# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

2017 Semantics and Pragmatics - Final
Semantics and Pragmatics final exam for Dr. Kroeger
178
Other
10/07/2017

Term
 Basic Concepts in Set Theory
Definition
 1. INTERSECTION2. UNION3. COMPLEMENT4. SUBSET
Term
 INTERSECTION(Basic Concepts in Set Theory)
Definition
 x ∊ (A∩B) ↔ ((x∊A) ˄ (x∊B))x is a member of the union of A and B iff x is a member of A and x is a member of B.
Term
 UNION(Basic Concepts in Set Theory)
Definition
 x ∊ (A∪B) ↔ ((x∊A) ˅ (x∊B))x is a member of the union of A and B iff x is a member of A or x is a member of B
Term
 COMPLEMENT(Basic Concepts in Set Theory)
Definition
 x ∊ (A–B) ↔ ((x∊A) ˄ (x∉B))x is a member of the complement of A and B iff x is a member of A and x is NOT a member of B
Term
 SUBSET(Basic Concepts in Set Theory)
Definition
 (A ⊆ B) ↔ ((x∊A) → (x∊B))A is a subset of B iff for all individuals x, x is a member of A and x is a member of B.
Term
 Basic concepts in denotational semantics
Definition
 1. Name2. One-Argument Predicate3. Two-Argument Predicate4. State of affairs5. Truth relative to a "model"
Term
 NAMEWhat does a name typically denote?(Basic concepts in denotational semantics)
Definition
 A name typically denotes an individual.(e.g. Abraham Lincoln; Jesse Ventura; etc.)
Term
 ONE-ARGUMENT PREDICATE:What does a one-argument predicate typically denote?(Basic concepts in denotational semantics)
Definition
 A one-argument predicate (e.g., happy, sing, dog, etc.) typically denotes a set of individuals.
Term
 TWO-ARGUMENT PREDICATE:What does a two-argument predicate typically denote?(Basic concepts in denotational semantics)
Definition
 A two-argument predicate (e.g., admire, follow, etc.) typically denotes a set of ordered pairs of individuals.
Term
 STATE OF AFFAIRSWhen is a proposition judged to be true?(Basic concepts in denotational semantics)
Definition
 Propositions are judged to be true if they describe a state of affairs that corresponds with the actual state of the world. Truth must be evaluated at a specific time, in a specific situation or universe of discourse.
Term
 TRUTH RELATIVE TO A "MODEL"What does a model of a situation need to provide?(Basic concepts in denotational semantics)
Definition
 In order to evaluate the truth of a proposition, we need a MODEL of the situation which provides the following information:i) U, the set of individuals in the universe of discourse,ii) a listing of the DENOTATIONS for each of the basic expressions ("lexical items") in the corpus of expressions that will be analyzed.
Term
 BASIC RULES FOR EVALUATING TRUTH VALUES
Definition
 (We use the symbol ⟦x⟧ to mean ‘the semantic value (= denotation) of x’.)a. if a refers to an entity and P is a one-place predicate, then ⟦P(c)⟧ = ‘true’ iff ⟦c⟧ ∊ ⟦P⟧b. if a, β refer to entities and P is a two-place predicate,then ⟦P(c,β)⟧ = ‘true’ iff ⟦⟧ ∊ ⟦P⟧
Term
 Universal Quantifier: All men are mortal (standard logical form)
Definition
 ∀x[MAN(x) → MORTAL(x)]
Term
 Existential Quantifier: Some unicorn(s) obey Lancelot.(standard logical form)
Definition
 ∃x[UNICORN(x) ˄ OBEY(x, l)]
Term
 Negative Existential: No man is an island (standard logical form)
Definition
 ¬∃x[MAN(x) ˄ ISLAND(x)]
Term
 Every loyal Roman loves Caesar.(restricted quantifier notation)
Definition
 [every x: ROMAN(x) ˄ LOYAL(x)] LOVE(x, c)RESTRICTION = “ROMAN (x) ˄ LOYAL(x)”; SCOPE = “LOVE(x, c)”
Term
 Most Romans who love Rome love Caesar.(restricted quantifier notation)
Definition
 [most x: ROMAN(x) ˄ LOVE(x, r)] LOVE(x, c)
Term
 Caesar loves all five Romans who love him.(restricted quantifier notation)
Definition
 [all five x: ROMAN(x) ˄ LOVE(x, c)] LOVE(c, x)
Term
 Define the quantifiers:All students are bright
Definition
 ⟦STUDENT⟧ ⊆ ⟦BRIGHT⟧[all x: P(x)] Q(x) ↔ ⟦P⟧ ⊆ ⟦Q⟧
Term
 Define the quantifiers:No students are bright
Definition
 ⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧ = Ø[no x: P(x)] Q(x) ↔ ⟦P⟧ ∩ ⟦Q⟧ = Ø
Term
 Define the quantifiers:Some students are bright
Definition
