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Sociology Final
final exam
98
Social Studies
Undergraduate 2
12/18/2011

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Term
The sociological imagination refers to
Definition
the ability to see how individual's lives are influenced by social structure.
Term
Which sociological theory views society as a vast network of interconnected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance/order of the system as a whole?
Definition
functionalism
Term
A researcher shows erotic films to one group of subjects and violent films to another group of subjects. The researcher then assesses the cooperativeness of each group of subjects. The independent variable in this study is
Definition
the type of film seen
Term
A set of statements that seek to explain problems, actions, or behaviors are called
Definition
theories
Term
[blank] theories are derived from the work of [blank]
Definition
Conflict, Marx
Term
Elvis Presley is to Pearl Jam as
Definition
Durkheim is to Merton
Term
A [blank] sample means that every member of a population being studied has the same chance of being selected to participate in the study.
Definition
random
Term
If the bathroom scale I use every morning indicates that I weigh 25 pounds, it is
Definition
reliable but not valid
Term
Using more than one method of social investigation in one study is called
Definition
triangulation
Term
Fudge's group in the film Higher Learning would be considered a(n)
Definition
subculture
Term
The society from the film Higher Learning is
Definition
the US
Term
Which of the following is an example of ethnocentrism according to your text?
Definition
Wal-Mart opened stores in Germany and required employees to use the 10-foot-rule.
Term
The process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture is known as
Definition
diffusion
Term
Which of the following represents a functionalist view/analysis of sport in the US?
Definition
Sports serve as a safety valve for both participants and spectators, who are allowed to shed tension and aggressive energy in a socially acceptable way.
Term
A salary bonus would be best described as
Definition
a formal positive sanction
Term
Wearing flip flops during the winter in DC would be an example of
Definition
a violation of a folkway
Term
Which of the following BEST articulates a Symbolic Interactionist perspective on cultural norms?
Definition
they are maintained through face-to-face interations
Term
What are the steps in the Scientific Method?
Definition
1. define the problem
2. review the literature
3. create a testable hypothesis
4. select a research design
5. form a conclusion
6. ideas for future research
Term
Identify one Early and one Modern sociological thinker. Describe her/his major contributions to sociology.
Definition
Early Thinker: Emile Durkheim
Durkheim investigated the causes of suicide. Through his research, he came to the conclusion that suicide is not only caused by things happening in the mind, it can also happen when a person does not have enough social connections. He saw that believers of some religions were less likely to commit suicide than others when they were actively involved in a social function related to the religion. Those that were not as actively involved were at a greater risk. He concluded that behaviors are not only individual, they are also the result of society.
Also, Durkheim contributed the theory of "anomie" to sociology. He said that anomie occurs when a society feels a big change, and that the big change results in a loss of direction. He believed in using sociology to improve society.


Modern Thinker: Jane Addams
Jane Addams created Hull House to help immigrants and other underprivileged people in the Chicago area gain access to programs that would increase the quality of their lives. She believed that this would result in the betterment of society as a whole because it helped these people become productive citizens. She helped advocate for many social issues as well, many of them dealing with family, women, and children. Addams was an advocate of social change, and believed that sociology would help bring about the changes she wanted to see.
Term
Using ONE of the three main theoretical perspectives, how would you explain the happenings during the lunchtime/cafeteria fight scene in Higher Learning? What questions might be asked if you were studying the scene from that perspective? Be specific and use examples from the film. If you don't remember a character's name, just describe him/her in sufficient detail so I know about whom you are referring.
Definition
Conflict theorists are interested in the unequal distribution of power due to the structure of society. Of particular concern here would be the powerful whites and the minorities that experience marginalization due to racial inequality. I will describe the lunchtime/cafeteria fight scene using the conflict theory perspective. The students at Columbus are very segregated; each student seems to belong to one of only a handful of groups. Two of the groups, the neo-Nazis and the black power group, butt heads the most. Both groups conflict on every point of their ideology. The neo-Nazis want only white people to succeed in school. The black power group wants to help their people succeed in school. Driven by their desire to destroy each other, the black power group hunts down members of the neo-Nazi group at lunch. The attitude of the college administrators also plays into the scene that erupted during lunch. The campus police regularly target the black power group because they are different from the traditionally white students that attend Columbus, therefore the black power group feels the need to take action against the neo-Nazis because they do not believe the school administration will help protect them.
Term
Critique the Stanford Prison Experiment with the each of the concerns of the ASA's Code of Ethics. Be specific and give examples.
Definition
The Stanford Prison Experiment maintained confidentiality of the participants. The experiment did not maintain its integrity because the man in charge of the experiment lost sight of his hypothesis and became engrossed in prison culture. At one point, he admits this to a colleague who had questioned him about his methods. The experiment did not seek to protect the participants' dignity. The participants who were selected to be prisoners were verbally and emotionally abused by those who were selected as guards. For example, the prisoners were frequently woken in the middle of the night by the guards who then proceeded to hurl insults at them. Prisoners were also made to clean the toilets of the prison with their hands. The man who was in charge of the experiment reported his financial supporters and gave credit to those involved with the study. Confidentiality was compromised because visitors entered. Other concerns not listed above include: protect subjects from harm and informed consent.
Term
Explain the significance of the in-class activity where we discussed the effects of divorced parents on their children's later life potential for divorce in terms of research vs. common sense.
Definition
The significance of the in-class activity was that it demonstrated the difference between theories that can be backed up by scientific data from opinions that people develop after having a certain life experience; hypotheses are supported or not supported by data.
Term
For the following hypothesis, identify the IV, DV, and what should be operationalized.

