Term
Imagine we are rolling a fair die. (The singular of "dice" is "die.") There are six equallylikely outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. What is the probability of getting a five? (In this case there is only one successful/favorable outcome, 5.) 

Definition


Term
Imagine we are rolling a fair die. There are six equally likely outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. What is the probability of getting a four or a five? (In this case there are 2 successful outcomes, which are 4 and 5.) 

Definition


Term
Imagine we are rolling a fair die. There are six equally likely outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. What is the probability of getting an even number? (In this case there are 3 successful outcomes, which are 2, 4 and 6.) 

Definition


Term
A bag of sweets contains 6 mints and 4 eclairs. One sweet is taken at random from the bag. (In this case there are ten equallylikely outcomes: six mints and four eclairs.) What is the probability of picking a mint? 

Definition


Term
A spinner with five equally likely outcomes (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) is spun. What is the probability of getting a two? 

Definition


Term
A spinner with five equally likely outcomes (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) is spun. What is the probability of getting an even number? 

Definition


Term
A spinner with four equally likely outcomes (1, 2, 2, and 5) is spun. What is the probability of getting a two? 

Definition


Term
A spinner with four equally likely outcomes (1, 2, 2, and 5) is spun. What is the probability of getting a five? 

Definition


Term
A spinner with five equally likely outcomes (1, 2, 2, 2, and 4) is spun. What is the probability of getting an even number? 

Definition


Term
The [relative frequency] probability of a 60yearold woman dying of a heart attack within ten years equals the number of 60yearold woman who do die of a heart attack within ten years, divided by all comparable 60yearold women.) So, assume we observed 1000 60yearold women over ten years, and observed that 35 of them died of heart attacks. What is the probability of a random 60yearold woman dying of a heart attack? 

Definition


Term
All animals are living things. At least one cabbage is a living thing. So at least one cabbage is an animal. 

Definition
Invalid (true premises, false conclusion), unsound 


Term
All murderers are criminals. Therefore, all non murderers are noncriminals. 

Definition
Invalid (true premises, false conclusion), unsound 


Term
Since Moby Dick was written by Shakespeare, and Moby Dick is a sciencefiction novel, it follows that Shakespeare wrote a sciencefiction novel. 

Definition
Valid (false premises, false conclusion), unsound 


Term
If Lincoln was killed in an automobile accident, then Lincoln is dead. Lincoln was not killed in an automobile accident. Lincoln is not dead. 

Definition
Invalid (true premises, false conclusion), unsound 


Term
All whales are mammals. All mammals are warmblooded creatures. All whales are warmblooded creatures. 

Definition
Valid (true premises, true conclusion), sound 


Term
A deductive argument whose true premises do not necessarily prove its conclusion is considered to be ___________. 

Definition


Term
An argument is ___________ if it is valid and all of its premises are true. 

Definition


Term
An argument is ___________ if it is strong and all of its premises are true. 

Definition


Term
Which of the following best identifies the term "however"? 

Definition


Term
A ___________ argument with true premises provides absolute proof of the truth of the conclusion. 

Definition


Term
Which of the following best identifies the term "since"? 

Definition


Term
Which of the following best identifies the term "or"? 

Definition


Term
Which of the following best identifies the term "but"? 

Definition


Term
A syllogism is composed of at least ... 

Definition
one conclusion and two premises. 


Term
An argument is composed of at least ... 

Definition
one premise and one conclusion 


Term
Arguments always have at least two premises (t/f) 

Definition


Term
An inductive argument is one for which it is claimed that... 

Definition
the conclusion follows with probability from the premises 


Term
Which of the following types of arguments is most likely is NOT a deductive argument? 

Definition
An argument based on signs. 


Term
A deductive argument is one for which it is claimed that... 

Definition
the conclusion cannot be false if the premise(s) are true. 


