Behavior Questions

Operant conditioning was mainly

developed by B. F. Skinner.


Behavior therapists look to current

environmental events that maintain

problem behaviors and help clients

produce behavior change by changing

environmental contingencies.


The emphasis of contemporary behavior

therapy is on evidence-based



Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is based on helping clients control or change unpleasan

sensations and thoughts


Behavioral techniques can be effectively incorporated into a group counseling format.


Typically, the goals of the therapeutic process are determined by the



Behavior therapists tend to be active

and directive, and they function

as consultants and problem solvers


Multimodal therapy consists of a

series of techniques that are used

with all clients in much the same



There is a growing trend toward integrating

cognitive and behavioral

methods to help clients manage

their own problems.


A program of behavioral change

should begin with a comprehensive

assessment of the client.


Behavior therapy is grounded on

a. the psychodynamic aspects of a


b. the principles of learning.

c. a philosophical view of the

human condition.

d. the events of the first 5 years of life.


Mindfulness and acceptance-based


a. have received empirical support

as an effective form of therapy.

b. have no legitimate place in behavior


c. have no research evidence to

support the value of the techniques


d. are a pafi of traditional behavior


e. have not yet been accepted into

the behavioral tradition.


In behavior therapy it is generally

agreed that

a. the therapist should decide the

treatment goals.

b. the client should decide the

treatment goals.

c. goals of therapy are the same for

all clients.

d. goals are not necessary.


Which is not true as it is applied to

behavior therapy?

a. Insight is necessary for behavior

change to occur.

b. Therapy should focus on behavior

change and not attitude change.

c. Therapy is not complete unless

actions follow verbalizations.

d. A good working relationship between

client and therapist is necessary

for behavior change to occur.


According to most behavior therapists,

a good working relationship

between client and therapist is

a. a necessary and sufficient condition

for behavior change to occur.

b. a necessary but not sufficient,

condition for behavior change to


c. neither a necessary nor a sufficient

condition for behavior

change to occur.


Applied behavior analysis makes

use of

a. classical conditioning techniques.

b. operant cdnditioning techniques.

c. cognitive behavioral techniques.

d. all of the above.

e. none ofthe above.


Which of the following is not akey

concept of behavior therapy?

a. Behavior is learned through reinforcement.

b. Present behavior is stressed

more than past behavior.

c. Emphasis is on evidence-based

treatment procedures.

d. Emphasis is on action and experimenting

with new behaviors.

e. Emphasis is.on the role of insight

in treatment.


Dialectical behavior therapy

a. has no empirical support for its


b. is a promising blend of behavioral

and psychoanalytic techniques.

c. is a long-term therapy lor treating


d. is a form of operant conditioning.

e. is a forrn of classical conditioning.


Which is not true of dialectical behavior

therapy (DBT)?

a. DBT was formulated for treating

borderline personality disorders.

b. DBT emphasizes the importance of the client-therapist relatiorship

c. DBT incorporates mindfulness

training and Zen Practices

d. DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts and behavioral techniques

e. DBT relies on empirical data to

support its effectiveness


An exposure-based procedure that

involves imaginal f,looding, cognitive

restructuring, and the induction

of rapid, rhYthmic eye movements

aimed at treatment of traumatic experiences

is called

a. flooding.

b. in vivo desensitization.

c. systematic desensitization.

d. relaxation training.

e. eye movement desensitization

and reprocessing.


Prolonged/intense exposure-either in

real life or in imagination-to highly

anxiety-evoking stimuli is called

a. self-management training'

b. in vivo desensitization.

c. systematic desensitization'

d. flooding.

e. eye movement desensitization

and reProcessing.


A limitation of traditional behavior

theraPY is its

a. lack of research to evaluate the

effectiveness of techniques'

b. de-emPhasis on the role of feelings

in theraPY'

c. laik of clear concePts on which

to base Practice.

d. disregard for the client-therapist


e. overemphasis on early bhildhood



Contemporary behavior therapy

places emPhasis on

a.the interplaY between the individual

and the environment.

b.heling clients acquire insight

into the causes of their Problems'

c. a phenomenological aPProach to

understanding the Person'

d. encouraging clients to reexperience

unfinished business with

significant others by role-playing

with them in the Present.

e. working through the transference

relationshiP with the theraPist'


Which is not true as it applies to

multimodal theraPY?

a. Therapeutic flexibility and versatility

are valued highlY'

b. TheraPists adjust their Procedures

to effectivelY achieve the

client's goals in theraPY'

c. Great care is taken to fit the client

to a Predetermined tYPe of


d. The aPProach encourages technical


e. The theraPist makes a comprehensive

assessment of the client's

level of functioning at the outset

of theraPY.