People will wash their hands more often in a public restroom when other people are present than they will when they are alone.
Definition
IV: people being present or not present

DV: people will wash their hands more often

OPERATIONALIZED: what is "more often"? how many people do there need to be? is someone alone if they are at the sink by themselves and someone is in a stall; what is "alone"? what is a "public restroom"?
Term
Refer to the previous question's hypothesis. What research method would be most appropriate for investigating that hypothesis (keep the Code of Ethics in mind as you select a method)? Why is it the most appropriate? What are the relevant drawbacks associated with this method?
Definition
Using previously collected data about handwashing in public bathrooms would be the most appropriate research design option. It would be more effective than observation because there would not be a chance for the Hawthorn effect to occur. It would be better than the survey option because surveys are often unanswered or leave room for falsification. It would also be better than the experiment option because there would be no way to observe such a thing; an investigator would need to be present in the room at all times to observe what happens, whose presence could effect the data. Using previously collected data would allow for the investigators to interfere the least with the behavior they are studying.
Some of the drawbacks include that it might be difficult to find data on this topic, and if data is available, it may be hard to find data that is related to the hypothesis of the new experiment.
Term
Identify a manifest and a latent function of college.
Definition
Manifest = people come to college to learn

Latent = people drink alcohol before they turn 21 because their friends do it
Term
The process by which we learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture is called
Definition
socialization
Term
The _____XX_______ phase of retirement is characterized by a period in which the person has learned to deal with life after retirement in a reasonable and comfortable fashion.
Definition
stability
Term
Recent data from a nationally representative survey indicate that what percent of 8-18 year olds in the US report using the internet on a daily basis?
Definition
50%
Term
A(n) XX is an example of XX .
Definition
internship, anticipatory socialization
Term
The self is
Definition
a distinct identity that separates us from others
Term
XX status is the one that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position in society.
Definition
Master
Term
Social institutions are
Definition
organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
Term
Laughing when you trip on the sidewalk is an example of
Definition
face-work
Term
Beauracracy is
Definition
a component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
Term
Washington DC most accurately reflects
Definition
Martineau's Post-industrial society
Term
In the U.S. culture, if a 13 year old buys cigarettes from a local store, she is
Definition
deviant
Term
Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm are called
Definition
sanctions
Term
Merton's Anomie Theory of Deviance is a ____XX______ perspective
Definition
functionalist
Term
A twenty year old college student drinks alcohol at a party. He is
Definition
adhering to subcultural social norms and criminal
Term
The activity in class when everyone wrote their name/class information on a paper, tore it in half, then stood up, is an example of
Definition
obedience to authority
Term
According to a 2001 national survey of college students, what group is most likely to engage in binge drinking?
Definition
students who live in fraternity or sorority housing
Term
Explain the importance of isolation cases OR the influence of heredity to understanding the impact of socialization. Provide specific examples from class discussion and/or the text in your answer.
Definition
Isolation cases are important because they help us understand when socialization becomes crucial to the development of a person. For example, Isabelle was locked in a closet with her deaf and blind mother from birth until she was six years old. After intensive therapy, Isabelle was able to use language with some proficiency. However, she was apathetic towards people after getting to know them. As she grew older, though, she was able to catch up with her peers. At 14, she was operating at a sixth grade level.
Genie, however, was not as fortunate as Isabelle. Genie was locked in a room by her parents from the time she was 20 months old until she was 14. From her room, Genie was only ever able to hear swearing and shouting. She had never heard a normal conversation until she was rescued. The only interaction she had was her parents pushing food under the door to her. Even after intensive therapy, Genie was never able to develop a proficient use of language. She was never able to live by herself, and remains under the watch of caregivers.

