, damages and/or loosens adjacent parts.
Term
 6-8Name the two general classifications of corrosion.
Definition
 1. Direct chemical attack2. Electrochemical attack
Term
 6-9Name the five various forms of corrosion.
Definition
 Surface, Dissimilar metal, Intergranular, Stress, Fretting.
Term
 6-10Define intergranular corrosion.
Definition
 Common result of changes that can occur during manufacturer's heating and cooling process. Attacks along grain of an alloy.
Term
 6-11Define fretting corrosion.
Definition
 Two mating surfaces, normally at rest with respect to one another, are subject to slight relative motion.
Term
 6-12Define stress corrosion.
Definition
 Occurs by combined effect of: 1) sustained tensile stresses; 2) a corrosive environment.
Term
 6-13What form of corrosion is exfoliation and how is its appearance described?
Definition
 Very severe. Causes lifting or flaking or metal surface due to delamitation of grain boundaries. Delam of grain boundaries is caused by corrosion forcing material to move away from body (i.e. part, object). Layered appearance.
Term
 6-14What is ferrous oxide?
Definition
 Rust. Common type of surface corrosion. Result of atmospheric oxidation on the surface of steel.
Term
 6-15Explain the corrosion process.
Definition
 Involves two simultaneous changes. 1) Metal that is oxidized (loss of electron) suffers anodic change. 2) Corrosive agent reduced (gain of electron) undergoes cathodic change.
Term
 6-16Name the areas of an aircraft that are prone to corrosion. (Most COMMON areas.)
Definition
 Exhaust trail areas, battery compartments and battery vents; Float plane bilge areas; Wheel well and landing gear areas; Water entrapment, engine frontal areas and cooling air vents; Wing flap & spoiler recesses; external skin, helicopter rotor heads and gearboxes; control cables.
Term
 6-17Name the preventative maint. steps taken to reduce effects caused by corrosion.
Definition
 1. Adequate cleaning 2. Thorough periodic lube 3. Detailed inspection 4. Prompt treatment of corrosion and paint touchup 5. Drain holes clear of obstructions 6. Daily drain of fuel cell sumps 7. Daily wipe down of exposed, critical areas 8. Sealing from weather 9. Max use of protective covers on parked acft.
Term
 6-18Name the various components for a complete corrosion treatment (removal) program.
Definition
 1. Cleaning/Stripping 2. Removing as much corrosion as possible 3. Neutralizing residual corrosion material 4. Restoring protective surface films 5. Applying temporary or permanent coatings or paint finishes.
Term
 7-1In aviation, what are the three most common types of metals used for rigid fuel line fabrication?
Definition
 1. Aluminum alloy2. Steel3. Titanium
Term
 7-2Which metal is used for low to medium pressure hydraulic & pneumatic systems?
Definition
 Aluminum alloy tubing.
Term
 7-3Which metals are best suited for high-pressure hydraulic systems?
Definition
 Corrosion resistant steel and titanium.
Term
 7-4How is metal tubing fluid lines sized?
Definition
 Metal tubing is sized outside diameter. Measured fractionally in sixteenths of an inch.
Term
 7-5Name at least three synthetic materials commonly used in the manufacture of flexible hose.
Definition
 Buna-N, neoprene, butyl, ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) and Teflonâ„¢. While Teflonâ„¢ is in a category of its own, the others are synthetic rubber.
Term
 7-6Which synthetic rubber hosing is best to use for fuel?
Definition
 Buna-N
Term
 7-7Which synthetic rubber hosing is best for use with phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid (Skydrol)?
Definition
 Butyl
Term
 7-8How do you determine the correct sizing for flexible hose?
Definition
 Dash number stenciled on side of hose, indicating the size of the tubing with which it is compatible. Correct fit when dash number on hose matches with dash number on tubing.
Term
 7-9What is the color of an AN steel flared-tube fitting?
Definition
 All AN steel fittings are colored black.
Term
 7-10What is an advantage of a double flare on aluminum tubing?
Definition
 A double flare is smoother and more concentric than a single flare and therefore seals better. Also more resistant to the shearing effect of torque.
Term
 7-11How much slack must flexible lines have when installed?
Definition
 5-8%
Term
 7-12Why must a pressurized flexible hose be installed with slack?
Definition
 Flexible hose contracts in length and expands in diameter when pressurized.
Term
 7-13Why should you never over tighten a flare less tube fitting?
