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643 Education Theories
Enter the exciting world of learning theories!

Additional Education Flashcards




(M. Knowles)

Adult learners are self-directed, take responsibility for decisions

Required: Explanative, experiential, problem-solving, immediate-use learning; tasks rather than memorization.

Focus on process, not content (case studies, role-playing, simulations)

Instructors are facilitators, not lecturers; must allow for different backgrounds and skill levels of students

All hail experience (including mistakes)! Solve problems rather than dwell on content!
Adult learning theory
(K.P. Cross)

The CAL (Characteristics of Adults as Learners) model.

An attempt to integrate andragogy (Knowles), experiential learning (Rogers) and lifespan psychology.

Personal characteristics:
1 Aging: (Decreased sensory-motor abilities and increased intelligence)
2 Life phases
3 Developmental stages (both refer to things such as marriage, job, retirement)

Situational characteristics:
1 Part-time v Full-time
2 Voluntary v Compulsory

Capitalize on experience of participants while adapting to aging limitations; challenge them to move to advanced stages of personal development and allow choice in availability and organization of program
Experiential learning theory
(C. Rogers)

Two types of learning:
Cognitive (meaningless)--academic
Experiential (significant)--applied, addresses needs and wants of learner

Experiential learning:
1 personal involvement, self-initiated, evaluated by learner and has pervasive effect(s).
2 equivalent to personal change and growth

Belief is that all students have propensity to learn, must be facilitated by instructor by:
1 creating positive climate for learning, 2 clarifying purpose, 3 organizing and making resources available, 4 balancing intellectual and emotional components, 5 sharing feelings/thoughts but not dominating conversation

Learning facilitated when: 1 students participate and have control/direction in learning process, 2 direct confrontation with learning, 3 self-evaluation is min method of assessment (also, love and learning and openness to change!)

Influenced by psychotherapy, humanism

Principles: learning must be relevant, external threats must be abated, self-initiation!
Information processing theory
(G. Miller)

Chunking: short-term memory can only hold 5-9 chunks o' info
TOTE: 'Test-Operate-Test-Exit' if a tested goal is not achieved, operation performed to achieve it; cycle repeated until goal is achieved or abandoned

Short-term memory limited to only 7 chunks o' info
Planning (in TOTE units) is fundamental cognitive process
Behavior is hierarchically organized
Multiple intelligences
(H. Gardner)

There are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses to some degree such as linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal (insight), interpersonal (social skills).

Learning should focus on particular intelligences of each person i.e. play to your strengths.

Cultural context is important; cultures emphasize/cultivate certain intelligences over others

1 Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences
2 Activities should appeal to many kinds of intelligence
3 Assessments should measure multiple forms of intelligence
Script theory
(R. Schank)

Focuses on structure of knowledge in context of understanding language

Scripts=generalized episodes (plus unique events and specific memories) which allow individuals to make inferences to understand information

Script theory: Basis for dynamic model of memory, used to explain language processing and higher thinking skills

Conceptualization: an act or doing something to an object
Conceptualizations can be analyzed as small number of primitive acts
Memory is episodic, organized in scripts
Scripts allow people to make inferences and understand discourse
Higher level expectations created by goals/plans
Situated learning
(J. Lave)

Learning is function of its situation (context, culture, particular activity)

Social interaction is crucial component

Individual beginners move from periphery to center: becoming more active and expert

Cognitive apprenticeship: students acquire tools, in and out of school, advanced through social interaction in authentic activity.

(authentic) active perception over (inauthentic) concepts

1) authentic context
2) social collaboration
Social Learning
(A. Bandura)

Observing and modeling behavior/attitudes/emotionality of others

Continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences

1) Attention
2) Retention
3) Motor Reproduction
4) Motivation

Ex: Commercials "Drinking this will make you popular!" etc.

Individuals organize and rehearse behavior(s) before enacting them; individuals are more likely to adopt behavior if it results in the outcomes valued, if model has admired status and if behavior has functional value
Attribution theory
(B. Weiner)

The way individuals interpret events influences their thoughts and behavior

People try to determine motivations/attribute causes to behavior

1) Person perceives/observes behavior
2) Person believes behavior to be intentional, deliberate
3) Person attribute behavior to internal or external causes

Achievement attributed to: ability, effort, task difficulty, luck
Causal dimensions of behavior: locus of control (internal v external), stability (whether changes over time), controllability (can causes be controlled?)
Cognitive dissonance theory
(L. Festinger)

Individuals seek consistency among beliefs/opinions
When there is an inconsistency, something must be eliminated to lessen dissonance such as: attitude will change to accommodate behavior

Strength of dissonance based on: number of dissonant beliefs and importance of belief

To eliminate dissonance:
1) reduce importance of beliefs
2) add more consonant beliefs
3) change dissonant beliefs so no longer inconsistent

Greatest dissonance created when two alternatives are equally attractive
Constructivist theory
(J. Bruner)

Learning is an active process--new ideas based on past/current knowledge

Cognitive structure provides meaning and organization to experiences

Instructor should encourage students to discover principles by themselves. Active dialogue/socratic learning.

1) Readiness: experience and context that make student willing/able to learn
2) Spiral organization: instruction structured so it can be grasped easily by students
3) Going beyond information given: information designed to facilitate extrapolation
(F. Marton & N. Entwistle)

The experience of learning from the student's perspective, phenomenological.

Data collected from learners themselves.

Students differ in how they relate to information they read (deep v. surface) and how they trie to organize their learning (holistic v. atomistic)

Research focused on learner, listening to experience of learner must occur in naturalistic setting involving actual content.
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