From these examples, it is clear that socialization becomes a very crucial aspect of development for children between the ages of 6 and 14. Without normal interactions, children are not able to mentally develop into adults.
Term
Explain one of the three sociological theories of the self. Include the name of the theory, theorist associated with it, and the main points/steps.
Definition
The looking-glass self is a theory by Horton Cooley. He states that there are three steps that one goes through on a daily basis to determine one's image. First, one analyzes how one presented oneself to other individuals. Then, one analyzes how the image of oneself was taken in by the other individuals. Finally, one uses these two steps to measure one's ability in a particular setting. For example, if a professor were lecturing, she might observe her students sleeping. She would consider how she was presenting herself to the students, and then how they recieved her. Because they were sleeping, the professor might feel negatively about her ability as a lecturer.
Term
Identify the four main Agents of Socialization. Provide an example (hypothetical or from your experience) that illustrates the influence of the primary agent of socialization.
Definition
The four main agents of socialization are: family, peers, media, and education.

Family is the primary agent of socialization. As a child, one is supposed to learn what is appropriate behavior in social settings from their family, and most often from their parents. As a kindergarten teacher's aid, I heard a lot of interesting things come from the children. One day, a girl got angry at a boy for taking her place in line. The girl, rather than shoving the boy or telling on him, looked him square in the eyes and shouted "I'm going to beat your butt!" It seems quite likely that she had either seen or experienced this behavior with her parents, and therefore thought it was an appropriate response.
Term
Provide an example of one achieved and one ascribed status that you occupy.
Definition
One achieved status I have is that I am a student at the George Washington University. I worked hard in high school and got good grades, wrote solid admissions essays, and filled out the application and was admitted.

One ascribed status I have is being a woman. I was biologically born as a female, and because I did not have a choice in the matter, it is an ascribed status.
Term
Describe a situation where you experience role conflict and another where you experience role strain. Be sure to explain your example completely.
Definition
A role conflict is conflict between roles in two statuses. For example, a person can be both a student and a daughter. Student and daughter are two statuses. The student must go to class; this is a role. The daughter must call her parents; this is also a role. Sometimes, the parents might want the daughter to call, but she is in class and cannot.

Role strain = conflict between two roles in one status. As a student, one must make time to study. Studying is a role that a student has. However, a student also has friends who like to go out sometimes, and participating in the outing is also a role of the student. Sometimes, a student's friends might want to go out, but the student needs to study.
Term
Define and give examples of two of the following Types of Crime:
Professional
Organized
White-Collar
Victimless
Transnational
Definition
Victimless crime occurs when two adults willingly exchange highly desired goods. An example of victimless crime is prostitution. Prostitutes willingly exchange sexual favors for money from their patrons. The patrons willingly offer their money for the sexual favors.

Transnational crime is crime that occurs across a border. For example, many ancient artifacts are stolen from the Egyptian pyramids and are then sold to collectors from around the world. If an artifact in Egypt is sold to a collector in Germany, then this is a transnational crime.
Term
Recall the scene from the film Thirteen when Tracy and Evie (and other girls) were shopping on Melrose. Select one appropriate theory from the following list and use it to explain any appropriate event from that scene. Identify what theory and behavior you are using, provide the main points of the theory and explain how this theory is applicable to understanding the behavior.