Definition
 Flareless tube fittings should never be overtightened as this may cause permanent damage to the sleeve and nut.
Term
 8-1Describe the characteristics of a good weld.
Definition
 Good weld is uniform in width with the ripples even and well feathered into the base metal, which shows no burn due to overheating.
Term
 8-2When inspecting a fillet weld, how much penetration is required of the base metal?
Definition
 25-50% of the thickness of the base metal.
Term
 8-3What two types of indicating mediums are available for magnetic particle inspection?
Definition
 Wet and dry process materials.
Term
 8-4Magnetic particle inspections are primarily used for detecting what types of defects?
Definition
 Defects located on or near the surface.
Term
 8-5Liquid penetrant inspection methods can be used on what types of materials?
Definition
 Ferrous and nonferrous metals and nonporous plastics.
Term
 8-6What tools are needed to aid in visual inspections?
Definition
 A bright light, a magnifying glass, and a mirror (when required).
Term
 8-7Tap testing, also referred to as ring test or coin test, is widely used to detect what types of defects and on what type of material?
Definition
 It detects the presence of delamination or debunking in composite material.
Term
 9-1What is a dial indicator and what is it used to measure?
Definition
 Type of micrometer that measures variations in a surface by using an accurately machined probe mechanically linked to a circular hand whose movement indicated thousandths of an inch.
Term
 9-2The vernier micrometer caliper can be used to measure objects to what increment?
Definition
 The vernier micrometer caliper can measure to the one ten-thosandths (0.0001) of an inch.
Term
 9-3What measuring tool can be used to measure the inside of a hole?
Definition
 Inside calipers can be used to measure the diameters of holes.
Term
 9-4What measuring tool can be used to measure the depth of blind holes?
Definition
 The slide caliper, when fitted with a depth gauge.
Term
 10-1Define capacitance.
Definition
 Capacitance is the property of an electric conductor that characterizes its ability to store an electric charge.
Term
 10-2Name the two groups in which a capacitor can be classified.
Definition
 Fixed and variable.
Term
 10-3What is the basic unit of capacitance?
Definition
Term
 10-4Define inductance.
Definition
 The ability of a coil or conductor to appose a change in current flow.
Term
 10-5What is the basic unit of inductance?
Definition
 The henry.
Term
 10-6Explain the relationship between mechanical and electrical power.
Definition
 Mechanical power is measured in units of horsepower and electrical power is measured in watts. One horsepower = 746 watts.
Term
 10-7In an AC circuit, does the capacitor cause the current to lead or lag the voltage?
Definition
 The current leads the applied voltage.
Term
 10-8In an AC circuit, does the inductor cause the current to lead or lag the voltage?
Definition
 The current lags behind the applied voltage.
Term
 10-9How is induction produced?
Definition
 Induction or induced current is produced when a conductor is cut or crossed by the changing lines of a magnetic flux. This transfer of energy is produced without the aid of electrical connections.
Term
 10-10Name the basic unit of measurement for power.
Definition
 The watt.
Term
 10-11State the formula for power.
Definition
 Power = Voltage times Current (P=E x I)
Term
 10-12State the three ways components can be arranged in a DC circuit.
Definition
 In series, in parallel, and in series-parallel.
Term
 10-13State Ohm's Law in algebraic form and give the unit of measurement for each element.
Definition
 E = I x R, where E is voltage and measured in volts, I is current and measured in amps, and R is resistance and measured in ohms.
Term
 10-14Name the five sources of electrical energy.
Definition
 1. Pressure 4. Light2. Chemical 5. Magnetism3. Thermal
Term
 10-15Explain Kirchoff's voltage law.
Definition
 The sum of all the voltage drops in a circuit must equal the sum of the voltage source(s) in the circuit.
Term
 10-16When measuring voltage, should a voltmeter be placed in series or in parallel with the power source?
Definition
 When voltmeters are used, they are connected in parallel with a circuit.
Term
 10-17When measuring current, should an ammeter be placed in series or in parallel with power source?
Definition
 An ammeter should be placed in series with the element through which the current flow is to be measured.
Term
 10-18State the ingredients that make up the electrolyte in a nickel-cadmium battery.
Definition
 The electrolyte is a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in distilled water.
Term
 10-19What instrument is used when measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte in a lead-acid battery?
Definition
 A hydrometer.
Term
 10-20If the electrolyte of a lead acid battery is spilled, what should be used to neutralize the acid?
