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Pysc 107 CH 2
The Science of Psychology
34
Psychology
Undergraduate 1
09/20/2011

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Term
Theory
Definition
A broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempt to explain observations.
Term
Varibale
Definition
Anything that can change
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
An educated guress that derives logically from a theory; and prediction that can be tested.
Term
Operational Definition
Definition
A definition that provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a paticular study.
Term
Descriptive Research
Definition
Research that determines basic dimensions of a phenomenon, difining what it is, how often it occurs, and so on.
Term
Case Study or Case History
Definition
An in depth look at a single individual
Term
Correlation Research
Definition
Research tha exmaines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together.
Term
Thired Variable Problem
Definition
The circumstance where a variable has not been measured accounts for the relationship between two other variables. Third variables are also known as confounds.
Term
Longitudinal Design
Definition
A special kind of systematic observation, used by correlation researchers, that involves obtaing measures of variables of intrerest in multiple waves over time.
Term
Experiment
Definition
A carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable.
Term
Random Assignment
Definition
Researcher's assignment of participants to groups by chance, to reduce the likelihood that an experiment's result will be due to preexisting differences between groups.
Term
Independent Variable
Definition
A manipulated experimental factor; the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are.
Term
Dependent Variable
Definition
The outcome
Term
Confederate
Definition
A person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated
Term
Experimental Group
Definition
The particapants in an experiment who recieve the drug or other treatment under the study.
Term
Control Group
Definition
The participants in an experiement who are as much like the experimental group as possible and who are treated in every other way like the experimental group exvept for a manipulated factor, the independent variable.
Term
External Validity
Definition
The degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the real world issures it is supposed to address
Term
Internal validity
Definition
The degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulationj of the independent variable.
Term
Experimenter Bias
Definition
Occurs when the experimenter's expectations influnence the outcome of the research.
Term
Demand Characteristics
Definition
Any aspects of a study that communicate to the participants how the experimenter wants them to behave
Term
Research Prticpant Bias
Definition
Occurs when the behavior of research participants during the experiement is influneced by how they think they are supposed to behave or their expectations about what is happening to them.
Term
Placebo Effect
Definition
In a drug case study, a harmless substance that has no physiological effect, given to participants in a control group so that they are treated identically to the experimental group except for the active agent.
Term
Double-Blind Experiment
Definition
An experimental design in which neither the experimental nor the particpants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated.
Term
Population
Definition
The entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions.
Term
Sample
Definition
The subset of the population chosen by the investigator for study.
Term
Random Sample
Definition
A sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected.
Term
Naturalistic observation
Definition
The observation of behavior in a real world setting.
Term
Descriptive Statistics
Definition
Mathematical procedures that are used to describeand summarize sets of data in a meaningful way.
Term
Mean
Definition
A measure of central tendency that is the average of the sample.
Term
Median
Definition
A measure of central tendency that is the middle score in a sample.
Term
Mode
Definition
A measure of central tendency that is the most common score in as sample.
Term
Range
Definition
A measure of dispersion that is the difference between the highest ande lowest scores.
Term
Standard Deviation
Definition
A measure of dispersion that tells us how much socres in a sample differ from the mean of the sample
Term
Inferential Statistics
Definition
Mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether results for a sampel are likely to gereralize to a population
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