Term
Arguments always have at least two statements (propositions). (T/F) 

Definition


Term
Which of the following is NOT a premise indicator. (so / since / for / given that) 

Definition


Term
Logic is concerned with the methods and principles that can be used to evaluate arguments. T/F 

Definition


Term
Arguments are the same thing as explanations. T/F 

Definition


Term
Arguments are ____________ composed of exactly two statements. Always /Sometimes 

Definition


Term
Arguments, in the logician's sense, are disagreements or disputes between or among two or more persons or entities. T/F 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from Hat Two and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the same hat (Hat Two) and put it in my pocket. What is the probability that I have two green marbles in my pocket? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. If I draw two marbles from Hat One, what is the probability that I have drawn two yellow marbles? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What is the probability that drawing one marble from each hat will yield two red marbles? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from Hat One and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the same hat (Hat One) and put it in my pocket, and then draw a third marble from the same hat (Hat One). What is the probability that I have three yellow marbles in my pocket? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What is the probability of drawing either a yellow marble or a red marble on a single draw from Hat Two? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. If I draw one marble from Hat One and one marble from Hat Two, what is the probability that I have drawn two green marbles? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. If I draw one marble from Hat One and one marble from Hat Two, what is the probability that I have drawn two yellow marbles? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What is the probability of drawing either a green marble or a red marble on a single draw from Hat Two? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from Hat Two and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the same hat (Hat Two) and put it in my pocket, and then draw a third marble from the same hat (Hat Two). What is the probability that I have three red marbles in my pocket? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains 3 yellow marbles and 3 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from Hat One and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the same hat (Hat One) and put it in my pocket. What is the probability that I have two red marbles in my pocket? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of getting at least one six on three rolls of a die? 

Definition


Term
If a pair of dice are rolled, what is the probability that the points (pips, dots) add up to five? Consider all the ways one can roll a five with a pair of dice. Use the conjunction rule to figure the liklihood of each of those ways and then the disjunction rule to figure your total chances. 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of drawing two aces from a standard deck in two draws if the first card is replaced before the second is drawn? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of drawing two aces from a standard deck in two draws if the first card is not replaced before the second is drawn? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of getting at least one tail on three tosses of a coin? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of getting at least one tail on three tosses of a coin? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of drawing either a king or a queen from a standard deck of 52 cards on a single draw? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of getting heads on each of three successive tosses of one coin? 

Definition


Term
What is the probability of getting either a six or a one from a single roll of a single die? 

Definition


Term
If you are dealt five cards from a standard deck, what is the probability you will be dealt at least one ace? 

Definition
1  (48/52 x 47/51 x 46/50 x 45/49 x 44/48) 


Term
(Hat One contains 6 yellow marbles and 4 red marbles. Hat Two contains only 3 red marbles.) Suppose I draw once from each hat. What is the probability that I will draw at least one red marble. 

Definition
4/10 + 3/3  (4/10 x 3/3) 


Term
(Probability) An urn contains 6 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from the urn and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the urn and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the urn and put it in my pocket. What is the probability that I have 3 red marbles in my pocket? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Assume that a person can have only one of four possible hair colors and that the probabilities of each are: black (.31); brown (.30); blond (.25); or red (deliberately unspecified). Assume that no one is bald. Assume that every person is either male or female, that sex and hair color are independent of one another, and that the probability of being female is .51. What is the probability that the next person you randomly see will either have black hair or be a female (or both)? 

Definition
(.31 + .51)  (.31 x .51) 


Term
(Probability) You are sitting two places to the left of the dealer in a fiveperson poker game. What is the probability of you getting at least one ace when everyone is dealt four facedown cards? 

Definition
1  the probability of getting no aces 


Term
(Probability) An urn contains 6 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from the urn and put it in my pocket and then draw another marble from the urn and put it in my pocket. What is the probability that I have two marbles of the same color in my pocket? 

Definition
(6/10 x 5/9) + (4/10 x 3/9) One red and then a second red OR one green and a second green. 


Term
(Probability) An urn contains 6 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from the urn and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the urn and put it in my pocket, and then draw another marble from the urn and put it in my pocket. What is the probability that I have at least one green marble in my pocket? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) An urn contains 6 red marbles and 4 green marbles. What if I draw one marble from the urn and put it in my pocket and then draw another marble from the urn and put it in my pocket. What is the probability that I have one red and one green marble in my pocket? 

Definition
(6/10 x 4/9) + (4/10 x 6/9) 


Term
(Probability) If a pair of dice are rolled, what is the probability that the points add up to 6? Consider all the ways one can roll a six with a pair of dice. Use the conjunction rule to figure the liklihood of each of those ways and then the disjunction rule to figure your total chances. 