Functionalist
Conflict Theory
Cultural Transmission
Labeling Theory
Definition
It's not "unfair" that she can't afford designer jeans, it's "unequal" that her mom works but does not earn sufficient money to provide for her family. If you're going to make a conflict theory argument, stick with the money since Marx really didn't care about being "cool."I will use the conflict theory to explain the scene in Thirteen where Tracy and Evie are shopping on Melrose. Tracy really wanted a new pair of jeans. However, Tracy's mom could not afford to give her enough money to buy the pair that she wanted. From the conflict perspective, it is unfair that Tracy cannot have these jeans. To the girls, the jeans are cool, and by association anyone with the jeans will be cool. To deprive the girls access to the jeans on a monetary basis means that they will not be cool. Because coolness is very important to their age group, they will not be able to be as cool as their wealtheir peers at school. This lack of coolness may deprive the girls of important opportunities, and will therefore limit the amount of coolness they can attain as well as other social capital.
Term
Recall the scene from the film Thirteen when Tracy and Evie (and other girls) were shopping on Melrose. Select one appropriate theory from the following list and use it to explain any appropriate event from that scene (yes, this can be the same event that you evaluated in the previous question). Identify what theory and behavior you are using, provide the main points of the theory and explain how this theory is applicable to understanding the behavior.

Techniques of Neutralization
Routine Activities
Control Theory
Social Disorganization
Definition
I will use the techniques of neutralization theory to explain the scene in Thirteen where Tracy and Evie are shopping on Melrose. Tracy really wants to buy a new pair of jeans because she thinks they are cooler than the ones she has. However, Tracy does not have enough money to buy the jeans. Evie and the other girls encourage her to steal from a woman sitting on a bench next to them. The woman had set her wallet down next to her and was turned away. Tracy grabs the wallet and the girls walk away. While discussing what had happened, Tracy and the other girls insist that the woman was wrong for leaving her wallet out like that, and that they did not do anything bad because the woman, in their view, was dumb. This is called denying that the victim is a victim, which is part of the techniques of neutralization theory. It is how criminals justify their crimes and try to make them seem like what they did was not wrong. Good. Other components include condemning the condemners and appealing to higher authorities.
Term
An estate system of stratification is characterized as XX and is also referred to as XX .
Definition
requiring peasants to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection; feudalism
Term
A physician who regularly misdiagnoses patients is likely to have
Definition
both a high level of prestige and a low level of esteem
Term
In the US, the middle quintile of the population reports a mean household income of about
Definition
$50,000
Term
Between 1984 and 2008, U.S. incomes
Definition
rose approximately 40% for the top 1/5 of the population and rose less than 10% the lowest 1/5 of earners.
Term
XX refers to an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of qualified individuals in a work environment based on gender, race, or ethnicity.
Definition
Glass ceiling
Term
All of the following groups are over-represented among the poor as compared to their percentage of the US population EXCEPT
Definition
citizens 65 and over
Term
The convergence of social forces that contribute to the subordinate position of low-status women is referred to as the
Definition
matrix of domination
Term
Racial formation is
Definition
a sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed
Term
Margaret Mead’s work is evidence that
Definition
gender roles tend to be more fluid than we often assume
Term
The Second Shift
Definition
all of the above
Term
When men hold jobs that are considered traditionally female (e.g.: housekeeper or elementary school teacher)
Definition
they tend to make more than their female counterparts even when all other factors are equal (e.g.: education, experience, etc).
Term
Which of the following is a racial group?
Definition
Native American
Term
Apartheid is an example of
Definition
segregation
Term
XX states that in cooperative circumstances, interracial interaction between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon old stereotypes
Definition
contact hypothesis
Term
An example of XX is when a member of a dominant racial group believes in equitable treatment of all races but does not agree with policies that would result in economic and political equality between races.
Definition
color-blind racism
Term
Of concern for Second Wave feminists are all of the following EXCEPT
Definition
access to birth control
Term
The wealthiest XX % of the US population holds XX of the wealth?
Definition
1%,
about 1/3
Term
Using terms/concepts/information from the stratification chapter, explain how the stratification monopoly game may be a more realistic depiction of US society than what we normally assume. Use specific examples and concepts from the game and the text/discussion
Definition
The stratification monopoly game may be a more realistic depiction of the US society than we normally assume a regular game to be. This is because people come from different socioeconomic backgrounds that limit what they have access to. Sometimes people with more capital will withold information that might help someone else with less capital move up. Also, the game reflects how people cope with having little money - such as pooling assets with other people or family members. The game demonstrated that people do not often have the same opportunities, and that those with more money are often afforded greater rewards. These rewards include nicer property, better education, and a much higher likelihood of continuing to possess the same positive quality of lifestyle.
Term
What are the two levels of discrimination? Please explain the difference between the two levels and provide an example for each.
Definition
Institutional discrimination: the denail of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society. This kind of discrimination consistently affects certain racial and ethnic groups more than others. eg. Rules requiring that only English be spoken at a place of work, even when it is not a business necessity to restrict the use of other languages.