Which of the following'isrntconsidered

one of the basic characteristics

of contemPorary behavior theraPY?

a. Experimentally derived principles

of iearning a6e systematica[y applied

to helP PeoPle change their

maladaPtive behaviors.

b. Emphasis is on using evidencebased

treatment interventions'

c. The focus is on assessing overt

and covert behavior directlY,

identifuing the Problem, and

evaluating change.

d. The theraPY is an exPeriential

and insight-oriented aPProach'

e. There is an atternPt to develoP

culture-sPecific Procedures and

obtain clients'adherence and cooPeration

in a treatment Program'

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

REBT makes use of both cognitive

and behavioral techniques, but it

does not use emotive techniques.


REBT stresses the importance of

the therapist demonstrating unconditional

positive regard for the



Cognitive therapy for depression

was developed by Meichenbaum.


REBT is,a form of cognitive behavior



Ellis shares Rogers's view of the

client-therapist relationship as a

condition for change to occur within



Beck developed a procedure known

as stress-inoculation training.


According to Ellis, to feel worthwhile,

human beings need love and

acceptance from s ign ifican t others.


Ellis maintains that events themselves

do not cause emotional disturbances;

rather it is our evaluation of

and beliefs about these events that

cause our problems.


A difference between Beck's cognitive

therapy and Ellis's REBT is that

Beck places more emphasis on helping

clients discover their misconceptions

for themselves than does Ellis.


According to Beck, people become

disturbed when they label and evaluate

themselves by a set of rules

that are unrealistic.


Rational emotive behavior therapy


a. support, understanding, warmth,

and empathy.

b. awareness, unfinished business,

impasse, and experiencing.

c. thinking, judging, analyzing, and


d. subjectivity, existential anxiety,

self-actualization, and being.

e. transference, dream analysis,

uncovering the unconscious, and

early experiences.


REBT is based on the philosophical

assumption that human beings are

a. innately striving for selfactualization.

b. determined by strong unconscious

sexual and aggressive


c. potentially able to think rationally

but have a tendency toward

irrational thinking.

d. trying to deyelop a lifestyle to

overcome feelings of basic inferiority.

e. determined strictly by environmental



REBT stresses that human beings

a. think, emote, and behave simultaneously.

b think without emoting.

c. emote without thinking.

d. behave without emoting or



REBT views neurosis as the result of

a. inadequate mothering during


b. failure to fulfill our existential


c. excessive feelings.

d. irrational thinking and behaving.


In cognitive behavioral group therapy

a. there is some research thal shows

that this approach is effective

for treating a wide range of emotional

and behavioral problems.

b. the group leader assumes a

blank screen demeanor so as to

enhance transferehe'e feelings of

the members.

c the assumption is that a therapeutic

atmosphere is both necessary

and sufficient for change to occur,

d. the group leader believes that

using techniques interferes with

the group process.

e. the emphasis is on having members

identifii and express feelings.


REBT contends that people

a. have a need to be loved and accepted

by everyone.

b. need to be accepted by most


c. will become emotionally sick if

they are rejected.

d. do not need to be accepted and


e. need to be accepted and will become

sick if they are rejected.


According to REBT, we develop

emotional disturbances because of

a. a traumatic event.

b. our beliefs about certain events.

c. abandonment by those we depend

on for support.

d. withdrawal of love and acceptance.


According to REBI a personal clienttherapist

relationship is

a. necessary but not sufficient, for

change to occur.

b. necessary and sufficient for

change to occur.

c. neither necessary nor sufficient

for change to occur.


In cognitive therapy the assumption

is that psychological problems stem

from processes such as

a. faulty thinking.

b. making incorrect inferences on

the basis of inadequate or incorrect


c. failing to distinguish between

fantasy and reality.

d. negative automatic thoughts.

e. all ofthe above.


Cognitive therapy is based on the

assumption that

a. our feelings determine our


b. our feelings determine our


cognitions are the major determinants

of how we feel and act.

the best way to change thinking

is to reexperience past emotional

traumas in the here and now.

insight is essential for any type

of change to occur.


In cognitive therapy techniques are

designed to

a. assist clients in substituting rational

beliefs for irrational beliefs.

b. help clients experience their feelings

more intensely.

c. identifiu and test clients'misconceptions

and faulty assumptions.

d. enable clients to deal with their

existential loneliness.

e. teach clients how to think only

positive thoughts.