Definition
5/36 One can roll a 6 five ways, a 5 on the first die and a 1 on the second, a 4 on the first die and a 2 on the second, a 3 on the first and a 3 on the second, or a 2 on the first and a 4 on the second or a 1 on the first and a 5 on the second. (1/6 x 1/6) + (1/6 x 1/6) + (1/6 x 1/6) + (1/6 x 1/6) + (1/6 x 1/6) 


Term
(Probability) A person holding a deck of cards (face down) in her hand removes approximately the top half of the deck and sets those cards aside. What is the probability that the top two cards remaining in her hand are both aces? 

Definition


Term
(Probability) Assume that a person can have only one of four possible hair colors and that the probabilities of each are: black (.31); brown (.30); blond (.25); or red (deliberately unspecified). Assume that no one is bald. Assume that every person is either male or female, that sex and hair color are independent of one another, and that the probability of being female is .51. What is the probability of a redhaired male? 

Definition
[ 1  (.31 + .30 + .25)] x (1  .51) 


Term
Tension seems to make me more productive. The more pressure I'm under the more I get done. 

Definition


Term
He loves me for my money, not for myself. When I lost everything in the stock market crash, he left me 

Definition
Difference. NOT Agreement. 


Term
Reading is the key to a good education. Whenever their circumstances, whether rich or poor, whether they had formal schooling or not, people who read have been able to educate themselves. 

Definition


Term
Democracies always disintegrate into some form of absolutism. Athenian democracy fell prey to the 30 tyrants and later to the Macedonians, the Roman republic fell apart at the time of Julius Caesar, the democratic Weimar republic in Germany disintegrated in the face of Nazi rise to power. 

Definition


Term
I get nausea whenever I eat ice cream. The same thing happens whenever I drink milk or eat cheese. The nausea must be a reaction to milk products. 

Definition


Term
If you put one newspaper in a dark closet and another near a window, the second on will yellow but the first won't. Newspaper turns yellow, not because of exposure to the air per se, but because of exposure to sunlight. 

Definition


Term
People like La Mama's for the spaghetti. Every Wednesday, when it's a special, you need a reservation get in. They have other specials on other nights, and you can walk right in. 

Definition


Term
A man steps on a scale holding the suitcase he is taking to the airport. The scale reads “240 pounds.” Since the man knows he weighs 205 pounds, he concludes that the suitcase weighs 235 pounds. 

Definition


Term
Exposure to environmental carcinogens certainly increases the chance of cancer. But it cannot fully explain the incidence of cancer; so genetic factors must also play a role. 

Definition


Term
Doing drugs will lower your chances of graduating. Statistics show the more often a student takes drugs, the more likely he or she is to drop out of school. 

Definition


Term
Moss is harming the roots of trees in Europe and North America. In 100 dying forests, geographers found that the feeder roots of trees were dead when they were covered by moss, yet just a few inches beyond the moss, the roots were healthy. 

Definition


Term
Politicians are best able to carry out wars successfully. All of Bismarck's wars were successful, as were American's under Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt. But Japan in World War II and Germany in World War I let their generals run the war, and they both lost. 

Definition


Term
Blue clothing attracts mosquitoes. Various people who sat outside in muggy weather, dry weather, in the morning, afternoon, and evening, in areas with many mosquitoes and areas with fewer mosquitoes, but who all wore blue clothes got lots and lots of mosquito bites. 

Definition


Term
Secrecy has an inhibiting effect on technological development. The government forces secrecy regarding nuclear weapons, and the U.S. is about even with the Russians in this area. But in computer technology, where there is no enforced secrecy, the U.S. is far ahead. 

Definition


Term
Powerful countries go into decline when they attempt to exert military power beyond what their countries can support. This was the common factor in the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain in the 17th century, and Britain more recently. 

Definition


Term
On most lobsters, the two claws differ in size. The large one is used for crushing, the small one for cutting. Exercise is the factor determining which claw becomes the crusher. If lobsters are reared in a tank with nothing to grab, both claws remain small. 

Definition


Term
There are mice, squirrels, and foxes in the local state Park. The city park used to have all three too, but after the policy of exterminating mice was implemented by the city, the foxes disappeared along with the mice. Now the city park still has squirrels, but no mice and no foxes. So it appears that mice are necessary to support a fox population. 

Definition


Term
I find that I enjoy Atlantic City but not Las Vegas. They both have gambling, and they both have shows. But Atlantic City has the ocean. That must be why I like it. 

