# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

#1B
Test 2
52
Sociology
02/14/2008

Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 Factor that causes a change in another variable called the Dependent Variable (p.28)
Term
 5 Steps of doing ResearchScience wont answer ? without going thru 5 steps.
Definition
 State ProblemDesign the ResearchCollect the DataAnalyze the Date
Term
 1st Step State the Problem *This is where we state the ? we want to do research on.
Definition
 Includes a lg. # of important factors:Theory, Proposition, Hypothesis, Concept & Variable You have to come up w/a Theory you are going to use to explain that.FYN: THEORIES COME from library research, scientific journals, (papers are people opinions)
Term
 2nd StepDesign of Research
Definition
 We are talking about 2 fundemental issues:Measurment & Sampling
Term
 3rd StepCollecting Data
Definition
 There are a # of different ways to Collecting Data
Term
 4th StepAnalysis
Definition
 Talking about 2 thingsQuality of DataStatistal Analysis of Data
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 A Factor that is changed by an independent variable. (p. 28)
Term
 5th StepReaching Conclusions
Definition
Term
 Theory
Definition
 EXPLANATION                                                                              (truth)set of interrelated Propositions to explain Reality.Reality is truthFYN: Proposition is a statement that proposes 2 or more Concepts are related.FYN: Concept is a definition w/no meaning
Term
 Proposition(Theory)
Definition
 FYN: Statement that 2 or more concepts are related Ex. Parents & Bordom
Term
 Concept(Theory)
Definition
 FYN: definition w/no meaning EX. Guy says I Love You (Scientific Language it has no meaning)We want to make America better
Term
 moving things w/no meaning tothings w/meaningOperationalisation
Definition
 FYN:Has 2 fundemental things you have to do:1) Change Proposition to Hypothesis2) Concepts to Variables(failure to do any of those you are not doing research)
Term
 Variable(Concept)
Definition
 is a Clear cut specific measurement of a concept.-to be a Variable you must do a measure that produces 2 or more responses.-Must have a measurement that varies. It varies. Ex. Stealing lipsticks(Yes, no are 2 responses)If everybody says the same thing it is not a _________-If you get a lot of yes's & lot of no's you have Variation
Term
 Independend Variable
Definition
 is a Presumed cause
Term
 Control Variable(type of variable)2 types
Definition
 Antecedent - comes first in timeIntervening - it comes btwn you IV & DV
Term
 Dependant Variable(type of variable)
Definition
 Presumed Outcome(you only have 1, you are out to explain 1 thing)
Term
 Controled Variable
Definition
 Variable that either comes first in time or later in time.Ex. Gender - (it is Antecedent)
Term
 2nd OperationalisationConcepts to Variables
Definition
 Ex. doing research on who is drinking & driving, you have to measure drinking otherwise its a concept. (concept has no meaning) It has to turned into a Variable
Term
 2nd Operationalize
Definition
 Turn Propositions into Hypothesis
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 States how 2 or more variables are related How & Variables are 2 key words
Term
 OperationalizeHow is divided in 2 categories
Definition
 Linear (3 types of Linear)Curve Linear Hypothsis
Term
 Curve Alinear
Definition
 Not a straight line, there is lots of curvesEx. curve for education & income, as your education goes up your income goes up until you have a MA, every ur after that is declines. Indiv w/PHD make less money then indiv. w/MA
Term
 3 Types of Linear(Hypothesis)
Definition
 Null Hypothesis - tells how they are related, they are not related.Direct - states as 1 variable goes up the next variable goes up or reverseInverse - if one goes up the other comes dwn. Going in Opposite DirectionEx. How much money do you make w/different degrees.
Term
 Design Research(5 steps of doign Research)
Definition
 (Fund. ?)How are you going to design a scientific study to answ. what ever the ? you go. (People you select to be in your study are randomly selected.