Definition
 Wash the area thoroughly with water and then apply sodium bicarbonate.
Term
 10-21If the electrolyte of a nickel-cadmium battery is spilled, what should be used to neutralize the acid?
Definition
 Neutralize with vinegar or dilute boric acid solution (one pound per gallon of water); then rinse with clear water.
Term
 10-22What temperature range of the electrolyte in a lead-acid battery does not require a correction when measuring the specific gravity?
Definition
 The hydrometer reading does not require a temperature correction if the electrolyte temperature is 70Âº F-80ÂºF.
Term
 11-1For aircraft with a steerable nose gear, what should be done before towing the aircraft?
Definition
 Set locking scissors to full swivel. Persons in acft should not attempt to steer or turn nose wheel when tow bar is attached to acft. Reset locking device after tow bar has been removed from the acft.
Term
 11-2Where should team members be stationed when towing an aircraft?
Definition
 Person in charge should assign team personnel as wing walkers. Wing walkers stationed at wingtips to look out for obstructions in acft path. Tail walker assigned when sharp turns or backing are required. Qual. person in pilot's seat to observe and operates brakes as required. Person to watch and maintain hydr. syst. pressure.
Term
 11-3How fast can an aircraft be towed?
Definition
 Towing speed should not exceed that of walking team members.
Term
 11-4Describe the brake usage rules when towing aircraft.
Definition
 Before acft can be towed, qual. person is stationed in cockpit to operate brakes in case of tow bar failure. When moving acft, do not start & stop suddenly. Acft brakes must never be applied during towing except in emergencies or on command by one of the team members.
Term
 11-5What should be done prior to towing an aircraft on or across an active runway?
Definition
 Prior to towing across runways or taxiways, contact airport control tower on appropriate frequency for clearance to proceed.
Term
 11-6Describe the safety precautions that should be observed while starting and running and engine.
Definition
 Ensure no property damage or personal injury will occur from propeller blast or jet exhaust. Starting procedures require "fireguard" to be stationed & equipped with fire extinguisher. Check in front of jet engine inlet. Follow manufacturer's checklists for start & shutdown procedures.
Term
 11-7Describe the safety precautions to be followed when hand cracking an engine.
Definition
 Reference: H-8083-30-ATB Page 11-14
Term
 11-8Who is authorized to taxi aircraft?
Definition
 Only rated pilots and qual. A&P technicians are authorized to start, run up and taxi acft.
Term
 11-9If radio communication is unavailable, how does the AMT communicate with ATC when taxiing an aircraft?
Definition
 Using standard taxi light signals.
Term
 11-10Explain the term "hung start".
Definition
 "Hung" or "false" start occurs when engine starts normally but RPM remains at low value rather than increasing to normal starting RPM. Often result of insufficient power to starter or starter cutting off before engine starts self-accelerating. Engine should be shut down.
Term
 11-11Explain the term "hot start".
Definition
 "Hot" start occurs when engine starts but exhaust gas temperature exceeds specified limits. Caused by excessively rich fuel/air mixture entering combustion chamber. Fuel to engine should be shut off immediately.
Term
 11-12Explain why an AMT should be familiar with standard light signals.
Definition
 Light signals are used if radio communications are unavailable to control and expedite taxiing of acft.
Term
 11-13Where can you find a listing of standard aircraft taxiing signals?
Definition
 FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).
Term
 11-14Describe the procedures for extinguishing an engine induction fire on a reciprocating engine.
Definition
 Continue cranking to start engine to blow out fire. If fire continues, discontinue start attempt. Fire guard should extinguish fire.
Term
 11-15List at least three possible hazards associated with the ground operations of aircraft.
Definition
 1. Fire-during engine start. 2. Turning props or rotor blades 3. Exhaust or prop blast. 4. Jet engine inlet. 5. Foreign object debris. 6. Other acft, vehicles, personnel and other obstacles. 7. High noise level, slips, trips, falls ,etc...
Term
 11-16Explain the possible results of mixing jet fuel with AVGAS in a reciprocating engine.
Definition
 Adding jet fuel to AVGAS will cause a decrease in power developed by the engine and could cause damage to engine (through detonation) and engine failure leading to loss of life.
Term
 11-17Can AVGAS be used in a turbine engine? Explain why or why not.
Definition
 Adding AVGAS to jet fuel, although allowed, can cause lead deposits in the turbine engine and can lead to reduced service life.