Definition


Term
If a number of people who are suffering from a certain disease have all gone for a considerable time without fresh fruits or vegetables, but have in other respects had quite different diets, have lived in different conditions, belong to different races, and so on, so that the lack of fresh fruits and vegetables is the only feature common to all of them, then we can conclude that the lack of fresh fruits and vegetables is the cause of the disease. 

Definition


Term
Exposure to environmental carcinogens certainly increases the chance of cancer. But it cannot fully explain the incidence of cancer; so genetic factors must also play a role. 

Definition


Term
A factor which is indispensable and must have occurred if a specifiable state of affairs has occurred is called _______________ condition. 

Definition


Term
Having a lottery ticket is ______________ condition for winning the lottery. 

Definition


Term
Having an automobile is _______________ condition for going to Paris. 

Definition
neither a necessary nor sufficient 


Term
Access to water is _______________ condition for growing plants. 

Definition


Term
Being a wombat is ___________ condition for being a marsupial. 

Definition


Term
“John loves Mary” is _________________ condition for “Mary loves John.” 

Definition
neither a necessary nor sufficient 


Term
Being a threesided plane figure is a _________________ for being a triangle. 

Definition
both a necessary and a sufficient 


Term
Having some money is _______________ condition for having ten dollars. 

Definition


Term
In the formula, "If x happens, then y always happens," x is said to be _______________ condition for y. 

Definition


Term
Being female is ___________ condition for being a mother. 

Definition


Term
A cause is a necessary condition for an event if its presence is enough to bring about the event. T/F 

Definition


Term
A cause is a sufficient condition for an event if its presence is enough to bring about the event. T/F 

Definition


Term
Noticing that X increases as Y increases and concluding that X and Y are causally related is an example of the method of ... 

Definition


Term
Noticing that X increases as Y decreases and concluding that X and Y are causally related is an example of the method of ... 

Definition


Term
When a cause is established by identifying a correlation between two phenomena, the method of residues is being used. T/F 

Definition


Term
When one attempts to establish the cause of something by identifying a common factor in a range of cases, one is using the method of 

Definition


Term
The method of difference involves.. 

Definition
comparing two cases, one in which the effect is present and one in which the effect is absent 


Term
If we subtract from a phenomenon what is already known to be the effect of some antecedent events, then the remainder is the result of the remaining antecedent(s). 

Definition


Term
Mill's joint method combines which two methods? 

Definition


Term
The method of difference involves identifying ways in which differences between events influence our perception of them. T/F 

Definition


Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria that bear upon acceptance of hypotheses? 

Definition
Its rivals been proven false. It is the only hypothesis that "remains standing." 


Term
The general pattern of the logic of disconfirmation is: 

Definition
If H then I. Not I. So, not H 


Term
The general pattern of confirmation is: 

Definition
If H then I. I. So, probably H. 


Term
In the nineteenth century, the English sociologist Francis Galton investigated the effectiveness of prayer. He was not attempting to investigate the value of prayer to the person praying; rather, he was interested in determining whether prayer was effective as a means of achieving what was prayed for. Galton reasoned that if prayer were effective, then something regularly prayed for would probably come about. He knew that in the nineteenth century, when people went regularly to church, there would be many people praying each Sunday for the good health and longevity of the queen and members of the royal family. Galton observed the recorded and wellestablished facts of the ages attained by royalty at death, and he compared these with the equally wellestablished facts of the age at death of the members of the higher social classes. He noted that royalty did not live longer, on the average, than the higher social classes. (Is the following statement true or false?) "Royalty will live longer, on the average, than members of the higher social classes" is a test implication of the hypothesis. 

Definition


Term
In the nineteenth century, the English sociologist Francis Galton investigated the effectiveness of prayer. He was not attempting to investigate the value of prayer to the person praying; rather, he was interested in determining whether prayer was effective as a means of achieving what was prayed for. Galton reasoned that if prayer were effective, then something regularly prayed for would probably come about. He knew that in the nineteenth century, when people went regularly to church, there would be many people praying each Sunday for the good health and longevity of the queen and members of the royal family. Galton observed the recorded and wellestablished facts of the ages attained by royalty at death, and he compared these with the equally wellestablished facts of the age at death of the members of the higher social classes. He noted that royalty did not live longer, on the average, than the higher social classes. (Is the following statement true or false?) "People regularly prayed for the long life of the queen and members of the royal family" is a test implication of the hypothesis. 