 |⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧| ≥ 2
Term
 Define the quantifiers:A/Some student is bright
Definition
 ⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧ ≠ Ø; or:|⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧| ≥ 1
Term
 Define the quantifiers:Most students are bright
Definition
 |⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧| > |⟦STUDENT⟧ – ⟦BRIGHT⟧|or: |⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧| > ½ |⟦STUDENT⟧|[most x: P(x)] Q(x) ↔ | ⟦P⟧ ∩ ⟦Q⟧ | > ½|⟦P⟧|
Term
 Define the quantifiers:Few students are bright
Definition
 |⟦STUDENT⟧ ∩ ⟦BRIGHT⟧| < some contextually defined number
Term
 Define the quantifiers:Both students are bright
Definition
 ⟦STUDENT⟧ ⊆ ⟦BRIGHT⟧ ∧ |⟦STUDENT⟧| = 2[four x: P(x)] Q(x) ↔ | ⟦P⟧ ∩ ⟦Q⟧ | = 4
Term
Definition
 Quantificational adverbs may quantify either times or entities/individuals. Some examples of both types are presented below:a. Dogs are often noisy. [many x: DOG(x)] NOISY(x)b. Mary often met Sam when she was jogging. [many t: t
Term
 What are the two interpretations of "some man loves every woman"?(scope ambiguities: more than one quantifier)
Definition
 Some man loves every woman.a. [some x: MAN(x)] ([every y: WOMAN(y)] LOVE(x,y))b. [every y: WOMAN(y)] ([some x: MAN(x)] LOVE(x,y))
Term
 What are the two interpretations of "all that glitters is not gold"?(scope ambiguities: scope of negation)
Definition
 All that glitters is not gold.a. ∀x[GLITTER(x) → ¬ GOLD(x)]b. ¬ ∀x[GLITTER(x) → GOLD(x)]
Term
 What are the two interpretations of "every lottery ticket could win"?(scope ambiguities: modality)
Definition
 Every lottery ticket could win.a. ∀x[TICKET(x) → ◊ WIN(x)]b. ◊ ∀x[TICKET(x) → WIN(x)]
Term
 What are the two interpretations of "some applicants must be rejected"?(scope ambiguities: modality)
Definition
 Some applicants must be rejected. a. ∃x[APPLICANT(x) □ BE-REJECTED(x)] b. □ ∃x[APPLICANT(x) BE-REJECTED(x)]
Term
 PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY
Definition
 the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions and the way in which they are combined.
Term
 'de re' interpretation
Definition
 ‘about the thing’Under the de re interpretation, the definite NP denotes a particular individual: the person who is serving as Prime Minister at the time of speaking in (16a), and the individual who is married to the speaker at the time of speaking in (17a).(16) a. I hope to meet with the Prime Minister next year, (after he retires from office). b. I hope to meet with the Prime Minister next year; (we’ll have to wait for the October election before we know who that will be).(17) a. I wanted my husband to be a Catholic, (but he said he was too old to convert). b. I wanted my husband to be a Catholic, (but I ended up marrying a Sikh).
Term
 'de dicto' interpretation
Definition
 Under the de dicto interpretation, the semantic contribution of the definite NP is not what it refers to but its sense: a property (e.g. the property of being Prime Minister, or the property of being married to the speaker) rather than a specific individual.(16) a. I hope to meet with the Prime Minister next year, (after he retires from office). b. I hope to meet with the Prime Minister next year; (we’ll have to wait forthe October election before we know who that will be).(17) a. I wanted my husband to be a Catholic, (but he said he was too old to convert). b. I wanted my husband to be a Catholic, (but I ended up marrying a Sikh).
Term
 SET
Definition
 A SET (in the mathematical sense) is a clearly-defined collection of things. We use braces, or “curly brackets”, to represent sets. So, for example, the denotation set of the word man in the simple model described above could be written as shown in (2a).(2) a. { King Henry VIII, Thomas More }
Term
 ∊
Definition
 We use the Greek letter epsilon to indicate that a certain element belongs to a given set.The formula “x ∊ B” can be read as: “x is a member (or element) of set B”
Term
 ∉
Definition
 The formula “x ∉ B” means that x is not a member of set B.