Term
 Universe(Design research)
Definition
 Everybody without error Ex. Population, - how many people in Gary or IUN
Term
 4 Types of Samples
Definition
 SRS - Simple RandomSystematic Random Cluster SampleStratified Random
Term
 SRS - Simple Random Sample
Definition
 Everybody has a = probability of being included.-Results are exact-Very costly Ex. drum & pulling out #100,200,300, Also use a random table generator
Term
 Systematic Random Sample
Definition
 Begins w/a random starting pt.-Has a more error-done quickly-Cheaper
Term
 Cluster Sample
Definition
 Every place in all world has been sub divided.Instead of drawing indiv. you draw blocks. Ex. Going & getting a list & that would where you would work from
Term
 Stratified Random Sample
Definition
 You do not do SRS cause you want to save money.Its done cause problem requires it.  Ex. Study of different Indian Tribesor different classes in Highland
Term
 Measures
Definition
 -Conclusions are your ________-Simply asking a ? & getting variation in the answ.-Ea. ? is a _______________ Most are ?'s that are put to people, they are asked something & the answer to their ? is the ________
Term
 Collect Data
Definition
 Ways of Collecting Data1. Official Statistics - lists that are @ agencies, Data of personsex. gov. telephone, feds2.Interview (2 types) - mechanism of asking people ?'s & getting answers.
Term
 Interview(Collecting Data)2 types
Definition
 1. Personal Interview - You see interviewer2.Inpersonal Interview - Done by phone, never see interviewer
Term
 3rd Technique of Colleting Data
Definition
 Questionnaire-Can be personal Inpersonal
Term
 4th technique of Collecting Data
Definition
 Observation2 types-Participant Observation-Non participant Observationex. Studying Herione Addicts
Term
 3rd Technique of Collecting Data
Definition
 Questionaires -Can be Personal or Inpersonal
Term
 4th technique Collecting DataObservation2 types
Definition
 -Participant Observation-Non Participant Observation - Ex. Herione Addicts
Term
 #1 - Completeness of Data3 things we look @
Definition
 Sample Mortality
Term
 Alaysis(5 steps)
Definition
 -1rst part is called Paul Avery Response
Term
 1rst type of Completeness - Sample Mortality - SM(Completeness of Data)
Definition
 -Come from area Research DesignWhen you did RD you did 2 things Measurement & Samples.-You ask a ? you get a response. Ex. Every time you lose a person you have SMif you are doing research & you draw a sample of 500 people you got to get all 500
Term
 2nd type of Completeness - Item Non-Resonse
Definition
 -When a person doe not response to a ? your data quality is going dwnEx. You ask highly sensitive ? to 1,027 people & you only get 72 answ.
Term
 #2 - Reliability(there is 2 types)*Inter Item Reliability - cross sectional research takes pace 1 time*Test Re Test Reliability - comes from Logitudinal date (Long. Data means 2 or more times).  Ex. asking specific ?, should not change, sex - 3B - 37:35
Definition
 -If you ask the same ? twice & nothing has changed, Did you get the same answ? If you did its _____________
Term
 #3 - Truth - Validity
Definition
 Means its trueEx. Any one who does the survey on a sensitive ? gets \$500, measure of ________ is Lie Dector Test
Term
 Before I analyze Data3 things you have to do
Definition
 Complete, Reliable, Valid
Term
 Staistics (is a simple displine)3 Types
Definition
 Univerc - means 1 variableBi Varic -  2 variables - Ex. Sex against something, it has 2 variables.Multi Varic -  more then 2
Term
 Measure of Central Tendency
Definition
 Average
Term
 Nominal Avg
Definition
 is a MODE-MODE is the most commonly reoccurring Score.
Term
 Oridinal
Definition
 Question or measurement is nominal & ranked.Its a name & rankEx. In military you give your name, rank & serial #.Name is NominalRank is Oridinal Ex. fresh, sophmore, jr, seniorthere is a order.Serial # is Internal
Term
 Internal
Definition
 Ex.  how old were you? Somebody fills in their age. Its a name, its a rank, It tells you how much moreAns. ? How much more or how much less.
Term
 5th Step of Research
Definition
 Conclusion(story of med students)
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