The type of cognitive error that involves

thinking and interpreting in

all-or-nothing terms or categorizing

experiences in either-or extremes is

known as

a. magnification and exaggeration.

b. polarized thinking.

c. arbitrary inference.

d. overgeneralization.

e. none ofthe above.


Beck's cognitive therapy differs

from Ellis's REBT in that Beck emphasizes

a. a Socratic dialogue.

b. helping clients discover their

misconceptions by themselves.

c. working with the client in collaborative


d. more structure in the therapeutic


e. all ofthe above.


Beck's cognitive therapy has been

most widely applied to the treatment


a. stress s\Tnptoms.

b. psychosomatic reactions.

c. phobias.

d. depression.

e. cardiovascular disorders.


In Meichenbaum's self-instructional

ther'apy, which of the following is

given primary importance?

a. detecting and debating irrational


b. the role of inner speech

c. learning the A-B-C model of

emotional disturbances

d. identifying cognitive errors

e. exploring feelings that are attached

to early decisions

Choice/ Reality Therapy

What is important is not the way

the real world exists but the way we

perceive the world to exist.


Choice theory is the framework for

the practice of reality therapy.


A good way to change behavior is

for us to be self-critical.


It is important to explore the past as

a way to change current behavior.


One of the therapist's functions is to

make judgments about clients' present



The focus of reality therapy is on attitudes

and feelings.


The use of contracts is often part of

reality therapy


Reality therapy is grounded on

some existential concepts.


It is the client's responsibility to decide

on the goals of therapy.


Appropriate punishment is an effective

way to change behavior.


The founder of reality therapy is

a. Albert Ellis.

b. Albert Bandura.

c. Joseph Wolpe.

d. Robert Wubbolding.

e. William Glasser.


According to this approach, insight

a. is necessarybefore behavior

change can occur.

b. is not necessary for producing

behavior change.

c. will come only with changed


d. can be given to the client by the

teachings of the therapist.

e. will be discovered bv the client



The view of human nature underlying

reality therapy is

a. that we have a need for identity.

b. that we have the need to feel

loved and to love others.

c. that we need to feel worthwhile

to ourselves and others.

d. all ofthe above.

e. none of the above.


Which is not a key concept of reality


a. focus on the present

b. unconscious motivation

c. self-evaluations

d. involvement as part of the therapy


e. responsibility


Which of the following is not true

of reality therapy?

a. Punishment is eliminated.

b. Clients must make


c. Therapists do not accept excuses

or blaming.

d. Therapy is a didactic process.

e. Working through the transference

relationship is essential for

therapy to occur.


Regarding the goals of reality therapy,

a. it is the therapistt responsibility

to decide specific goals for


b. it is the client's responsibility to

decide goals.

c. the goals oftherapy should be

universal to all clients.

d. society must determine the

proper goals for all clients.

e. both (c) and (d) are true.


Concerning the role and place of making

evaluations in reality therapy,

a. it is the therapistt function to

make an evaluation concerning

the morality of the client's


b. clients should make an evaluation

conierning their own


c. value judgments should not be a

part of reality therapy.

d. therapist evaluations should be

made only when clients ask for such feedback.


Which statement is not true of reality


a. It is based on a personal


b. It focuses on attitude change as a

prerequisite for behavior change.

c. Planning is essential.

d. The focus is on the client's



Reality therapy was designed originally

for working with

a. elementary school children.

b. youthful offenders in detention


c. alcoholics.

d. drug addicts.

e. people with marital conflicts.


Which of the following would not

be used by a reality therapist?

a. analysis of the transference


b. hypnosis

c. the analysis of dreams

d. the search for causes of current


e. all ofthe above


Which of the following statements is

true as it applies to choice theory?

a. Behavior is the result of external


b. We are controlled by the events

that occur in our lives.

c. We can control the behavior of

others by learning to actively listen

to them,

d. We are motivated completely by

internal forces, and our behavior

is our best attempt to get what

we want.

e. We can control our feelings more

easily than our actions.


According to Glasser, all of the following

are basic psychological needs

except for

a. competition.

b. belonging.

c. power.

d. freedom.

e. fun.


Choice theory tends to focus on

a.feeling and physiology.

b.doing and thinking.

c. coming to a fuller understanding

of the past.

d. the underlying causes for feeling

depressed or anxious.

e. how the family system controls

our decisions.


Sometimes it si:ems as though people

actually choose to be miserable (depressed).

Glasser explains the dynamics

of depressing asbeingbased on

a. keeping anger under control.

b. getting others to help us.

c. excusing our unwillingness to do

something more effective.

d. all ofthe above.

. e. none ofthe above.