Term
 Ø
Definition
 EMPTY SET - a set with no members.
Term
 CARDINALITY
Definition
 The CARDINALITY of a set is the number of members or elements which belong to that set.
Term
 ORDERED PAIRS
Definition
 sets of pairs of things in which the members of each pair are distinguished by specifying the order in which they occur (using the notation ⟨x,y⟩ to represent the pair which consists of x followed by y).
Term
 RELATION
Definition
 a set of ordered pairs
Term
 DOMAIN
Definition
 The DOMAIN of the relation is the set of all the first elements of each pair.
Term
 RANGE
Definition
 The RANGE of the relation is the set of all the second elements of each pair.
Term
 FUNCTION
Definition
 a relation (= a set of ordered pairs) in which each element of the domain is mapped to a single, unique value in the range.
Term
 ARGUMENT and VALUE
Definition
 The first member of each ordered pair is called an ARGUMENT of the function, while the second member of each ordered pair is called a VALUE.
Term
 ⊆
Definition
 SUBSET - We say that set A is a SUBSET of set B (written “A⊆B”) if A is included in B; that is, if all the elements which are members of A are also members of B. ({a,b,c} ⊆ {a,b,c,d,f})
Term
 ⊂
Definition
 PROPER SUBSET - If we want to specify that set A is a subset of set B, but that the two sets are not equal, we can write “A⊂B”. This symbol means that set A is a PROPER SUBSET of set B. The proposition “A⊂A” will be false for any set A. ({a,b,c} ⊂ {a,b,c,d,f})
Term
 ∩
Definition
 The INTERSECTION of two sets, written “A∩B”, is defined as the set consisting of all elements which are both members of A and members of B. ({a,b,c}∩{c,d,f}={c})
Term
 ∪
Definition
 The UNION of two sets, written “A∪B”, is the set consisting of all elements which are either members of A or members of B ({a,b,c}∪{c,d,f}={a,b,c,d,f}).
Term
 COMPLEMENT
Definition
 The COMPLEMENT of set A, written as ͞A or Aʹ, is defined as the set which contains all the elements of U that are not elements of A.U = {1,2,3,4,5}A = {2,3,4,6} ͞A = {1,5}
Term
 CARDINAL QUANTIFIERS
Definition
 (no, some, four, and several) provide information about the cardinality of the intersection of two sets.
Term
 PROPORTIONAL QUANTIFIERS
Definition
 (all, every, most) they express the idea that a certain proportion of one class is included in some other class.
Term
 What are the two interpretations of: "Mary thought she had read every book on the list."(Scope ambiguities: propositional attitude verbs)
Definition
Term
 What are the two interpretations of: "John thinks he has visited every state."(Scope ambiguities: propositional attitude verbs)
Definition
 a. [all x: STATE(x)] (THINK(j, VISIT(j,x))) b. THINK(j, [all x: STATE(x)] VISIT(j,x))
Term
 ◊
Definition
 possible
Term
 □
Definition
 necessary
Term
 Intensional (=opaque) contexts
Definition
 contexts where the denotation of a complex expression depends on the sense (intension) of one or more of its constituents.
Term
Definition
 1. INTERSECTIVE2. SUBSECTIVE3. PRIVATIVE4. 'PLAIN' NON-SUBSECTIVE
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
 the denotation set of the phrase will be a subset of the denotation set of the head noun: ⟦Adj N⟧ ⊆ ⟦N⟧a. Bill Clinton is a typical politician/??Baptist.b. a skillful surgeon, a beautiful dancer, a competent phonetician
Term
Definition
 a “PRIVATIVE ADJ N” cannot be a member of the denotation set ⟦N⟧: ⟦Adj N⟧ ∩ ⟦N⟧ ≠ Ø former, counterfeit, synthetic would-be , wannabe, past, spurious, imaginary, fictitious, fake, fabricated (in one sense), mythical (maybe debatable); ex-, pseudo-, non-
Term
Definition
 “Plain” non-subsective adjectives:alleged, potential, possible, arguable, likely, predicted, putative, questionable, disputed
Term
Definition
 adjectives whose composition with the noun they modify cannot be modeled as simple set intersection.
