Shared Flashcard Set


11:709:201-Tangel: Lecture 11
Other Uses of Cereal
Undergraduate 2

Additional Science Flashcards




Name/Explain the 2 types of wheat.
  1. Winter - hard wheat (bread Flour), planted in fall: germinates before frost sending out root structure to prevent erosion during winter, high protien content (glutenin/gliadin)
  2. Spring - soft wheat (cake flour), planted in spring/harvested in fall, low protien content
Descirbe Additional Forms of Wheat (7).
  1. Couscous - refined wheat in a granular paste
  2. Groats - wheat berries (whole wheat kernels which are not milled)
  3. Cracked Wheat - wheat berries ground into smaller pieces
  4. Rolled Wheat - flattened wheat berries between heated rollers
  5. Bulgur - cracked wheat partially cooked
  6. Farina - granulated endosperm, fine texture
  7. Farro - ancestor of modern wheat, aka spelt
What is Pasta?
  • Made from semolina flour

  • Prepared using moist heat to gelatinize the starch and denature the protein

  • Double when cooked - 1 pound dry pasta yields 2 pounds cooked

  • Major ingredients are semolina flour, water, and occasional eggs and/or other optional ingredients

  • Optional ingredients:  Celery, Salt, Garlic, Bay leaf, Disodium phosphate –to shorten cooking time


What is corn?
  • One of the most versatile cereals, used in flour mixtures, processed foods, and as a cooked vegetable

  • Examples: Cornmeal - Coarsely ground corn, Cornstarch - Finely ground endosperm, Hominy - Endosperm soaked in lye, Grits - Coarsely ground hominy

  • Other corn product: Corn syrup - Viscous sweetener, Domestic product, High in fructose, glucose and other sweeteners, Used in many products.  Popcorn - Unique variety of corn, 14% moisture, Heating vaporizes wateràkernel explodes.  Corn oil - Omega -6-polyunsaturated fat.

What is rice?
  • One-half of the world’s population relies on rice as the staple grain

  • Examples:  Brown rice - Whole grain (bran, endosperm, germ), Takes ~ 1 hour to cook.  Polished rice - Milled, Variety—short grain, medium grain, long grain. 

  • Enriched rice - Milled and polished, White powdery surface (premix) added to enrich (B complex vitamins), Proper cooking preserves vitamins, Bring 2 cups water to boil, reduce heat, add 1 cup rice, simmer, covered until all water is absorbedàyields 3 cups cooked rice.

  • Other forms:  Converted rice - Partially cooked under pressure to force premix into grain, allows handling similar to pasta.  Instant rice - Totally cooked and dehydrated, used in instant mixes, just add water.  Arborio rice—Italian variety used in making risotto.  Basmati rice—extra long grain used in India.  Jasmine rice—long grain from Thailand, very fragrant, more delicate, floral flavor.
Wild rice is not rice.  Mahnoma = “the good berry”
It’s a grain.  Produced in Minnesota and Wisconsin by a Native American group granted the legal ability to grow and sell under federal law.  Never served alone, mixed with other ingredients in a recipe.
Oatmeal = Heart Healthy Food
Active agent beta glucan, a soluble fiber (dissolvable in water) in oats.  Consumed within a lowered fat diet, moderately reduces serum cholesterol.
What are oats?
  • Only whole grain available
  • Pericarp, hull, husk—in milling hull and husk are partially removed.  Known as groats
  • Groats flattened between heated rollers are rolled oats
  • Quick cooking oats are cut before rolling
  • Regular or old-fashioned oats are rolled without cutting
  • Instant oats are rolled extremely thin

What is barley?
  • Hulled barley—enclosed by a tough hull that is removed
  • Pearled barley—bran is removed
  • Malt—sprouted barley dried to stop growth, enzymes present convert starch to sugars (maltose), used in alcoholic beverages.
Name 8 rarer waves of grain.
  • Millet
  • Sorghum
  • Rye
  • Triticale
  • buckwheat
  • Amaranth
  • Kamut
  • quinoa
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