Term
 11-18List at least three precautions that should be observed when fueling an aircraft.
Definition
 1. Do not fuel an acft when there is lightning within 5 miles.2. Ensure that all electrical systems and electronic devices, including radar, are turned off.3. Ensure that the proper type and grade of fuel is used. Do not mix AVGAS and JET fuel.For more, Reference: H-8083-30-ATB Page 11-29-30
Term
 11-19Describe the general safety practices and precautions that should be observed when servicing aircraft oxygen systems.
Definition
 Consult maintenance manual for proper type of equipment to be used. Two personnel required for gaseous oxygen. One person stationed at servicing equip. control valves. One person stationed to observe pressure of acft system. Continuous, clear communication between personnel. Do not service oxygen while fueling, defueling or other maintenance. Servicing accomplished outside hangars.
Term
 11-20What do the numbers represent in AVGAS grade classifications?
Definition
 Two number indicated the lean mixture and rich mixture octane rating numbers of the specific fuel. 80/87 gasoline: 80=lean mixture rating; 87=rich mixture rating.
Term
 11-21How can the various AVGAS grades be identified?
Definition
 AVGAS can be identified by its color. The color of the fuel should match the color band on the piping and fueling equipment.
Term
 11-22What is JET A fuel made of?
Definition
 Kerosene.
Term
 11-23Name three types of contamination that can be found in aviation fuel.
Definition
 The types of contamination found in aviation fuel include water, solids, and microbial growths.
Term
 11-24Describe how each of the three types of contamination can affect the fuel system.
Definition
 Water is a hazard when temp. lowers, forming ice crystals which clog filters, etc. Solids=insoluble in fuel. Common solid contaminants=rust, dirt, sand, gasket material, lint, & fragments of towels. Particles as small as one twentieth the size of a human hair can block or damage fuel system components. Effects of microorganisms: 1) Form sludge/slime, 2) Emulsification of fuel, and 3) Corrosion. Danger to wet wing tank.
Term
 11-25How can the presence of water be determined in a fuel sample?
Definition
 Entrained water=suspended water droplets. Gives fuel cloudy look (sometimes not visible to the eye). Entrained water will settle out in time.
Term
 11-26What benefits are achieved when tetraethyl lead (TEL) is added to aviation fuel?
Definition
 Adding TEL to aviation fuel increases the critical press. and temp. of fuel. Also lubricates engine valves.
Term
 11-27Is it acceptable to use automotive fuel in aircraft engines?
Definition
 No. The lower grades of auto fuel are not held within the tolerances required for aviation gas and usually contain a conservable amount of cracked gas, which may form excessive gum deposits. For these reasons, auto fuels should not be used in acft engines, especially air-cooled engines operating at cylinder temps. Always check Supplemental Type Certs for mods.
Term
 11-28Name the four main classifications of fires.
Definition
 A, B, C & D
Term
 11-29Give an example of a combustible material associated with each of the four main classifications of fire.
Definition
 Class A fires occur in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, upholstery materials, etc. Class B fires occur in flammable petroleum products of other flammable or combustible liquids, greases, solvents, paints, etc. Class C fires occur involve energized electrical wiring & equip.
Term
 11-30Describe how to use a fire extinguisher.
Definition
 Pull the pin, stand back 8 feet and aim at the base of the fire. Squeeze lever and sweep side to side. PASS=Pin, Aim nozzle, Squeeze lever, Sweep.
Term
 11-31Describe how to identify the correct fire extinguisher for each fire classification.
Definition
 Fire extinguishers marked with same classification system as fires. Use corresponding class. extinguisher with fire class.
Term
 12-1How is a major structural repair documented?
Definition
 FAA form 337 then in maintenance records referencing form 337 by its date.
Term
 12-2Where can a mechanic find a listing of items considered to be a major airframe repair?
Definition
 FAR 43 Appendix A provides a list of items that are considered major repairs.
Term
 12-3What info is required to be entered into the maint. record upon completion of maint. or alteration and approving for return to service?
Definition
 Description (or reference to acceptable data) of work performed, date of completion, name of person performing work (if someone else), signature, certificate number and kind of certificate held.
Term
 12-4Upon completion of a 100-hour inspection, what is required of the mechanic holding an airframe and powerplant rating?
Definition
 Make the proper entries in the aircraft's maintenance record.
Term
 12-5Who is responsible for making the entry in the maint. records after an annual, 100-hour, or progressive inspection?