Term
 INTENSION
Definition
 a technical synonym of ‘sense’
Term
 Other Intensional contexts
Definition
 1. TENSE2. MODALITY3. PROPOSITIONAL ATTITUDE VERBS4. COUNTERFACTUALS
Term
 MODALITY(other intensional contexts)
Definition
 With modal operators like might, could, must, etc., it is not enough to know the truth value of the original proposition; we need to evaluate its meaning, in combination with that of the modal operator. With the modals in (23) the sentences which would have had different truth values at that time.(23) (spoken in 2006)a. Barack Obama could be the first black President of the United States. [T] b. Nelson Mandela could be the first black President of the United States. [F]
Term
 TENSE(other intensional contexts)
Definition
 Tense is another operator which combines with a single proposition to create a new proposition. As with modality, knowing the truth value of the original proposition does not allow us to determine the truth value of the tensed proposition. Both of the present tense sentences in (24a- b), spoken in 2014, are false; but the corresponding past tense sentences in (24c-d) have different truth values.(24) (spoken in 2014)a. Hillary Clinton is the Secretary of State. [F]b. Lady Gaga is the Secretary of State. [F]c. Hillary Clinton was/has been the Secretary of State. [T]d. Lady Gaga was/has been the Secretary of State. [F]
Term
 INTENSIONAL VERBS
Definition
 Another class of verbs which create intensional contexts are the so-called INTENSIONAL VERBS. Prototypical examples of this type are the verbs of searching and desiring. These verbs license de dicto vs. de re ambiguities in their direct objects.
Term
 MOOD
Definition
 What the speaker wants to do with the proposition in a particular discourse context, i.e. an indication of what SPEECH ACT is being performed.
Term
 Types of Mood:
Definition
 1. DECLARATIVE2. IMPERATIVE3. INTERROGATIVE4. HORTATIVE5. OPTATIVE6 SUBJUNCTIVE
Term
 MODALITY
Definition
 a category of linguistic meaning having to do with the expression of possibility and necessity.Modality can be thought of as an operator that combines with a basic proposition (p) to form a new proposition (It is possible that p or It is necessarily the case that p).
Term
 Two major classes of modality:
Definition
 1. EPISTEMIC2. "ROOT"
Term
 EPISTEMIC MODALITY(two major classes of modality)
Definition
 possibility or necessity in light of speaker’s knowledge. Epistemic modality is often said to be “speaker-oriented”, because it encodes possibility or necessity in light of the speaker’s knowledge.a. I might have seen you before (but I can’t remember for sure).b. You must have been born somewhere.
Term
 "ROOT" MODALITY(two major classes of modality)
Definition
 Root modality includes Deontic (permission & obligation), as well as other minor types. Non-epistemic modal marking may reflect various facets of the circumstances surrounding the described situation or event.a. You may now kiss the bride.b. You must pay your taxes (if you don’t want to go to jail)
Term
 DEONTIC
Definition
 indicates possibility and necessity (permission and obligation) on the basis of some authoritative person or code of conduct which is relevant to the current situation, i.e. whether the truth of the proposition is required or permitted by the relevant authority. a. You may now kiss the bride.b. You must pay your taxes (if you don’t want to go to jail)
Term
 What type of modality?It has to be raining. [after observing people coming inside with wet umbrellas]
Definition
 EPISTEMIC
Term
 What type of modality?Visitors have to leave by six pm. [hospital regulations]
Definition
 DEONTIC
Term
 What type of modality?John has to work hard if he wants to retire at age 50. [to attain desires]
Definition
 BOULETIC
Term
 What type of modality?I have to sneeze. [given the current state of one’s nose]
Definition
 DYNAMIC
Term
 What type of modality?To get home in time, you have to take a taxi. [in order to achieve the stated purpose]
Definition
 TELEOLOGICAL
Term
 What are the two parts of a CONVERSATIONAL BACKGROUND?
Definition
 1. MODAL BASE2. ORDERING SOURCE
Term
 MODAL BASE(two parts of a conversational background)
Definition
 specifies the class of accessible worlds / worlds that are eligible for consideration
Term
 ORDERING SOURCE(two parts of a conversational background)
Definition
 specifies a ranking among the accessible worlds. It identifies the “best”, or highest-ranking, world or worlds among those that are accessible.
Term
 What is an EPISTEMIC modal base?
Definition
 selects worlds consistent with what is known about the actual world, i.e., consistent with the available evidence.
Term
 What is a stereotypical ordering source?
Definition
 optimal worlds are those in which the normal, expected course of events is followed as closely as possible, given the known facts.
Term
 What is a CIRCUMSTANTIAL modal base?
Definition
 selects worlds in which relevant circumstances of the actual world hold true
Term
 Epistemic modality arises from...?
Definition
 Epistemic modality arises from the EPISTEMIC modal base and a STEREOTYPICAL ordering source.
Term
 Deontic and other Root modalities arise from ...?
