Shared Flashcard Set


intro business management
Undergraduate 2

Additional Management Flashcards




What is social loafing? ( p. 177)
-Social loafing- behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
What are the factors that encourage people to withhold effort in teams? (p. 177)
- The presence of someone with expertise
- The presentation of a compelling argument
- Lacking confidence in one’s ability to contribute
- An unimportant or meaningless decision
- A dysfunctional decision-making climate
What’s a continuous reinforcement schedule? (p. 249)
Continuous reinforcement schedule- a schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of behavior
What’s an intermittent reinforcement schedule? (p. 249)
- Intermittent reinforcement schedule- a schedule in which consequences are delivered after a specified or average time has elapsed or after a specified or average number of behaviors has occurred
What’s a fixed interval reinforcement schedule? variable interval reinforcement schedule? (p. 249)
- Fixed interval reinforcement schedule- an intermittent schedule in which consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed time has elapsed
- Variable interval reinforcement schedule- an intermittent schedule in which the time between a behavior and the following consequences varies around a specific average
. What’s a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule? variable ratio reinforcement schedule? (p. 249)
- Fixed ratio reinforcement schedule- an intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors
- Variable ration reinforcement schedule- an intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a different number of behaviors, sometimes more and sometimes less, that vary around a specified average number of behaviors
What is transactional leadership? (p. 272)
- Transactional leadership- leadership based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance
What is charismatic leadership?
- Charismatic leadership- the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers
What’s the difference between ethical and unethical charismatic’s?
- Exercising power:
o Ethical- power is used to serve others
o Unethical- power is used to dominate or manipulate others for personal gain
- Creating the vision:
o Ethical- followers help develop the vision
o Unethical- vision comes solely from leader and serves his or her personal agenda
- Communicating with followers:
o Ethical- two-way communication. Seek out view-points on critical issues
o Unethical- one-way communication. Not open to input and suggestions from others
- Accepting feedback:
o Ethical- open to feedback. Willing to learn from criticism
o Unethical- inflated ego thrives on attention and admiration of sycophants, Avoid or punish candid feedback
- Stimulating feedback:
o Ethical- want followers to think and question status quo as well as leader’s views
o Unethical- don’t want followers to think. Want uncritical, intellectually unquestioning acceptance of leader’s ideas
- Developing followers:
o Ethical- focus on developing people with whom they interact. Express confidence in them and share recognition with others
o Unethical- insensitive and unresponsive to follower’s needs and aspirations
- Living by moral standards:
o Ethical- follow self-guided principles that may go against popular opinion. Have three virtues: courage, a sense of fairness or justice, and integrity
o Unethical- follow standards only if they satisfy immediate self-interests. Manipulate impressions so that others think they are “doing the right thing.” Use communication skills to manipulate others to support their personal agenda
What is transformational leadership?
- Transformational leadership- leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group’s purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interests for the good of the group
What are the four components of transformational leadership?
- Charismatic leadership or idealized influence- leaders act as role models for their followers
- Inspirational motivation- leaders motivate and inspire followers by providing meaning and challenging work.
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