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PSY30010 - Abnormal Psychology (3)
Weeek 3
44
Psychology
Undergraduate 3
07/21/2019

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Cards

Term
Defining Stress
Definition
Stress refers to both the external demands placed on an organism (known as stressors) and the organism's internal biological and psychological responses to such demands. It is a by-product of poor or inadequate coping. Both positive stress (eustress) and negative stress (distress) tax a person's coping skills.
Term
Negative and Positive Stress

(Many factors can predispose a person to stress. These include the nature of the stressor, the person's perception of stress, their past experiences and individual characteristics.)
Definition
Distress [negative stress] is a damaging or unpleasant stress (e.g., doing exam).
(Selye, 1949, p. 118)

Eustress is a positive stress resulting in a pleasurable or satisfying experience (e.g. participating in a football game, even watching one).
Term
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Definition
Stress and the (GAS)
The 'general adaptation syndrome' describes the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress. It has three stages: the alarm, resistance and exhaustion stages.
Term
Adjustment disorder (AD)
Definition
(AD) can be caused by relatively common life events, such as unemployment, loss of a loved one through death, or marital separation or divorce. Adjustment disorder can occur in any age group. In adults, women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder; whereas in children and adolescents, boys and girls are equally diagnosed.
Prevalence rates vary widely:
2–8% in child, adolescent, and elderly populations
12% in general hospital inpatient populations
10–30% in outpatient populations
>50% in specialised populations (following cardiac surgery, etc.). (AD)
Term
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Definition
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the response to severe trauma or excessively stressful situations such as rape, military combat, imprisonment, being held hostage, forced relocation, or torture. PTSD may include such symptoms as intrusive thoughts and repetitive nightmares about the event, intense anxiety, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, negative changes in thoughts and mood, and increased arousal manifested as chronic tension, irritability, insomnia, impaired concentration and memory, and reckless behaviour. (PTSD)
Term
Acute stress disorder (ASD)
Definition
ASD
When PTSD symptoms occur within six months of the traumatic event, the diagnosis is acute stress disorder. In acute stress disorder, symptoms last no longer than one month after the cessation of the stressor.
Term
The term 'crisis' refers to:

any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's ability to cope.


encountering a number of stressors simultaneously.


a period of especially acute stress.
Definition
any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's ability to cope.
Term
A main symptom of PTSD in DSM-5 is:

development of stress-related diseases.

reexperiencing of the traumatic event.

panic attacks when remembering the trauma.

depression.
Definition
reexperiencing of the traumatic event.
Term
For an adjustment disorder, the symptoms must appear within __________ months of the stressor.

two

nine

three

six
Definition
three
Term
According to DSM-5, acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when:

the trauma is an event out of the realm of normal life experience.

the symptoms last for more than 2 weeks.

the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.

the symptoms begin within 6 months of the trauma.
Definition
the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.
Term
Estimates of the prevalence of PTSD:

have not been made.

indicate that most people who experience a traumatic event develop PTSD.

demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.

find that it rarely exists as a comorbid condition.
Definition
demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women
Term
Which of the following is NOT a key characteristic of stress:

Severity

Chronicity

Timing

Probability
Definition
Probability
Term
According to the DSM, an adjustment disorder does NOT involve:

bereavement.

marked distress.

significant impairment in social, occupational or other areas of functioning.

identifiable stressor(s).
Definition
bereavement.
Term
The incident with the highest lifetime prevalence for PTSD is:

massive catastrophic trauma (e.g., combat, torture holocaust).

sexual assault.

sudden loss of a loved one.

all of the above.
Definition
all of the above.
Term
According to the DSM, an essential feature of acute stress disorder involves:

development of characteristic anxiety, dissociative or other symptoms within 1 month after exposure to traumatic stressor.

development of characteristic anxiety, dissociative or other symptoms within 2 month after exposure to traumatic stressor.

development of characteristic anxiety, dissociative or other symptoms within 1 week after exposure to traumatic stressor.