All of the following are procedures

in reality therapy that are said to

lead to change except for

a. exploring wants, needs, and


b. focusing on current behavior.

c. the therapist's evaluating of the

client's behavior.

d. the client's evaluating of his or

her own behavior.

e. the client's committing to a Plan

of action.

Family Systems

The trend todav is toward reliance on

a single theory of family therapy rather

than using an integrative approach.


The emergence of feminist and post-

modern perspectives has moved the

field of family theraPY toward more egalitarian, collaborative, and coconstructing



Experiential familytherapyrelies on

the expert use of directives aimed at

changing dysfunctional Patterns.


A multilensed approach to family

therapy is best supported by a collaborative

therapist-client relationship.


Conducting an assessment is one of

the phases of the mutilensed Perspective

in family therapy.


Understanding family process is

almost always facilitated by "how"



In terms of assessment, it is useful

to inquire about family perspectives

on issues inherent in each of the



The multilensed process of family

therapy is similar to the "blueprints

for therapy" as proPosed bY a

metaframeworks model.


The teleological lens is concerned

with the study of final causes, goals,

endpoints, and purposes.


Reframing is the art of putting what

is known in a new, more useful Perspective.


Which of the following family therapy

models makes the most use o[

genograms, dealing with family-oforigin

issues, and detriangulating


a. Adlerian family therapy

b. Bowenian multigenerational

family therapy

c. structural family therapy

d.strategic therapy

e.experiential family therapy


Which of the following approaches

most often employs a co-theraPist

model, makes use of self-disclosure,

uses the therapist's self as change agent, and frequently uses confrontation?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. structural family therapy

d. strategic therapy

e. experiential family therapy


Which of the following is not akey

general movement of the multilensed

approach to family systems therapy?

a. forming a relationship

b. conducting an assessment

c. hypothesizing and sharing


d. conducting empirical research to

evaluate outcomes

e. facilitating change


Differentiation of the self is the cornerstone

of which theory?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. social constructionism

d. strategic therapy

e. experiential family therapy


Which of the following lenses addresses

these questions: What goals

do you have for yourself and for

other people in the family? What purposes

do you seem to have for how

they behave?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the organization lens

e. the developmental lens


What lens raise,s these kinds of

questions: How does a typical day

go? Are there processes and patterns

that characterize-current or past

transitions for the family? What routines

support your daily living?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the organization lens

e. the developmental lens


What lens deals with these questions:

Are the parents effective leaders

of the family? How do the children

respond to parental leadership?

Is the process of leadership balanced

or imbalanced? Does it lead to harmony

or conflict?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the organization lens

e. the developmental lens


What lens most addresses these questions:

Where is the family in the family

life cycle, and how are they handling

transitions? What relational

processes have been established over

time and how have they changed

through transitional periods?

a. internal family systems

b. the teleological lens

c. sequences

d. the developmental lens

e. the multicultural lens


What best defines the focus of family


a. Most of the family therapies tend

to be brief.

b. Family therapy tends to be solution-


c. The focus is on here-and-now interactions

in the family system.

d. Family therapy is generally actionoriented.

' e. all of the above


Which of the following is not one

of the eight lenses of family systems

therapy discussed in this chapter?

a. the gender lens

b. the multicultural lens

c. the cognitive behavioral lens

d. the process lens

e. the developmental lens


Which of the following roles and

functions would be most atypical

for a structural family therapist?

a. joining the family in a position

of leadership

b. giving voice to the therapist's

own impulses and fantasies

c. mapping the underlying structure

of a family

d. intervening in ways designed to

transform an ineffective structure

of a family

e. being a stage director


Which of the following is least associated

with experiential family


a. It is an interactive process between

a therapist and a family.

b. It focuses on the here and now.

c. Techniques grow out ofthe spontaneous

reactions to the present

situation in therapy.

d. It stresses the subjective needs of

the individual in the family.

e. It is the therapist's task to plan a

strategy for so|ving the problems

of each family member.


Directives and paradoxical procedures

are most likely to be used in

which approach to farnily therapy?

a. strategic family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. multigenerational family therapy

d. experiential family therapy

e. structural family therapy


Which approach to family therapy

stresses the importance of returning

to one's family of origin to extricate

oneself from triangular relationships?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. Adlerian family therapy

c. structural family therapy

d. strategic family therapy

e. experiential family therapy


Which approach to family therapy

stresses unlocking mistaken

goals, investigating birth order

and family constellation, and reeducation?

a. Bowenian family therapy

b. structural family therapy

c. Adlerian family therapy

d. strategic family therapy

e. experiential family therapy