Definition
 Deontic and other Root modalities arise from a CIRCUMSTANTIAL modal base. Different types require different ordering sources, e.g. deontic (what the relevant authority requires), bouletic (wishes or desires), teleological (goals), etc.
Term
 Are modals polysemous?
Definition
 Under Kratzer’s analysis, the English modals are not in fact polysemous, but rather indeterminate for type of modality. The strength of the modal (necessary vs. possible) is lexically entailed, but the type of modality (epistemic vs. deontic etc.) is determined by context.
Term
 EVIDENTIALITY
Definition
 is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is source of information…[T]his covers the way in which information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not… [Aikhenvald 2004:3]
Term
 Evidentiality is most likely to be marked:
Definition
 • in the past tense than in the future• in 3rd person than 1st person• in declarative sentences (statements) than questions or commands (generally only possible in questions or commands with some kind of secondary meaning, if at all); • in main clauses than subordinate clauses;• in positive sentences than negative (evidentials cannot normally be directly negated).
Term
 Evidentials are:
Definition
 • explicitly taught and pat of speakers’ conscious knowledge; rules of usage may be expressed in proverbs etc• reinforceable• often innovated or replaced in multi-lingual contexts
Term
 Types of evidential markers:
Definition
 • Hearsay• Direct (something the speaker has seen, felt, etc personally) • Indirect knowledge (something one has heard from someone else)• Nonvisual (what you hear but don’t see)• Inference (seen evidence)• Assumed (It is reasonable to assume…)
Term
 ILLOCUTIONARY EVIDENTIALS
Definition
 (Use Conditional)– Fxn as illocutionary operators
Term
 PROPOSITIONAL EVIDENTIALS
Definition
 (Truth Conditional)– Part of the propositional content of the utterance.
Term
 Tests for evidentials:
Definition
 1. EMBEDDING2. COMMITMENT3. SPEAKER-ORIENTED
Term
 EMBEDDING(tests for evidentials)
Definition
 Illocutionary evidentials cannot be embedded within a conditional clause, while this is possible for propositional evidentials.
Term
 COMMITMENT(tests for evidentials)
Definition
 A speaker who makes a statement using a hearsay or reportative evidential of the illocutionary type is not committed to believing that the propositional content of the utterance is possibly true. A hearsay or reportative evidential of the propositional type, however, commits the speaker to believing that it is at least possible for the expressed proposition to be true.
Term
 SPEAKER-ORIENTED(tests for evidentials)
Definition
 Illocutionary evidentials: speaker – oriented. This means that they indicate the source of information of the speaker, and cannot be used to indicate the source of information of some other participant.Propositional evidentials, in contrast, can be used to indicate the source of information of some participant other than the speaker.
Term
 What are the two interpretations of: "Arthur didn’t marry Susan because she is rich."
Definition
 a. ¬CAUSE(RICH(s), MARRY(a,s)) (He married her, but not because she is rich. It is not the cause of Susan being rich that caused A to marry her). b. CAUSE(RICH(s), ¬MARRY(a,s)) (He didn’t marry her. Susan being rich caused A not to marry her).
Term
 "BECAUSE"
Definition
 Because is a two-place operator. But, it is adding a component of meaning, namely causation. Because is not polysemous. Rather, it has just one sense which can be used in different domains, or dimensions, or meaning: truth-conditional vs use-conditional.
Term
 Domains for "because":
Definition
 1. CONTENT2. EPISTEMIC3. SPEECH ACT
Term
 CONTENT(domains for "because")
Definition
 CONTENT domain: John came back because he loved her. (Pause not necessary. Real world causation. Don’t get scope ambiguities)Truth conditionalNegatableQuestionableEmbeddable
Term
 EPISTEMIC(domains for "because")
Definition
 EPISTEMIC domain: John loved her, became he came back (his love is evidenced by the fact that he came back. the grounds for making the assertion. Pause necessary. The causation causes the speaker to make an assertion)• Not questionable – question is restricted to main clause • Negation – only take scope over the main clause.
Term
 SPEECH ACT(domains for "because")
Definition
 SPEECH-ACT domain: what are you doing tonight because there’s a good movie on. Behave like separate speech acts/illocutionary forces. – the first clause is a question. Shows why you’re asking the question. Pause necessary. Don’t get scope ambiguities.) • Not questionable – the clausal relationship is not being questioned.• Negation – only takes scope over main clause.