Definition
 The person approving or disapproving the item for return to service must document the completion of the inspection and note any discrepancies in the maintenance record.
Term
 12-6During an annual inspection, defects are found; what is required of the inspector?
Definition
 The inspector must make a maintenance entry for the completion of the inspection, noting the discrepancies and give the owner or lessee a signed and dated list of those discrepancies.
Term
 12-7Can an owner fly an aircraft that was not approved for return to service after an annual inspection to another maint. base for the completion of the repairs? Explain.
Definition
 Yes but owner must obtain a special flight permit from the FAA to be authorized to ferry the acft to another maint. base.
Term
 12-8Can an aircraft fly with inoperative instruments or equipment?
Definition
 Yes, under FAR 91.213 an acft can fly with inoperative instruments or equipment if it meets this regulation in regards to a minimum equip. list and has the approved documentation/authorization.
Term
 12-9Define "overhaul" as it relates to aviation maint.
Definition
 An article is considered overhauled when it has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired as necessary, reassembled and tested per approved standards and technical data.
Term
 12-10Define "rebuilt" as it relates to aviation maint.
Definition
 An article is considered rebuilt when it has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired as necessary, reassembled and tested to the same tolerance & limits as a new item and conforms to the new part tolerances and limits or to approved oversized or undersized dimensions.
Term
 12-11Explain the phrase "time in service" as it relates to aviation maint.
Definition
 Time in service, with respect to maintenance time records, means the time from the moment an aircraft leaves the surface of the earth until it touches it at the next point of landing.
Term
 12-12Define "maintenance" as it relates to aviation.
Definition
 The inspection, overhaul, repair, preservation, and the replacement of parts, but excludes preventative maint.
Term
 12-13Define "preventative maintenance".
Definition
 "Simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations."
Term
 12-14Define a major alteration.
Definition
 Alteration that is not listed in the acft, acft engine, or prop specification & might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness or is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.
Term
 12-15Define major repair.
Definition
 A major repair is defined as a repair that if improperly done, might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness or is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.
Term
 12-16Provide at least three examples of what information can be found in a Type Certificate Data Sheet.
Definition
 FAA-H-8083-30 ATB page 8-5
Term
 12-17Where would a mechanic find info on how to level an aircraft?
Definition
 In the Type Certificate Data Sheet.
Term
 12-18Who is responsible for determining that materials used in aircraft maint. and repair are of the proper type and conform to the appropriate standards?
Definition
 The installing person or agency.
Term
 12-19Where can you find a checklist to complete a 100-hour or annual inspection?
Definition
 FAR 43, Appendix D.
Term
 12-20What is required of the person who complies with an Airworthiness Directive?
Definition
 Make an entry in the maint. record of that equipment.
Term
 12-21What is the purpose of Airworthiness Directives?
Definition
 FAA publication that notifies aircraft owners and other interested persons of unsafe conditions and prescribes the condition under which the product may continue to be operated.
Term
 12-22When is a mechanic responsible for checking AD compliance?
Definition
 When performing an inspection required under part 91, 125, or 135.
Term
 12-23Name the three categories of airworthiness directives and explain each category.
Definition
 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) followed by final rule, Final Rule Request for Comment or "Immediately Adopted Rule," and Emergency Ads. Reference: AC 39-7D.
Term
 12-24In what formats can individuals receive airworthiness directives?
Definition
 May be retrieved and emailed from government website: www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html. FAA.gov also has copies of ADs. Emergency Ads are mailed and/or faxed to owners/operators.
Term
 12-25How are airworthiness directives identified?
Definition
 ADs have a three-part number designator. The first part is the calendar year of issuance. The second part is the biweekly period of the year when the number assigned. The third part is issued sequentially within each biweekly period.
Term
 12-26 Aviation Maintenance Alerts (formerly General Aviation Airworthiness Alerts) provide what types of info?
Definition
 Acft problems and suggested corrective actions.
Term
 12-27The Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Specification No. 100 was established for what reason?
Definition
 ATA Spec 100, also referred to as ATA codes, provides a standard for the presentation of technical data in maint. manuals, by dividing the acft systems in the various chapters.
Term
 13-1When qualifying for a mechanic certificate with both an airframe and powerplant ratings, how many months of practical experience are needed to meet eligibility requirements?
Definition
 30 months experience is needed to be eligible for application for a mechanic certificate with an airframe and powerplant ratings.
