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05 animal phys
Nervous System
Undergraduate 3

Additional Physiology Flashcards





Nervous system:

  1. what doe it convert sensory info into?
  2. that info in processed into what?
  3. what does it activate?
  1. how many neurons does the simplest reflex arc have?
  2. what does the ability to have multiple synaptic connection allow?


  1. action potentials
  2. processes info into a response
  3. activtes effector organ (if response involves a muscle-behavior

     simplest pathway to accomplish this is thru reflex arc*

  1. one neuron (but can involve multiple neurons)
  2. more compolex control responses
  1. what type of functions can intermediary neurons (interneurons) do?
  2. what can have an effet/influence on interneurons?
  3. what has evolution tended toward?
  1. integrative functions
  2. higher center
  3. centralization (neuronal cell bodies in nerve cords) and cephalization (conc of cell bodies in the head)

*more receptors and more specialized kinds of receptors


Withdrawal Reflex:

  1. what type of stimulus?
  2. where do pain receptors send APs?
  3. where is the signal sent back?
  4. what happens to the limb?


  1. noxcious stimulus to the skin
  2. to the spinal integrating synapse
  3. signal sent back to muscle
  4. limb is pulled away

Brain not involved!


Invertebrate nervous system:

  1. what do sponges not have that all other animals do?
  2. what do some sponges react to?
  3. when do they stop feeding in response to? (2 things)
  4. APs have been detecting spreading from where to where?
  5. what may have been evolved before neurons?


  1. neurons/nerves
  2. react to their environment
  3. sediment-ladened water and when their bodies are touched
  4. spreading from the outer cells to the rest of the body
  5. long-distance electrical signaling

Invertebrate Nervous System (cont'd)

  1. what phylum are the simplest nerve nets found in?
  2. what do nerve nets control? (2)
  3. what form do nerve nets take in vertebrates?
  1. cnidarians (hydra, sea anemones, and jellies)
  2. control simple body and tentacles movements
  3. nerve plexus

*nerve nets are found in every phylum


(repeated slide from Ch. 4--weird)

  1. what changes do membrane potentials undergo?
  2. what do these fluctuations serve as?
  3. what are cells that produce electrical signals when stimulated called?
  4. what are the two types of cells involved?
  1. rapid, transient changes
  2. signaling mechanisms
  3. excitable tissues
  4. nerve cells and muscle cells


  1. what 2 parts of the body are involved?
  2. what do they function as?


  1. what parts?
  2. what are they communication lines b/w?
  3. what are the two subtypes under the PNS? vol/invol? conduct impulses from CNS to what?
  1. brain and spinal cord
  2. integrative and control centers
  1. cranial nerves and spinal nerves
  2. communication lines b/w CNS and body
  3. somatic nervous system (voluntary; conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles)
    autonomic nervous system (invol; conducts impulses from CNS to organs)


  1. what is the sensory division referred to as?
  2. which sensory nerve fibes? (2)
  3. conducts impulses from receptors to ___?
  4. what is the motor division referred to as?
  5. conducts impulses from CNS to ___?
  1. afferent division
  2. somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers
  3. conducts impulses from receptors to CNS
  4. efferent division
  5. conducts impulses from CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)

Autonomic Nervous System

  1. what does it innervate? (4)
  2. what division is the sympathetic?
  3. what does it mobilize?
  4. what is the parasympathetic division?
  5. what does is conserve and promote?
  1. innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and other non-motor organs
  2. thoraco-lumbar division
  3. mobilizes body systems during emergency situations
  4. cranio-sacral division
  5. conserves energy and promotes non-emergency functions
  1. what are the 3 classes of neurons?

ANS: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems:

  1. how many NTMRS do they use?
  2. what do both systems have in common? (activity)
  3. what do most systems have?-- what are the exceptions to this?
  4. how many neurons does the symp&para systems consist of?
  1. afferent, interneurons, and efferent
  1. one or two NTMRs
  2. usually partially active (tonic activity)
  3. dual innervation (more precise control) exc: blood vessels, most sweat glands and salivary glands
  4. 2; pre-and post-ganglionic fibers
  1. what are the transmitters of the ANS?


  1. what are the 2 cholinergic receptors and where are they found?
  2. what are the adrenergic receptors and what are the 2nd messengers for these?
  1. acetylcholine, noepinephrine, epinephrine
  1. -nicotinic (ligand gated): all post-ganglionic cell bodies

    -Muscarine (couple to G proteins): smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  2. -alpha 1 and alpha 2 (2nd mess: Ca++)
    -beta 1 and beta 2 (2nd mess: cAMP)

Vertebrate Autonomic Nervous System

  1. what does it release and bind?
  1. catecholamines


  1. site of origin (2)
  2. # of neurons from origin in CNS to effector organ
  3. organs innervated
  4. type of innervation
  5. Neurotransmitter as effector organs
  6. effects on effector organ
  7. types of control (vol. or invol.)
  8. high centers involved (4)
  1. brain or lateral horn of spinal cord
  2. 2-neuron chain (pre- and postganglionic)
  3. cardiac , smooth muscle, exocrine & some endocrine glands
  4. most by sympathetic and parasympathetic
  5. aCh (parasymp. terminals) or norEp (symp terminals)
  6. either stimulation or inhibition
  7.  invol., may be vol. w/biofeedback technique/training
  8. spinal cord, medulla, hypthalamus, prefrontal assoc.