Definition


Term
In the nineteenth century, the English sociologist Francis Galton investigated the effectiveness of prayer. He was not attempting to investigate the value of prayer to the person praying; rather, he was interested in determining whether prayer was effective as a means of achieving what was prayed for. Galton reasoned that if prayer were effective, then something regularly prayed for would probably come about. He knew that in the nineteenth century, when people went regularly to church, there would be many people praying each Sunday for the good health and longevity of the queen and members of the royal family. Galton observed the recorded and wellestablished facts of the ages attained by royalty at death, and he compared these with the equally wellestablished facts of the age at death of the members of the higher social classes. He noted that royalty did not live longer, on the average, than the higher social classes. (Is the following statement true or false?) Galton's observations disconfirmed the hypothesis. 

Definition


Term
In the passage above, "childbed fever affected nearly 20% of the women in Division I" is ... 

Definition


Term
Cadaveric matter causes childbed fever is ... 

Definition


Term
Mortality rates dropped from 18.3% to 1.3% is ... 

Definition


Term
Instituting a strict policy of handwashing prior to attending patients is... 

Definition


Term
"If doctors and medical students wash their hands with chlorinated lime, the mortality rate from childbed fever will decline" is ... 

Definition


Term
"Nature abhors a vacuum" is ... 

Definition


Term
"Suction pumps used to drain water from mine shafts do not work if the pump is more than about 30 feet above the water level" is ... 

Definition


Term
"Water is supported in Gasparo Berti's pipe by the vacuum that is created above it" is ... 

Definition


Term
"Air has weight and creates pressure that supports Berti's tubefull of water by pushing against the bottom of the tube" is ... 

Definition


Term
"If a tube of mercury is capped, inverted, submerged and then uncapped in an open vessel of mercury, the mercury column will fall to approximately 33/13 feet" is ... 

Definition


Term
Pascal's thought that "if a barometer were taken to the top of a high mountain the mercury column would drop" was ... 

Definition


Term
"A siphon will not siphon water from a reservoir and over a 60foot hill" is ... 

Definition


Term
_______ can be defined as having something to do with arguments 

Definition


Term
_______ is a group of statements one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reason to believe, one of the others 

Definition


Term
_________ is a something that is true or false 

Definition


Term
4 TYPES of non arguments are: think WARO 

Definition
Warnings, advice, reports, and opinions 


Term
If a valid argument has true premisses it is _____ 

Definition


Term
Deductive arguments with all true premises and a true conclusion are _______ valid. 

Definition


Term
You have a pair of dice. What is the Probability of getting at least one 6? 

Definition
6/36 + 6/36  (1/6 x 1/6/) = 11/36 or you can just map it out and count them 


Term
You have one urn: 2R, 5G, 4Y. What is the P(G OR Y)? 

Definition


Term
Conjunctive probabilities use the phrase ________ and use the ______ symbol, whereas, Disjunctive probabilities uses ______ and ________. 

Definition


Term
What are the chances of at least 1 head when flipping 2 coins? 

Definition
1/2 + 1/2  (1/2 x 1/2) = 3/4 


Term
What are the chances of getting at least one head while flipping 3 coins? 

Definition
3/4 + 1/2  (3/4 x 1/2) = 7/8 


Term
Negation rule of of getting at least one head with 3 coins is? 

Definition
1  P(all tales) so 1(1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2) = 1  1/8 = 7/8 


Term
If A is sufficient for B, this means that A ______ B. 

Definition
Guarantees. If A happens, then so does B 


Term
Give an example of a sufficient condition/relationship 

Definition
A grade of 90 guarantees an "A" 


Term
A necessary condition means that X is ________ for Y 

Definition
Necessary. If X is gone, so is Y. 


Term
Give and example of a necessary condition 

Definition
If Oxygen is gone, so is the fire. You can't have a fire without oxygen. 


Term
Hypothetical methods includes 4 implications... (think detective) 

Definition
Occurrence of a problem, formulating a hypothesis, drawing implications from the hypothesis, and testing the implications. 


Term
__________ first stated that _____ abhors a vacuum 

Definition


Term
Contrary to belief, a ________ is actually added to the evidence, not deduced from it 

Definition


Term
In order to accept a hypothesis, there must be 4 things that it must do... (think AIEF) 

Definition
It must be adequate, internally coherent, externally consistent, and fruitful 