Term
 13-2What certificate and ratings must a mechanic hold to be authorized to conduct an annual inspection on an aircraft and return it to service?
Definition
 A mechanic certificate with both an airframe and powerplant rating and an Inspection Authorization.
Term
 13-3 What certificate and ratings must a mechanic hold to be authorized to conduct a 100-hour inspection on an aircraft and return it to service?
Definition
 A mechanic certificate with both an airframe and powerplant rating.
Term
 13-4If you should relocate, how long do you have to notify the FAA of your permanent change of address and how may you notify the FAA?
Definition
 Address changes must be made within 30 days either in writing or online.
Term
 13-5How old must you be before you are eligible for a mechanic's certificate?
Definition
 You must be at least 18 years old.
Term
 13-6 How many months experience must you have within any 24-month period to exercise mechanics privelages.
Definition
 Six months.
Term
 14-1What does each letter in the acronym PEAR represent?
Definition
 People, Environment, Actions, Resources.
Term
 14-2Define the PEAR model.
Definition
 This model is used to describe the human factors and the relationships between the various aspects of human interaction within our world.
Term
 14-3Define Human error.
Definition
 Human error is defined as a human action with unintended consequences.
Term
 14-4Provide two examples of safety nets that can help to reduce or eliminate fatigue related accidents or incidents.
Definition
 Eat healthy, exercise regularly, maintain a regular sleep schedule, be aware of fatigue symptoms and watch for them in yourself and others, have somone check your work or ask to be reassigned if you are very fatigued.
Term
 14-5 Provide two examples of safety nets that can help to reduce or eliminate accidents or incidents caused by complacency.
Definition
 Always expect to find something wrong, never sign off a task that you did not do or that you failed to check, always double check your work.
Term
 14-6Provide two examples of safety nets that can help reduce or eliminate stress-related accidents or incidents.
Definition
 Take time off, take a short break, or talk to a trusted colleague, friend or advisor. Eat healthy, exercise, and get plenty of rest.
Term
 14-7Provide two examples of safety nets that can help to reduce or eliminate accidents or incidents caused by distractions.
Definition
 When returning to a job, go back through the steps to make sure where you left off, use a detailed check, mark where you leave off, use lock wire or torque striping to confirm the torque has been accomplished, or leave a connector plainly disconnected.
Term
 14-8Provide two examples of safety nets that can help reduce or eliminate accidents or incidents caused by pressure.
Definition
 Determine if the pressure is self-induced and take steps to relieve this internal pressure. Communicate talk with someone. Ask for help. Maintain your personal integrity and be assertive in your communication.
Term
 14-9Provide two examples of safety nets that can help to reduce or eliminate accidents or incidents related to norms in the workplace.
Definition
 Everyone should follow the same standard and it should be documented. Ask questions. Just becuase it is 'normal,' does not mean it is correct. The right way might be the hard way.
Term
 14-10Provide two behaviors that can improve communication.
Definition
 Porperly use logbooks and worksheets to communicate work accomplishments. Conduct shift turn-over meetings and discuss work to be accomplished. Never assume that work has been completed. Ask questions, confirm instructions have been received.
Term
 14-11Name two behaviors that can be used to increase your awareness of your surroundings.
Definition
 Be aware of what work is being done in your area, check to see if what you are working on conflicts with an existing mod or repair, coordinate with co-workers so everyone knows what the others are working on and where.
Term
 14-12Name two behaviors that you can personally take to improve your assertiveness.
Definition
 Provide clear feedback when a risk or danger is perceived. Never compromise you standards. Allow co-workers to give their opinions and always accept contructive criticism.
Term
 14-13Give two actions that you can take to help improve knowledge.
Definition
 Only fix parts that you are trained to fix. Ensure that the maintenance manual you are using is up to date. If you do not know how to fix something, ask for help from someone who does.
Term
 14-14Give two actions that you can take to be an engaged team member.
Definition
 Be sure that lines of communication are open between personnel. Discuss specific duties when jobs require more than one person to eliminate any questions. Always look out for co-workers with safety in mind.
Term
 14-15Give two actions that you can take to make sure you have the resources you need in order to complete your assigned work tasks.
Definition
 Maintain a sufficient supply of parts and order any anticipated parts before they are required. Never replace a part with one that is not compatible for the sake of getting the job done. Presreve all equipment through proper maintenance.
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