  1. site of origin (2)
  2. # of neurons from origin in CNS to effector organ
  3. organs innervated
  4. type of innervation
  5. NTMR at effector organs
  6. effects on effector organs
  7. type of control
  8. higher centers involved in control
  1. ventral horn of s.c.; those supply muscles in head originatei n brain
  2. single neuron
  3. skeletal muscle
  4. effector organs innervated only by motor neurons
  5. only aCh
  6. sitmulation only
  7. voluntary (much activity subconsciously coordinated)
  8. s.c., motor cortex, basal nuclei, cerebellum, brain stem

Glial cells (vertebrate CNS)

  1. what are 90% of cells?
  2. what type of tissue?
  3. what type of neurons are they?
  4. how much of the brain do they occupy?
  5. what 2 things do they not do that other neurons do?
  6. what are they 4 types of glial cells in CNS?


  1. glial cells or neuroglia
  2. connective tissue
  3. support neurons- physically and metabolically
  4. 1/4 vol. of brain
  5. do not branch extensively as neurons do and do not initiate or conduct nerve impulses
  6. astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia
  1. # of neurons compared to glial cells?
  2. long or short dist. communication?
  3. what do they do for neurons and what do they provide?
  4. What gial cells are in the PNS? (2)
  5. What glial cells are in the CNS (4) and functions?
  1. outnumbe neurons
  2. short distances
  3. physically support neurons and provide nutrients
  4. Schwann cells and satellite cells
  5. astrocytes (b/w blood vessels and neurons), oligodendrocytes (insulate neurons), microglia (special immune cells), ependymal cells (blood brain barrier)


  1. what do they hold together?
  2. what are scaffolds for?
  3. what do astrocytes help establish?
  4. what does it assist in repair of?
  5. what does it remove from the environment? (2)
  6. where does it help maintain?
  7. enhances ____ formation?
  8. strengthen ___ transmission?


  1. neurons
  2. guide neurons during development
  3. blood brain barrier
  4. brain repair and scarring
  5. NTMRs from environment and K+ from ECF of brain
  6. helps maintain normal brain ECF ion conc.
  7. enhance synaptic formation
  8. synaptic
  1. what do olligodendrocytes produce around axons of the CNS?
  2. ependeymal: what do they line in the CNS?
  3. what does it produce? (2)
  4. Microglia: what type of cells are they?
  5. what does it release low levels of?
  6. what does it remove?
  1. produces myeline sheaths
  2. lines internal cavities of vertebral CNS (ventricles)
  3. produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neural stems cells to produce other glial cells
  4. immune defense cells of CNS
  5. release low levels of growth factors
  6. remove foreign invaders or tissue debris

What are the 4 major features protecting the CNS from injury and subtypes if applicable?


  1. cranium and vertebral column
  2. meninges: Dura mater (subdural space), arachnoid mater (subarchnoid space), pia mater
  3. cerebrospinal fluid
  4. blood-brain barrier

Cerebrospinal fluid:

  1. how many liter is the carnial vault? cells? blood? CSF?
  2. what are the characteristics of the soln?
  3. where is this continuously secrete from?
  4. what does the ependyma actively trasnports and where?
  5. what are the function?
  6. what does it contain little/lower of?
  1. cranial vt: 1.4L; cells? 1.0L; blood 0.1-0.15L; CSF: 0.2-0.3L
  2. colorless salty soln
  3. from ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of ventricles
  4. actively trasnport Na+ and solutes into ventricles
  5. physical and chemical protection
  6. contains little protein and lower K+, Ca++, HCO3-, and glucose


  1. what are the divisions based on? (3)
  2. what are the 3 distinct embryonic regions?
  3. 3 distinct anatomical regions?
  4. what consists of the forebrain? (2)
  5. what consists of the brain stem? (3)
  1. anatomic distinctions, functional specialization, and evolutionary origin
  2. hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
  3. brain stem, cerebellum, and forebrain
  4. cerebrum and diencephalon
  5. midbrain, pons, and medulla
  1. what are the 7 major components of the brain?
  1. cerebral cortex (gray matter, white matter)
  2. basal nuclei
  3. thalamus
  4. hypothalamus
  5. cerebellum
  6. brains tem
  7. corpus callosum
  1. what are the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex?
  2. what is the processing components? (4)
  1. occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal
  2. somatosensory cortex, somatomotor cortex, sensory homunculus, motor homonculus
  1. the hypothalamus is an _____ center
  2. what 2 systems is it a link b/w?
  3. what doe sit control? (homeostatic functions; 6)


  1. integratig center
  2. b/w autonomic and endocrine systems
  3. body temp
  4. thirst
  5. urination
  6. food intake
  7. uterine contractions and milk ejection
  8. autonomic functions
  9. emotional and behavioral patterns
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