development of characteristic anxiety, dissociative or other symptoms within 2 weeks after exposure to traumatic stressor.
Definition
development of characteristic anxiety, dissociative or other symptoms within 1 month after exposure to traumatic stressor.
Term
Describe the key features of the DSM’s Adjustment Disorder.
Definition
According to the DSM the key features of the DSM include a maladaptive response to common stressor within 3 months of stressor and that these symptoms disappear when stressor ends or person adapts. The symptoms cause significant clinical difficulties including marked distress that is out of proportion to the severity of the stress being experienced, after taking into account environmental/cultural factors. The distress causes significant impartment to the individual's social, educational and/or occupational functioning. The symptoms should do not continue for more than 6 months once the stressor has ceased. The symptoms must not represent bereavement.
Term
health psychology (HP)
Definition
The field of health psychology is concerned with the effects of stress and other psychological factors in the development and maintenance of physical problems. Health psychology is a subspecialty within behavioral medicine. (HP)
Term
behavioral medicine (BM)
Definition
A (BM) approach to physical ill- ness is concerned with psychological factors that may pre- dispose an individual to medical problems. These may include such factors as stressful life events, certain person- ality traits, particular coping styles, and lack of social sup- port.
Term
PTSD (emphasis)
Definition
In the physi- cal realm, we place an emphasis on heart disease. For men- tal disorders, we concern ourselves primarily with PTSD.
Term
Defining Stress
Definition
To avoid confusion, we will refer to external demands as (stressors), to the effects they create within the organism as (stress), and to efforts to deal with stress as (coping strategies).
Term
DIfferences between PTST, acuture stress dispoorder and adjustment disorder
Definition
The key differences among them lie not only in the severity of the disturbances but also in the nature of the stressors and the time frame during which the disorders occu
Term
Individual characteristics that have been identified as improving a person’s ability to handle life stress include
Definition
higher levels of optimism, greater psychological control or mastery, increased self-esteem, and better social support
Term
Stress Tolerance (ST)
Definition
(ST) refers to a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.(ST)
Term
what makes one stressor more serious than another?
Definition
The key factors involve (1) the severity of the stressor, (2) its chronicity (i.e., how long it lasts), (3) its timing, (4) how closely it affects our own lives, (5) how expected it is, and (6) how controllable it is
Term
Crisis (Cr)
Definition
crisis is used to refer to times when a stressful situation threatens to exceed or exceeds the adaptive capacities of a person or a group
Term
Resilience
Definition
After experiencing a potentially traumatic event, some people function well and experience very few symptoms in the following weeks and months. This kind of healthy psy- chological and physical functioning after a potentially traumatic event is called resilience. You might be surprised to learn that resilience is not rare. In fact, resilience is the most common reaction following loss or trauma
Term
Factors that increase resilience include..
Definition
Factors that increase resilience include being male, being older, and being well educated. Having more economic resources is also beneficial.
Term
allostatic load (AL)
Definition
The biological cost of adapting to stress is called the allostatic load (Oken et al., 2015). When we are relaxed and not experi- encing stress, our allostatic load is low. When we are stressed and feeling pressured, our allostatic load is higher. (AL)
Term
The sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM)
Definition
The sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system (see Gunnar & Quevedo, 2007) is designed to mobilize resources and prepare for a fight-or-flight response. The stress response begins in the hypothalamus, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
Term
hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal (HPA)
Definition
he hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system (which we introduced in Chapter 3; also see Figure 5.3). In addition to stimulating the SNS, the hypothalamus releases a hormone called cor- ticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Traveling in the blood, this hormone stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary then secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Term
Cortisol
Definition
In humans, the stress glucocorticoid that is produced is called cortisol.

Cortisol is a good hormone to have around in an emer- gency. It prepares the body for fight or flight. It also inhib- its the innate immune response. This means that if an injury does occur, the body’s inflammatory response to it is delayed. In other words, escape has priority over healing, and tissue repair is secondary to staying alive
Term
Psychoneuroimmunology
Definition
The link between stress and physical illness involves dis- eases (like colds) that are not directly related to nervous system activity. This suggests that stress may cause an overall vulnerability to disease by compromising immune functioning. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the immune system.
Term
Immune System
Definition
The front line of defense in the immune system is the white blood cells. These leukocytes (or lymphocytes) are produced in the bone marrow and then stored in various places throughout the body, such as the spleen and the lymph nodes. There are two important types of leukocytes. One type, called a B-cell (because it matures in the bone marrow), produces specific antibodies that are designed to respond to specific antigens. Antigens (the word is a con- traction of antibody generator) are foreign bodies such as viruses and bacteria, as well as internal invaders such as tumors and cancer cells. The second important type of leu- kocyte is the T-cell (so named because it matures in the thymus, which is an important endocrine gland). When the immune system is stimulated, B-cells and T-cells become activated and multiply rapidly, mounting various forms of counterattack (see Figure 5.4). If this did not happen, you would inevitably die of infection
Term
Telomeres
Definition
Telomeres (from the Greek words telos, meaning “end,” and meros, meaning “part”) are the protective end parts of chromosomes. You can think of them as being rather like the ends of shoelaces in this respect. Unfortunately, telo- meres shorten with age. And if they get too short, cells do not function correctly and the risk of disease is increased.