Term
 CONDITIONAL
Definition
 A CONDITIONAL sentence is a bi-clausal structure of the form if p (then) q. The conjunction if seems to indicate that a certain kind of relationship holds between the meanings of the two clauses.If clause - ANTECEDENT / “protasis”Then clause – CONSEQUENT / “apodosis”
Term
 Types of STANDARD CONDITIONALS:
Definition
 1. HYPOTHETiCAL2. REALITY3. COUNTERFACTUAL
Term
 HYPOTHETICAL(types of standard conditionals)
Definition
 Mark 8:3 If I send them home hungry, they will collapse on the way. (speaker does not know if p is true or not)
Term
 REALITY(types of standard conditionals)
Definition
 Romans 7:15b–16 For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do. And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good. (speaker believes p to be true)
Term
 COUNTERFACTUAL(types of standard conditionals)
Definition
 John 11:21 “Lord,” Martha said to Jesus, “if you had been here, my brother would not have died.” (speaker believes p to be false)
Term
 Types of CONDITIONALS:
Definition
 1. STANDARD CONDITIONALS2. RELEVANCE CONDITIONALS3. FACTUAL CONDITIONALS4. CONCESSIVE CONDITIONALS
Term
 RELEVANCE CONDITIONALS(types of conditionals)
Definition
 (a.k.a. Biscuit conditionals / no real world connection)If you are hungry, there is some pizza in the fridge.This is the same as SPEECH ACT CONDITIONALS (the main clause has an independent illocutionary force): a. If you are hungry, there’s some pizza in the fridge. b. If you need anything, my name is Arnold. c. If you have heard from Michael recently, how is he doing? d. What did you do with that left-over pizza, if you don’t mind my asking?
Term
 FACTUAL CONDITIONALS(types of conditionals)
Definition
 (Challenges a belief) If you’re so smart, why aren't you rich?
Term
 CONCESSIVE CONDITIONALS(types of conditionals)
Definition
 (Even if..) I wouldn’t marry you if you were the last man on earth.
Term
 Put: "Every student will succeed if he works hard" in Restricted Quantifier Notation.
Definition
 [all x: STUDENT(x) ˄ WORK_HARD(x)] SUCCEED(x)
Term
 "If John did not come to work, he must be sick"Describe analyzing the modal as having an EPISTEMIC reading.
Definition
 [all w: (w is consistent with the available evidence) ˄ (the normal course of events is followed as closely as possible in w) ˄ (John did not come to work in w)] SICK(j) in w
Term
 "If John did not come to work, he must be fired"Describe analyzing the modal as having an DEONTIC reading.
Definition
 [all w: (the relevant circumstances of the actual world are also true in w) ˄ (the relevant authority’s requirements are satisfied as completely as possible in w) ˄ (John did not come to work in w)] FIRED(j) in w
Term
 TENSE
Definition
 TENSE indicates a temporal relation between Topic Time and time of speaking / grammatical marker that describes location in time.
Term
 ASPECT
Definition
 ASPECT indicates a temporal relation between Topic Time and Situation Time / Grammatical marker that describes the shape over time. / How an event is distributed over time. Doesn’t locate the event at all, but it tells you something about the shape of the event (ie a repeating event, a punctiliar event, or an activity that does not really have an end point).
Term
 ASPECTUAL SENSITIVITY
Definition
 (selection of specific aktionsart/situation types): i.e. how the simple present in ENG can only be used for states. This is like a selectional restriction for tense and aspect markers.
Term
 Examples of the truth conditional analysis of ASPECT:
Definition
 The people of Babel built a to Heaven – FALSE perfectiveThe people of Babel were building a tower to heaven – TRUE imperfective
Term
 TOPIC TIME (TT)
Definition
 “the time for which, on some occasion, a claim is made”Adverbial time phrases like yesterday or last week normally modify the Topic Time.“Topic” is “what we are talking about.” So Topic Time is the time span that we are talking about.
Term
 TIME OF SITUATION (TSIT)
Definition
 the time of the event or situation which is being described
Term
 TIME OF UTTERANCE (TU)
Definition
 time of speaking
Term
 Uses of the English simple present tense:
Definition
 1. Gnomic (universal) statements: Water boils at 100o C – By using the simple present, this defines the property of water. 2. Simple present refers to states, not events. 3. Future events can only be in the simple present if they are scheduled. i.e. “The Foreign Minister flies to Paris on Tuesday.” 4. Stage directions, sports announcements (idiomatic meanings)
Term
 ABSOLUTE TENSE
Definition
 indicates a temporal relation between TT and TU. Defines past, present, or future relative to the time of speaking. Absolute tenses are deictic elements, because their marking is anchored to the time of the current utterance.