Individual discrimination: any overt action of an individual that depreciates a member of an outgroup, denies outgroup members an opportunity to participate, or does violence to their lives or property. eg. A teacher may interpret linguistic and cultural differences as indications of low potential or academic interest
Term
Explain the difference between prejudice and discrimination. Give an example of an instance when someone might be discriminatory without being personally prejudiced
Definition
Prejudice is the negative attitude that someone has about a particular race, or group of people. Discrimination is when an individual or group is denied a priveledge or right because of their race, gender, sexual orientation, or other characteristic that sets them apart from what is considered normative and dominant. An example of being discriminatory without being personally prejudiced is when a white man is hired over an Asian man by a manager because the manager believes that his clientele will react poorly to the Asian man although he has no prejudice against the Asian man.
Term
Explain the difference between sex and gender. Provide an example of each.
Definition
Sex is biologically determined. You are either XX or XY [although there are some variations on this that develop from gene mutations]. An example of a sex category is the ability to have babies. Gender, however, is an ascribed status assigned by society. It is associated with the biological sex of the individual. An example of a gender category is feeling compelled to wash dishes.
Term
Select ONE of the following questions to answer. Indicate which question you are responding to by number.
1. Analyze several monologues of your choice in terms of the possible emergence of a collective consciousness as described in the text and discussed in class.

2. Based on material from the gender chapter and class discussion, how would you address someone who argues that the Vagina Monologues are "anti-men?" Support your answer with information from the gender chapter and class discussion on this topic.
Definition
I will answer question 1.

The monologue about Bosnia: This monologue discusses the rape of a woman by soldiers in Bosnia. She starts by saying that her vagina is her country. It is a place of strength and vitality and happiness. But then she is captured by soldiers who rape her, put things inside of her, and cut her. She is devastated by the destruction of her most personal and intimate space. She can no longer find pleasure from it. This monologue addresses rape and violence as a means of controlling women. It also addresses the creation of rape culture, which marginalizes the voice of victims in favor of the criminal. Rape culture makes it acceptable to say "don't get raped" rather than "don't rape." It supports and encourages the idea that rape is always the victim's fault because they deserved it in some way.

The monologue about hair: In this monologue, a woman talks about the hair on her vagina. She says that she likes it there and has no desire to get rid of it. Her husband, however, does not like the hair. They see a therapist after he cheats on her, and she submits to his desire for her to shave the hair. The therapist tells her that it is her duty to be pleasing to her husband. The husband is allowed to shave his wife, and he enjoys the sex they have afterwards. She does not. This monologue addresses the idea that women should always strive to please the man they have sex with but men do not need to do the same. It addresses the idea that women should submit to what men think is normal in order to please them sexually, but again, men do not need to do the same thing.

The monologue about the sex worker: This monologue presents the story of a sex worker, and the pleasure she gets from having sex with women. The woman was a high power lawyer before she became a sex worker. The monogue addresses the stereotype of female prostitutes - that they are downtrodden and do not want to be sex workers, and also that they only have sex with men. It also addresses women's sexual pleasure in a positive way, which is interesting because women are not often depicted as enjoying sex. It also addresses lesbianism.