The reason all of this is so important is that stress shortens the length of telomeres.
Term
Type A behavior pattern
Definition
Type A behavior pattern (Friedman & Rosenman, 1959). Type A behavior is characterized by excessive com- petitive drive, extreme commitment to work, impatience or time urgency, and hostility

Type A personality in oth- erwise healthy men ages 35 to 59 was associated with a two- fold increased risk for coronary artery disease and an eightfold increased risk of having a heart attack over the course of an 8.5-year follow-up (.
Term
Type D personality type
Definition
A more recent development is the identification of the “distressed” or Type D personality type (Denollet et al., 2000). People with Type D personality have a tendency to experience negative emotions and also to feel insecure and anxious. Men with CHD who scored high on measures of chronic emotional distress were more likely to have fatal and nonfatal heart attacks over the 5-year follow-up period than were men who did not have these Type D personality traits
Term
positive psychology.
Definition
positive psychology. This school of psychology focuses on human traits and resources such as humor, gratitude, and com- passion that might have direct implications for our phys- ical and mental well-being.
Term
EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE
Definition
EMOTIONAL DISCLOSURE “Opening up” and writing expressively about life problems in a systematic way does seem to be an effective therapy for many people with ill- nesses. It may also speed up wound healing
Term
BIOFEEDBACK
Definition
Biofeedback procedures aim to make patients more aware of such things as their heart rate, level of muscle tension, or blood pressure. This is done by con- necting the patient to monitoring equipment and then pro- viding a cue (for example, an audible tone) to the patient when he or she is successful at making a desired response (e.g., lowering blood pressure or decreasing tension in a facial muscle). Over time, patients become more con- sciously aware of their internal responses and are able to modify them when necessary.


Biofeedback seems to be helpful in treating some conditions, such as headaches
Term
An adjustment disorder
Definition
An adjustment disorder is a psychological response to a common stressor (e.g., divorce, death of a loved one, loss of a job) that results in clinically significant behavioral or emotional symptoms. The stressor can be a single event, such as going away to college, or involve multiple stress- ors, such as a business failure and marital problems.

In cases where the symp- toms continue beyond 6 months, the diagnosis is usually changed to some other mental disorder.
Term
PTSD and Acute Stress Disorder durations
Definition
The diagnosis of PTSD requires that symptoms must last for at least 1 month. What this means is that, in the study just described, the women who had symptoms within 2 weeks of the assault would not be diagnosed with PTSD. Instead, the diagnosis would be acute stress disorder.

Acute stress disorder is a diagnostic category that can be used when symptoms develop shortly after experiencing a traumatic event and last for at least 2 days
Term
The clinical symptoms of PTSD are shown in the Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder box. Note that these symptoms are grouped into four main areas and con- cern the following:
Definition
1. Intrusion: Recurrent reexperiencing of the traumatic event through nightmares, intrusive images, and phys- iological reactivity to reminders of the trauma. (In DSM-IV ruminative thoughts about the trauma were also considered to reflect intrusion. This is not the case in DSM-5.) 2. Avoidance: Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or reminders of the trauma. 3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes such symptoms as feelings of detachment as well as negative emotional states such as shame or anger, or distorted blame of oneself or others. 4. Arousal and reactivity: Hypervigilance, excessive response when startled, aggression, and reckless behavior
Term
PTSD Facts
Definition
In other words, the interaction between certain genes and certain environmen- tal experiences may prime the attentional system to develop cognitive biases toward negative stimuli.

In other words, reduced hippocampal size could be both a risk factor for PTSD and also be a consequence of trauma exposure.
Term
stress- inoculation training
Definition
The use of cognitive-behavioral techniques to help people manage potentially stressful situations or difficult events has been widely explored (Brewin & Holmes, 2003). This preventive strategy, often referred to as stress- inoculation training, prepares people to tolerate an antic- ipated threat by changing the things they say to themselves before or during a stressful event.
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