Term
 RELATIVE TENSE
Definition
 indicates a temporal relation between TT. The reference point for tense marking is some time other than the time of speaking. Anaphoric.
Term
 ANTERIOR TENSE
Definition
 relative past tense
Term
 POSTERIOR TENSE
Definition
 relative future tense
Term
 SIMULTANEOUS TENSE
Definition
 relative present tense
Term
 COMPLEX TENSE
Definition
 combine absolute with relative time reference. ie “past in the past”
Term
 PERSPECTIVE TIME (PT)
Definition
 the contextually determined reference point of a relative tense marker
Term
 Diagram: "I managed to get to the station at 3:15 pm, but the train had left promptly at 3:00."
Definition
 [ TT: 3:00 ] PT TU “past in the past” (23a)--------------------------------- |TSit| (3:15) (now)
Term
 Diagram: "When you arrive at his home tomorrow, Bill will have left five days ago (so you may want to check whether the plants need water)."
Definition
 [ TT: 4 days ago ] TU PT “past in the future” (23b)--------------------------------- |TSit| (now) (tomorrow)
Term
 PERFECTIVE ASPECT
Definition
 PERFECTIVE indicates that Situation Time is contained in Topic Time. TSit ⊆ TT
Term
 IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT
Definition
 indicates that the Topic Time is a PROPER SUBSET of TSitTT ⊂ TSit
Term
 PERFECT ASPECT
Definition
 indicates that TSit occurs before TTTSit < TT
Term
 PROSPECTIVE ASPECT
Definition
 indicates that TT occurs before TSitTT < TSit
Term
 HABITUAL ASPECT
Definition
 describes a recurring event or on-going state which is a characteristic property of a certain period of time
Term
 PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
Definition
 is non-habitual imperfective which is used only for events, and not for states.
Term
 CONTINUOUS ASPECT
Definition
 is non-habitual imperfective which can be used for states, and perhaps for events as well.
Term
 AKTIONSART
Definition
 Situation Aspect
Term
 What are the five major "situation types" (aktionsart)?
Definition
 1. STATE2. ACTIVITY3. ACCOMPLISHMENT4. ACHIEVEMENT5. SEMELFACTIVE
Term
 STATE(five major 'situation types')
Definition
 Nothing changes. Homogenous time over time. ‘I am happy’ hate, love, know, own(+ static)(+ durative)(- telic)
Term
 ACTIVITY(five major 'situation types')
Definition
 running, dancing singing. Activities are atelic events such as dance, sing, carry a sword, hold a sign, etc.(- static)(+ durative)(- telic)
Term
 ACCOMPLISHMENT(five major 'situation types')
Definition
 change of state that require time. Accomplishments are durative telic events, meaning that they require some period of time in order to reach their end-point. Accomplishments often involve a process of some kind which results in a change of state. Examples include eat a pint of ice cream, build a house, run to the beach, clear a table, etc(- static)(+ durative)(+ telic)
Term
 ACHIEVEMENT(five major 'situation types')
Definition
 instantaneous: break, die, build a house. Achievements are telic events (normally involving a change of state) which are construed as being instantaneous: break, die, recognize, arrive, find, etc.(- static)(- durative)(+ telic)
Term
 SEMELFACTIVE(five major 'situation types')
Definition
 instantaneous event: clap hands, blink.(- static)(- durative)(- telic)
Term
 Tests for TELIC vs. ATELIC.
Definition
 1. TIME PHRASES: DURATION2. TIME PHRASES: BOUNDING
Term
 TIME PHRASES: DURATION(tests for telic vs. atelic)
Definition
 A description of an ATELIC event can be naturally modified by time phrases expressing duration:For ten minutes Peter...a. sang in Cantonese (atelic)b. chased his pet iguana (atelic)c. *broke three teeth. (telic)
Term
 TIME PHRASES: BOUNDING(tests for telic vs. atelic)
Definition
 A description of a TELIC event can be naturally modified by time phrases expressing a temporal boundary:In ten minutes Peter...a. *chased his pet iguana (atelic)b. broke three teeth (telic)
Term
 ATELIC events
Definition
 those which do not have a natural endpoint.
Term
 TELIC event
Definition
 one that has a natural endpoint.
Term
 DURATIVE
Definition
 situations which extend over a time interval (singing, dancing, reading poetry, climbing a mountain)
Term
 PUNCTILIAR
Definition
 situations which are construed as happening in an instant (recognizing someone, reaching the finish line, snapping your fingers, a window breaking)
Term
 Test for DURATIVE vs. PUNCTILIAR
Definition
 Punctiliar situations described in the progressive (He is tapping on the door/ blinking his eyes) normally require an iterative interpretation.