A collective conscious develops when a marginalized group realizes that it is marginalized.The Vagina Monologues contribute to the emergence of a collective consciousness of women because it expresses things that women are often uncomfortable talking about. By giving a voice to the marginalized issues that women deal with daily, it addresses the causes of this discomfort. It attempts to make the issues accessible to a variety of women from different backgrounds and socioeconomic classes. The idea is that women all have similar life experiences, and so by putting these stories out there, it tries to make women accept these things about themselves and to no longer feel shame about them because the shame stems from the patriarchial views of society.
Term
Identify one example provided by McIntosh in her article on race. How does this example contribute to differential/unequal treatment?
Definition
McIntosh said that she, or her children, can open a textbook and expect to see people of her race depicted. This example contributes to unequal treatment by establishing her race, white, as normative. This contributes to unequal treatment because it 1) makes those of McIntosh's race feel that they hold the normative position and should expect to see themselves in that position and 2) it marginalizes minorities and makes them feel like they do not belong in that position. It says that they are not the dominant race, and therefore they do not belong. By not being able to see other minorities participating in a role, it gives them the impression that such a role should not be something they want because it would be unfamiliar and abnormal for them to fill it.
Term
How would a functionalist OR conflict theorist explain address racial/ethnic inequality OR gender inequality.
Definition
A functionalist would explain that gender inequality and stratification makes society stable. There is a particular theory from the late 1950s that discusses this idea. The theory says that children are most well socialized when they have parents who assume certain specialized roles. They say that women should be "expressionate," which means that they assume a role that allows them to take care of the children, household, and express their emotions and feelings. Men, however, should assume an "instrumental" role, which means that they are seen as the ones who provide the structure of the family. They are the ones who should work outside of the home. While the men provide a structure for the family to live in, the woman is believed to be the one who should maintain the internal operations of the household. This theory provides no definitive reason for why men should play the instrumental role over women.
Term
Briefly discuss the importance of non-sexist language as was discussed in class and the handout. Provide a term and how it can be changed/replaced to be non-gendered.
Definition
An example of a gendered term is "penmanship." It can be replaced by the word "handwriting" to become nongendered.

The importance of using non-sexist language comes from the idea that words are given values. If a word becomes associated with a gender, such as the word "actor," then it is difficult to equally identify that profession with an idividual of the opposite gender. Also, in using the word "actor," the word must change to "actress" to address that the individual is a woman. By using this pattern, language subordinates women to men. It establishes being male as normative even if the word refers to something that both genders may do.
Term
Approximately what percent of people who acquire STDs/STIs are under 25?
Definition
63%
Term
People born with ambiguous or both sex organs are called
Definition
hermaphrodites or intersexed
Term
Which of the following in NOT associated with the the Functionalist perspective on Family?
Definition
Discipline of Criminal Behavior
Term
Coupling with someone of the same race,
Definition
follows rules of endogamy
Term
Which of the following was NOT a finding of Kinsey's research?
Definition
sexual behaviors tend to be more in line with traditional assumptions
Term
According to recent research, XX of college men report having been XX .
Definition
50%
sexually aggressive toward a woman.
Term
Affairs are most likely to be committed by whom?
Definition
men overall are more likely to engage in affairs compared to women
Term
Beginning in the 1920s, the US began to experience which of the following changes related to sexuality?
Definition
divorce rates began to increase, better sex education became available, tolerance for homosexuality began to increase slightly
Term
Which characteristics are associated withe higher levels of homophobia?
Definition
living in the South, being authoritarian, being politically conservative
Term
The marriage of one man to more than one woman at the same time is called
Definition
polygyny
Term
Which of the following has NOT been associated with the increased acceptance of divorce in the US?
Definition
limited options for women to make a living wage due to institutional sexism
Term
About what percent of currently married couples report cohabitation prior to marriage?
Definition
50%
Term
Which of the following is NOT a myth about rape?
Definition
most rapes are pre-planned
Term
According to recent research, the children of gay/lesbian parents
Definition
tend to be as well (or as poorly) adjusted as those raised by heterosexual parents.
Term
A nuclear family consists of
Definition
a married heterosexual couple and their biological offspring
Term
Which of the following was identified in the readings/discussion as a positive associated with the trend toward having more sex partners prior to marriage?
Definition
ability to explore personal likes and dislikes
Term
In the US, we tend to trace lineage through which of the following lines of descent?
Definition
bilateral
Term
What are the differences associated with male and female sexual expressiveness and how do these reflect US social patterns in general?
Definition
Men are stereotyped as being more interested in sex than women, are frequently encouraged to masturbate regularly to release their excess desires, and that they should always orgasm from sex.

Women are stereotyped as being more conservative with their sexuality out of fear of being called 'sluts,' that they enjoy it less than men, that they have sex to feel more intimacy with a partner rather than for physical pleasure, and that they are not encouraged to masturbate as frequently as men.

