Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Sociology of the Family Test I
The family and our nation today.
60
Sociology
Undergraduate 3
10/07/2008

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Phillip Aries
Definition
-Began the serious study of the family in 1960

-Saw that childrens heads are larger in proportion to their bodies and in colonial times they were portrayed as adults in paintings

-concept of childhood was a modern invention

-published a book

-childhood wasnt recognized until 1700's
Term
Public Family
Definition
Definition: one or two adults who are related by marriage, partnership, or shared parenthood, who is/are taking care of dependents, and the dependents themselves.

-looks at the benefits of family; example: children
Term
Private Family
Definition
Definition: two or more individuals who maintain an intimate relationship that they expect will last indefinately--or in the case of a parent and child, until the child is an adult--and who live in the same household and pool their incomes and household labor

-we get hugs as children, back rubs as adults, teenagers gain autonomy, etc.
Term
Created Kinship (relates to Private Family)
Definition
kinship ties that people have to construct actively
Term
Assigned Kinship
Definition
kinship ties that people more or less acquire when they are born or marry.
Term
Public Goods
Definition
things that may be enjoyed by people who do not themselves produce
Term
Functions no longer performed today like in the Colonial Days.

-relates to public goods
Definition
1. Education: children normally were taught by their family

2. Vocational Training: all children were taught by their family to learn trade, farming, etc.

3. Church Services: family worshiped and practiced religion together

4. Other Services: Hospitals, Houses of Correction, Orphanages, Nursing Homes, Poor Houses, etc.
Term
Conflict Theory (Karl Marx)
Definition
-Focuses on inequality, power differences, and social change

-views men as more powerful than women

-2 forms of male dominance
>physical force
>economic resources

-assumes there are unequal resources at onset
Term
Symbolic Interactionist Theory (George Herbert Mead)
Definition
-humans interpret what other do through gestures, words, or appearances .

-we have shared understanding of meanings and how people should act; therefore it creates the basis of social roles that people play
Term
Functionalist Theory (Talcott Parsons)
Definition
-focuses on stability and cooperation; or on functions and uses

-each partner performs specific functions

-Birthed the 'Breadwinner-Homemaker Model'--

-Basically, men are instrumental and task oriented; where women are expressive and give emotional support
Term
Feminist Theory (outgrowth of conflict theory)
Definition
-focuses on the domination of women by men

-emphasis on how roles are constructed and then how it gives men more power, and women less power.

-living in a family is much different experience for a woman than it is for a man.

-embraces the idea to separate men and womens roles as separate, instead of jointly to better the family as a whole
Term
Modernity Perspective
Definition
-personal life has changed during the second half of the 20th century

-Modern Era: 1850;1950ish--individuals went through a series of roles, like husband > parent > grandparent > etc.

-Late Modern Era: mid to late 20th century;
a. individuals make choices on all aspects of life (marriage, children, income, etc)
b. Personal identity is important
c. Reflexivity: individuals take in knowledge, reflect on it, then alter their behavior accordingly.

-this explains why there are so many types of families
Term
Evolutionary Psychology Perspective (Darwin)
Definition
-animals behave in ways that maximize their chances they will reproduce

-women reproduce by exchanging their skills for men's protection and support

-men maximized their reproductive potential by impregnating as many women and controlling sexual access to women
Term
Life Course Perspective
Definition
-individuals exchange skills and talents with others for benefits they cant receive

-women exchange household and childcare for mens income, etc.

-People are said to be rationale

-Dependence can increase/decrease when women have an income, etc..
Term
Cult of True Womanhood (Barbara Welters)
Definition
(1966)
-The true woman was, first of all, a pious upholder of spiritual values. She was also pure, no sex before marriage, and none after except with her husband. SHe was submissive to men, especially her husband. She was domestic, her proper place was the home, comforting her children and husband and livingly raising children.
Term
Stem Family (conjugal)
Definition
Kinship group comprising of husband, wife, and children
Term
Extended Family
Definition
Kinship group comprised of the conjugal family plus any other relatives present in the household such as an uncle or grandparent.
Term
Socialization
Definition
the way in which one learns the ways of a given society or social group so that one can function within it.

-children can learn gender roles in many ways
>parents, toys, media, etc..
Term
Sex
Definition
the biological characteristics that distinguish men from women
Term
gender
Definition
the social and cultural characteristics that distinguish men and women in a society
Term
The Berdache
Definition
-Indian Times: a man or woman who dressed like, performed the duties of, and behaved like a member of the opposite sex.

-helped solve conflicts within male-female relationships

-also adopted children

-were NOT considered outcasts!
Term
Intersexual
Definition
adults that are born with both sex organs
Term
Sex Gender System
Definition
the transformation of the biological differences between men and women into a social order that supports male domination.

-organized where men make and have more access to more money and more power.

-This creates a wage gap
Term
Socialization Approach
Definition
theory that gender identification and behavior are based on childrens learning that they will be rewarded for the set of behaviors considered appropriate to their sex, but not for those appropriate for the other sex.
Term
Types of Socialization?
Definition
1. Parent Socialization: parents treat boys and girls in different manners (jobs, manners, dress, punishment, etc)

2. Media Socialization: Cinderella, Snow white, GI Joe, etc.

3. Early Peer Groups: children sharing stories with young friends, playing, etc.

4. Childs Input: boys choose truck toys, climb on furniture, etc.
Term
Feminist Approach
Definition
differences between men and womens roles should be appreciated instead of taken for granted
Term
Biosocial Approach
Definition
-theory that gender identification and behavior are based in part on peoples innate biological differences and social experiences

-believe both society and biology influence behavior

-environment where a child is raised effects behavior

-social influences can counteract biological predispositions
Term
Psychoanalytic Approach (Nancy Chodorow)
Definition
-gender identification and behavior are based on children's unconscious internalization of the qualities of their same sex parent

-tries to explain why women in all societies do the childing

-women have a greater capacity to relate to infants
Term
Interactionist Approach
Definition
-identification and behavior are based on the day-to-day behavior that reinforces gender distinctions

-a continual construction of gender behavior

-males open door for women, say please and thankyou, etc.
Term
Good Provider Role (Jesse Bernard)
Definition
-women were expected to stay at home while men were supposed to be the sole earner of the family

-husband and wives are supposed to be loving companions and friends, and derive happiness from being successful spouses and parents.

