Shared Flashcard Set


intro business management
Undergraduate 2

Additional Management Flashcards




What is punishment? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?
- When the behavior occurs, it’s followed by a negative consequence
- Should decrease frequency of behavior
- The threat of punishment could be considered negative reinforcement
** If it doesn’t have reinforcement in title, it decreases it! **
What are the problems with punishment?
- Only tells you what you have done wrong, have to coach them on what good behavior is
- Does not tell you what you need to do to get the job right
- Replaces bad behavior with another bad behavior if there is no coaching
- Makes them feel either sad or mad, either case productivity goes down
- Will decrease the frequency of the behavior only when the punisher is around
- When cat is away, mouse will play-- when the punishment is not around, the frequency of the bad behavior will increase
What is the leave-alone zap trap?
- When everything is going well, manager leaves you alone (extinction) and does nothing for good performance
What does the manager do when you perform well? What does the manager do when you perform poorly or make a mistake?
- When you perform poorly, they punish you
- Manager only associated with negative consequences
- You begin to engage in CYA behavior = place blame on somebody else or cover it up (Cover Your Ass)…exculpatory behavior
- High performance initially goes up but over time the high performance will drop off
- What consequence does a leave-alone zap manager not use?- positive enforcement
What kind of work climate is created by the leave-alone zap manager?
- One based upon fear and avoidance
How do you overcome the leave-alone zap trap as a manager?
- Manage by walking around and catch them doing something right
- Give them positive consequences/rewards
How many positive consequences to every negative consequence does it take for your subordinate not to perceive you as a punisher, in general?
4:1 -- 4 (+’s) to every (-)
- Depends on the situation…could be too many or too little
What is the jelly bean motivation trap? How does it affect motivation & performance? How do you overcome it? Rewards are only meaningful when they are tied to what?
- Pass out rewards without regard to performance (Everyone gets the same rewards with regards to what you do)
- Motivation and performance goes down over time
- Mostly effects high performers and they will be most pissed off (slacker is happy)
- Reawrds are only meaningful when they are tied to performance; reward people based on how well they do!
Test question: When a manager rewards on assumed needs the employee could perceive the reward as
Positive reinforcement
All of the above
What is the rewarding on assumed needs trap? What do you turn a reward into when you fall into this trap? How do you avoid this trap?
- Since you like it you think they will like it assuming that a perceived good consequence for you will be good for others
- Turn a reward into a positive reinforcement, extinction, and punishment (see below)` You assume what’s a positive consequence (reward) for you is a positive
-Platinum rule: get to know your employees don’t assume what motivates them
What is the concern of equity theory?
- Fairness in the workplace
- What people perceive to be fair at work and how they react to being treated unfairly
What are the 4 basic postulates or tenants of equity theory? (very important on exam)
- People strive to create and maintain a state of equity
- When people perceive inequity, it creates tension that the individual is motivated to reduce or eliminate
- The greater the magnitude of the perceived inequity, the greater the motivation to reduce or eliminate it
- Individuals more readily perceive an unfavorable inequity than a favorable one
What is the difference between equity & equality?
- Equity, the more you do, the more you should get; looks at inputs to determine outcomes
- Equality gets the same outcomes, regardless of inputs

-Equity: Op/Ip= Oo/Io p= person o= comparison other
-Equality: Op=Oo (example on the exam:)
$100/ 10 units $100/5 units equality with inequity
$100/ 5 units $100/5 units both (equal amounts of work)
$100/5 units $20/1 unit equity but inequality

*Jell bean motivator focus is equality but they create inequity
* we want equity not equality in the work place*
What is more important in equity theory: perception or reality?
- Perception (because fair in reality may not be perceived as fair by all)
45. What is favorable inequity? Unfavorable inequity?
- Favorable - being over-rewarded for the work you do
- Unfavorable - being under-rewarded for the work you do (people more readily recognize)