Term
 Tests for EVENTS vs. STATES
Definition
 1. WHAT HAPPENED?2. PROGRESSIVE3. HABITUAL
Term
 WHAT HAPPENED?(tests for events vs. states)
Definition
 Only sentences which describe eventive situations can be used appropriately to answer the question "What Happened?"What happened was that...a. Mary kissed the bishop (event)b. the sun set. (event)c. *Sally was Irish.
Term
 PROGRESSIVE(tests for events vs. states)
Definition
 Only eventive situations can be naturally described using the progressive.a. Mary is kissing the bishop. (event)b. The sun is setting. (event)c. *This room is being too warm. (state)
Term
 HABITUAL(tests for events vs. states)
Definition
 Eventive situations described in the simple present tense take on a habitual interpretation.a. Mary kisses the bishop (every Saturday). (event)b. The sun sets in the west. (event)c. This room is too warm. (state - note that it is not habitual)
Term
 Minor Aspect Categories:
Definition
 1. INCEPTIVE2. INCHOATIVE3. TERMINATIVE4. CONTINUATIVE5. ITERATIVE6. DISTRIBUTIVE
Term
 INCEPTIVE(minor aspect categories)
Definition
 indicates that the beginning of the situation falls within the topic time. Such markers often get translated as begin to X.
Term
 INCHOATIVE(minor aspect categories)
Definition
 is sometimes used as a synonym for INCEPTIVE, but more commonly this term is restricted to changes of state or entering a state, e.g. to become fat, get old, get rich, etc.)
Term
 TERMINATIVE or COMPLETIVE(minor aspect categories)
Definition
 indicates that the end of the situation falls within the topic time.
Term
 CONTINUATIVE(minor aspect categories)
Definition
 continue to X, or keep on X-ing.
Term
 ITERATIVE(minor aspect categories)
Definition
 aspect is used to refer to events which occur repeatedly. Such forms are often translated into English using phrases like over and over, more and more, here and there, etc.
Term
 DISTRIBUTIVE(minor aspect categories)
Definition
 might be considered a sub-type of iterative; it indicates that an action is done by or to members of a group, one after another.
Term
 Uses of the English Present Perfect:
Definition
 1. EXPERIENTIAL2. PERSISTENT SITUATION3. CONTINUING RESULT4. RECENT PAST5. STATIVE
Term
 EXPERIENTIAL(uses of the English Present Perfect)
Definition
 a. Have you ever tasted fresh durian?b. I have climbed Mt. Fuji twice in the past six months.
Term
 PERSISTENT SITUATION(uses of the English Present Perfect)
Definition
 a. He has lived in Canberra since 1975.b. I have been waiting for three days.
Term
 CONTINUING RESULT(uses of the English Present Perfect)
Definition
 a. I have lost my glasses, so I can’t read this telegram.b. The governor has fainted; don’t let the press know until he regains
Term
 RECENT PAST (or "Hot News")(uses of the English Present Perfect)
Definition
 a. A group of former city employees has just abducted the Mayor.b. The American president has announced new trade sanctions against the Vatican
Term
 STATIVE(uses of the English Present Perfect)
Definition
 “I’ve got two dollars in my pocket”
Term
 Examples of perfect aspect:
Definition
 o In 1987, when I first met Arthur, he had (already) climbed Mt. Fuji four times. The events took place before TT so it’s perfect aspect. The situation itself was outside of topic time. Topic time, not time of the situation. o Next Christmas, when you come to see me, I will have climbed Mt. Fuji four times.
Term
 Examples of perfect tense:
Definition
 o Einstein was awarded the Nobel prize in 1922, for a paper that he had published in 1905. Past in the past. o I will reach Tokyo at 6pm (PT), but George will have arrived at noon.
Term
 Epistemic modality (must):
Definition
 [all w: (w is consistent with the available evidence) ⋀ (the normal course of events is followed as closely as possible in w)]
Term
 Deontic modality (must):
Definition
 [all w: (the relevant circumstances of the actual world are also true in w) ⋀ (the relevant authority's requirements are satisfied as completely as possible in w)]
Term
 Epistemic modality (may):
Definition
 [some w: (w is consistent with the available evidence) ⋀ (the normal course of events is followed as closely as possible in w)]
Term
 Deontic modality (may):
Definition
 [some w: (the relevant circumstances of the actual world are also true in w) ⋀ (the relevant authority's requirements are satisfied as completely as possible in w)]
Supporting users have an ad free experience!