-only 25% of all families are 2 parent - 1 employed
Term
Social Class

-know marx definition; as well as weber definition
Definition
an ordering of all persons in a society according to their degree of economic resources, prestige, and privilege
Term
Marx definition of social class
Definition
persons relationship to the means of production

-individuals relationship depends if he is a worker or owner.
Term
Weber definition of social class
Definition
ordering of persons in society by degree of power, prestige, and privilege
Term
Upper Class of U.S.
Definition
families that have amassed wealth and privilege and that often have substantial prestige as well

-cars, leisure activities, clothing, etc.
Term
Middle Class of U.S.
Definition
families whose connection to the economy provides them with a secure, comfortable income and allows them to live well above a substinence level

-mostly work in offices and buildings
Term
Working Class of U.S.
Definition
families whose income can reliably provide only for the minimum needs of what other people see as a descent life

-layoffs are more prone, manual jobs, etc.
Term
Lower Class of U.S.
Definition
families whose connection to the economy is so tenuous that they cannot reliably provide for a decent life.

-deterorating houses, little or no education, etc.
Term
Family Wage System
Definition
a division of labor in which the husband earns enough money to support his family and the wife remains home to do housework and childcare.
Term
Breadwinner-Homemaker Model
Definition
-a married couple with children in which the father worked for pay and the mother did not

-peaked in the mid 20th century
Term
Human Capital
Definition
personal experiences that increase an individuals capital

-classes at OU that I take
Term
Cultural Capital
Definition
how to navigate within a culture

-such as manners, how to talk, posture, look in the eye, etc.
Term
Social Capital
Definition
resources that a person can access through his or her relationships with other people

-friendships etc that translate into opportunities
Term
Contingent Unemployment
Definition
when unemployment could or could not possibly occur?

-when an individual is at a level where he could move in or out of the job market
Term
LaReau and her Social Classes
Definition
-Middle Class: parents had jobs requiring college or more advanced degress
>>Concerted Cultivation: actively enhance childrens talents. opinions, and skills (cultivating a garden) (children gain more autonomy and independence)

-Working Class:parents had jobs that required less than a college level education
>>Emergence of Natural Growth: provided a safe environment with love, allowing children to grow on their own (More conformity and obedience was apparent)
Term
United States Ethnic Composition

White-
Black-
Hispanic-
Asian-
Native American-

then by 2050...
White-
Black-
Hispanic-
Asian-
Native American-
Definition
White- 70.7%
Black- 12.3%
Hispanic- 12.5%
Asian- 2.6%
Native American- .9%


White- 52.8%
Black- 13.6%
Hispanic- 24.5%
Asian- 8.2%
Native American- .9%
Term
Characteristics of African American Families
Definition
-suffered more from economic reconstructing
-declining importance of marriage
-holds onto middle class
-highest single parent and neither parent homes
Term
Characteristics of Hispanics
Definition
-highest birth rate
-marry at the youngest age
Term
Characteristic of Asians
Definition
-most prosperous group
-low birth rates
-more married couples than any class
-highest paid
-most population numbers in college
Term
characteristics of American Indians
Definition
-lowest total fertility rate
-most economically disadvantaged
-highest percentage of families led by unmarried women
Term
Public Assistance Before the Reform Legislation
Definition
-AFDC
-PRWORA
Term
Social Security
Definition
-the system of pensions for the elderly

-was an entitlement until later in history

-entitlement: program where government has obligation to benefit anyone who qualifies

-developed in 1935 (Social Security Act)
Term
E.I.T.C. (Earned Income Tax Credit)
Definition
a refundable tax credit to low income families with children in which at least on parent is employed
Term
A.F.D.C. (Aid to Families with Dependent Children)
Definition
a federal program of financial assistance to low income families, commonly known as 'welfare' until it was replaced by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

-available only to low income single parent families
Term
T.A.N.F. (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families)
Definition
federal program of financial assistance to low income families that began in 1996, following passage of new welfare legislation

-pushed poor stay-at-home mothers to get a job, ANY JOB
Term
Popularity of EITC to LIBERALS
Definition
-provided income assistance to many low income families
-pays dual earner households
-offers a high rate of pay for these families (4000 to family with 2 children and a job)
Term
Popularity of EITC to CONSERVATIVES
Definition
-goes only to a family where a parent is employed
-not only applies to dual earners, but also breadwinner-homemaker families
Term
Welfare State
Definition
-a capitalist government that has enacted numerous measures, such as social security, unemployment compensation, and a minimum wage, to protect workers and their families from harsh conditions of a capitalist economy.
Term
Deserving Poor
Definition
Those whose poverty is beyond their control
Term
Undeserving Poor
Definition
those whose poverty is seen as their own fault because they didnt act as society expects.
Term
Welfare Reform Law of 1996 (P.R.W.O.R.A.)
Definition
-stunning rollback of policies toward poor families that had stood since 1935

-1st: ended the entitlement to welfare benefits
-2nd: set a 5 year limit to cash assistance
-3rd: recipitents had to work within 2 years of being on the rolls or their families lost benefits

-forced people to get a job, ANY JOB!
Supporting users have an ad free experience!