- Unfairness that benefits you- favorable inequity (overpaid for the job they do)
-$400/10> $100/5units Op/Ip> Oo/Io
- Unfairness that harms you- unfavorable inequity (underpaid for the job they do)
-$100/5 units= 20$ < $400/10 units=40$ Op/Ip< Oo/Io
n the jelly bean motivation trap, high performers receive unfavorable inequity and low performers receive favorable inequity
When faced with unfavorable inequity, what are the different ways one can use to restore equity?
- Reduce the quantity/quality of work
- Greater absenteeism and turnover
- Ask the boss for a raise
- Increased theft
- Change their thinking about the situation (perception)
Think differently about what the other person does
Think differently about what you do
Compare yourself to another person
- for your side:
-decrease inputs
-increase the outcomes
-for their side: (opposites)
-increase inputs
-decrease the outcomes
When faced with unfavorable inequity, how do people normally restore equity? (behaviorally or cognitively)
- Not through changing their perceptions, but by changing behaviors
When faced with favorable inequity, how do people normally restore equity? (behaviorally or cognitively)
- Change your mind about the situation (cognitively) or perception
-Overpaying does not motivate people to work harder only makes them think they are better then they really are.
What is an Entitled? Equity Sensitive? Benevolent? What does each type perceive as fair?
- Entitleds- takers (take more and give less); same pay your getting and be able to do less work (their mind its fair)
- Equity sensitives- give and take equally; only want what they work for no more no less
- Benevolents- givers (give more and take less); do more than they are paid to do (same pay as you but more work than you)
-give them the same rewards
-Entitleds- (underpaid- pissed) unfavorable
-Least satisfied and least productive
-Tie for least likely to quit their job (bc you can over pay them)
-Equity senstitives- perceives fairness
-Benevolents-(overpaid) favorable inequity
-Tie for least likely to quit their job
*Percieved equity is most important here
*As a company you want benevolent and don’t want entitleds*
Which of the 3 types listed in question #49 is most prevalent? Least prevalent?
- Most = equity sensitives followed closely by entitleds
- Least = benevolents
What is leadership?
-The art of influencing of individuals and groups to willingly peruse organizational goals
What is the difference between management & leadership?
- Leadership is just 1 function of management
(Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading, Controlling…POSLC)
- Just because you’re a great leader, doesn’t mean you’re a great manager
What is the difference between leadership & supervision? (4-5 ? on exam)
- When you lead an employee, the employee complies with your request because they want to comply.
- When you supervise an employee, the employee complies with your request because they have to comply
- Voluntary compliance (leadership) vs. forced compliance (supervision)
- Supervision = Do it because I’m the boss (position)
- Leadership = Do it because I set a good example and you trust me (personal)
What is reward power?
) Reward – if you comply with my requests I will give you a reward you desire; like positive reinforcement
Coercive power?
Coercive – using threats of punishment or actual punishment to gain compliance; like negative reinforcement
KITA- Kick them in the ass
Legitimate power?
Legitimate – do it because I’m the boss!
* Reward, Coercive, and Legitimate go together- SUPERVISION! *
Expert power?
Expert – people comply with your requests because you have knowledge, skills, and ability that they do not possess; they look to you for guidance; you have the expertise!
Referent power?
e) Referent – you set a good example; people comply with your requests because they admire you, trust you; lead by example!
* most powerful but it takes the longest time to develop*
* expert and referent go together - LEADERSHIP (personal power)*
What power bases does a leader use? Supervisor use?
- Leader = primarily expert and referent
- Supervisor = legitimate, reward, coercive
Which of the power bases best exemplifies supervision? Leadership?
- Supervision = legitimate (easier)
- Leadership = referent (harder)
What is the relationship between the 5 power bases & productivity?
- Reward – has no affect on productivity, but if used properly will increase productivity, improperly is will decrease productivity (test question)
- Coercive – the more you use it, the lower productivity goes because it’s a negative (-)
- Expert – productivity increases when you use them (+)
- Legitimate – has no affect on productivity (supervision)
-Defiant obedience- tells you something that is wrong and tell you to do it because they say to. You do it and you do it well even tho it is wrong (could be negative)
- Referent – productivity increases when you use them (+) (productive example of leadership)
What are theory x & theory y? How do they affect leadership?
- Assumptions that managers make about people at work and can affect leadership behavior (self-fulfilling prophecy)
- Theory X > autocratic leadership style (negative attitude)
- Theory Y > democratic leadership style because you share more power with their employees giving them more freedom and autonomy (enrich Jobs) because they trust people (positive attitude).
What are the beliefs that underlie theory x?
- Theory X: (autocratic)
-- Negative (pick the positive ones for assumptions that don’t fit)
-- Lazy, ship less, no good; you can’t trust them, you can’t love them
-- You will supervise!
-- Specialized job
(psycological, safety, and social needs)
What are the beliefs that underlie theory y?
- Theory Y: (democratic)
-- Positive
-- People will practice self-control, a need to be creative, a need for achievement on the job
-- You will lead!
-- Enriched job
(esteem needs and self actualization)
Exam: which one is not a theory x statement?
know + or -
Who treats people like in-roup- (y) out-group (x)
What is meant by the phrase “these theories (x & y) can become self-fulfilling prophecies”? (READ)
- a.k.a Pygmalion Effect – a Greek sculptor sculptured perfect woman and prayed to the Greek god’s to bring her to life and they granted him his wish
- Where you bring your beliefs to life {I think you’re lazy, I treat you like you’re lazy…you become lazy! It’s a created effect!}
What is the basic idea behind trait theory of leadership?
- Looking for those characteristics of traits that separate leaders from followers; could be physiological or psychological
What is the great man trait theory? Learned traits theory?
- In the beginning was Great Man Trait (born to be great leaders) then was replaced by Learned Traits (leaders can be can learn the traits of great leadership and this came about in 1890 because the Psychology field was created;
Nature vs. Nurture!
In general, what has the research revealed about traits separating leaders from followers?
- Leaders tend to be slightly taller, slightly more intelligent, slightly more visible, & slightly more socially adapt than followers
- Doesn't automatically going to tell you who will lead and who will follow
What trait does reliably tell you if someone will be a leader or not?
- Behavioral Flexibility = being able to change your behavior to fit the situation; as the group’s goals, wants, and needs change, how you lead changes!
- These people are all three types of leaders depending upon the situation!
[human chameleons – change to fit the situation]
-Democratic, laissez- faire- autocratic? depends on the situation
Why was the trait in #65 (behavioral flexibility) not identified until recently?
- We look for consistency in behavior across situations when we say that we have a trait; so if shy, always shy so must be a shy person
- Behavioral flexibility says as a situation changes your behavior changes so they saw inconsistency and that it couldn’t be a trait because traits are consistent
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