These reflect the patterns of sexual expression in the US. There is a double standard for women that does not allow them to be as free with their sexuality as men. Women are more likely to have fewer sexual partners as a result. Also, women are encouraged to masturbate less, which could be linked to the idea that they are not as likely to orgasm through vaginal intercourse because they are not as familiar with their bodies as men are. 58% of women report masturbating regularly, while 92% of men do. Many women report achieving orgasm during sex much less than men. This could contribute to the idea that a female orgasm is optional, while for men it is almost guaranteed. Good, but how do these patterns reflect general u.s. social patterns?
Term
You are a sociology researcher who is interested in exploring sexuality and family from the Interactionist perspective. Develop two research questions (one on sexuality, one on family) that might be explored from this micro approach.
Definition
Sexuality: What happens when men and women have their first sexual experience? How does each partner feel and how is that significant?

Family: How are the roles of men and women different when a child comes into the picture? Are the roles static throughout the child's development, or do they change over time?
Term
Discuss TWO of the following Child-Rearing Patterns according to the text and class/discussion:
parenthood/grandparenthood
adoption
dual-income families
single-parent families
step-families
Definition
Single-parent families: many households are headed by one parent, and in many cases this parent is female. It is often difficult for single parents to balance family duties, like taking care of children, with working at a job that provides a living wage. Many single-parent families live below the poverty line. This is especially common in households headed by a single mother. There has been an increase in the number of single women giving birth during their 20s and 30s, but the most common type of single mother is a white teen.

Parenthood/grandparenthood: many families are experiencing the "full nest syndrome" as a result of the economic recession. It is becoming more common for adult children to continue to live with their parents after graduating from college - sometimes well into their 30s. Some cite the cost of living as an issue; many young people have found it very difficult to obtain a job after graduating from college which limits their ability to move out of their parents' homes. Also, some young people with children (some married, some unmarried) may find it easier to live with their parents because of cost, and because they need help raising their children. Living with one's parents can provide a stable environment for one's children because there is an increased chance for a supportive network.
Term
Briefly explain the significance of the Ideal Families article in terms of their main point and why they felt it was necessary to make.
Definition
The main point of the Ideal Families article was that there is nothing wrong with gay and lesbian families. The article sought to disprove the fairly common idea that children raised by a gay or lesbian couple will in some way experience great socialization disadvantages. The research cited in the article proves that this is a false idea, and that children raised under these circumstances are just as likely to be "normal" as children raised by heterosexual couples. On the whole, children from gay or lesbian families experience the same great socialization or the same lack of socialization experienced by children from heterosexual families. The authors of the article felt this was a necessary point to make because many politicians are misinformed about this issue and have continued to propagate that children from gay and lesbian couples are lacking a balance in their upbringing. ["we do not use prove/disprove" "to inform policy" fuck you:)]
Term
What are TWO of the four challenges associated with the transition to parenthood?
Definition
1. lack of anticipatory socialization for parents
2. the transition to parenthood is very rapid. One minute you do not have a child, and then the next minute you do.
Term
Explain the Conflict Perspective on sexuality in the US.
Definition
The conflict perspective on sexuality in the US says that the inequality in power in a relationship produces unhealthy sexual relationships. For example, the book mentions that pedophiles often have more power in their relationships with the children they have sexual relationships with. This creates and inequality, and makes the weaker partner feel much more obligated to say yes to what the person with more power wants.
Term
Explain how researchers from the Functionalist Perspective would explain US family dynamics.
Definition
The functionalist perspective in the US on family dynamics has several parts:
1. sexual regulation: marriage is largely defined as being between a man and a woman. This gives members of society a normative definition to strive for.
2. replacement of family members: marriage is seen as a way to reproduce a population. To functionalists, the ideal family would be able to replace both the mother and the father after they pass away.
3. socialization: families provide a way to socialize children
4. protection/care: families provide a means of protecting and taking care of their children so that they will grow up to be productive members of society
5. social placement/social status: children born into families will likely retain the social status of their family. To functionalists, this is good because it contributes to societal stability. If a mother and a father both attended university, and have a total yearly income of $100,000, then it is likely that the child will be able to obtain a similar lifestyle. The same is true for children born into families with lower or higher statuses.
6. emotional support/affection/love: families are able to provide their members with support during difficult times (both financial and emotional). This contributes to the stability of the unit.
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