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Physiology Chapter 7
The Nervous System
87
Physiology
Undergraduate 4
03/11/2014

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Term
The brain and spinal cord comprise the
A. central nervous system.
B. peripheral nervous system.
C. peripheral ganglia.
D. spinal nerves.
Definition
A. central nervous system
Term
Axoplasmic flow
A. requires actin and Ca2+.
B. can be retrograde.
C. is relatively fast.
D. results from rhythmic waves of contraction.
Definition
D. results from rhythmic waves of contraction.
Term
Which of the following is NOT true of axonal transport?
A. uses molecular motion
B. can transport anteroretrograde
C. can transport retrograde
D. results from rhythmic waves of contraction.
Definition
D. results from rhythmic waves of contraction.
Term
Retrograde transport
A. moves toward the cell body.
B. moves membranes, vesicles, and viruses.
C. uses molecular motor proteins of dynein.
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
D. All of the choices are correct.
Term
. Sensory neurons
A. are multipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS.
B. are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS.
C. are bipolar and carry impulses away from the CNS.
D. are multipolar and carry impulses away from the CNS.
Definition
B. are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a structural classification of neurons?
A. motor neuron
B. bipolar neuron
C. multipolar neuron
D. pseudomultipolar neuron
Definition
A. motor neuron
Term
Which of the following is NOT a functional classification of neurons?
A. motor or efferent
B. interneuron or association
C. multipolar
D. sensory or afferent
Definition
C. multipolar
Term
The myelin eaths of CNS neurons are produced by
A. Schwann cells.
B. oligodendrocytes.
C. ependymal cells.
D. leukocytes.
Definition
B. oligodendrocytes.
Term
The myelin sheaths of PNS neurons are produced by
A. Schwann cells.
B. oligodendrocytes.
C. ependymal cells.
D. leukocytes.
Definition
A. Schwann cells.
Term
Cells supporting neuron cell bodies in ganglia are termed
A. astrocytes.
B. ependymal cells.
C. satellite cells.
D. Schwann cells.
Definition
C. satellite cells.
Term
What structure is found around PNS axons that is NOT found around CNS axons?
A. nodes of Ranvier
B. myelin sheath
C. neurilemma
D. plasma membrane
Definition
C. neurilemma
Term
Action potential transmission in the PNS is decreased if which cells are damaged?
A. astrocytes
B. microglia
C. oligodendrocytes
D. Schwann cells
Definition
D. Schwann cells
Term
The gap of exposed axon in the myelin sheath is the
A. neurilemma.
B. node of Ranvier.
C. sheath of Schwann.
D. white matter.
Definition
B. node of Ranvier.
Term
. White matter is
A. myelinated axons in the CNS.
B. myelinated axons in the PNS.
C. nonmyelinated cell bodies and dendrites in the CNS.
D. nonmyelinated axons in the CNS.
Definition
A. myelinated axons in the CNS.
Term
Regeneration of CNS axons may be prevented in part by inhibitory proteins in the membranes of the
A. myelin sheath.
B. neurons.
C. astrocytes.
D. satellite cells.
Definition
A. myelin sheath.
Term
. The disease ______________ is characterized by destruction of CNS myelin sheaths and the formation of hardened scars.
A. Parkinson's
B. Alzheimer's
C. multiple sclerosis.
D. myasthenia gravis
Definition
C. multiple sclerosis.
Term
Axonal regeneration is inhibited by
A. brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
B. nerve growth factor.
C. neurotrophin-3.
D. myelin-associated inhibitory protein.
Definition
D. myelin-associated inhibitory protein.
Term
Fetal neuron growth requires the actions of a group of chemicals known as
A. endorphins.
B. synapsins.
C. neurotrophins.
D. glutamates.
Definition
C. neurotrophins
Term
Degeneration of spinal motor neurons in adults may be due to a lack of ____________ factor.
A. brain-derived neurotrophic
B. neurotrophin-3
C. nerve growth
D. glial-derived neurotrophic
Definition
D. glial-derived neurotrophic
Term
Which of the following is NOT a function of neurotrophins?
A. maintaining sympathetic ganglion
B. sustain neurons that use the NT dopamine
C. embryonic development of neurons
D. regeneration of injured motor neurons
Definition
D. regeneration of injured motor neurons
Term
The most numerous of all cells of CNS nervous tissue are the
A. astrocytes.
B. neurons.
C. Schwann cells.
D. microglia
Definition
A. astrocytes.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a function of astrocytes?
A. can take up NT from a synapse
B. can stimulate or inhibit neurons
C. needed to form synapses in the CNS
D. phagocytose foreign material in the CNS
E. forms the blood-brain barrier
Definition
D. phagocytose foreign material in the CNS
Term
Which cells are needed for the formation of synapses in the CNS?
A. ependymal
B. microglia
Which cells are needed for the formation of synapses in the CNS?
C. astrocytes
D. dendrites
Definition
C. astrocytes
Term
The blood-brain barrier results mostly from the action of ___________, a type of glial cell.
A. ependymal cells
B. microglia
C. astrocytes
D. oligodendrocytes
Definition
C. astrocytes
Term
The membrane of resting nerve cells is more permeable to ____________ ions than ____________ ions.
A. sodium, potassium
B. calcium, potassium
C. potassium, sodium
D. chloride, potassium
Definition
C. potassium, sodium
Term
. Ion channels that open in response to depolarization are called
A. ion-gated channels.
B. voltage-gated channels.
C. stimulation-gated channels.
D. potential-gated channels.
Definition
B. voltage-gated channels.
Term
Blocking ____________ channels would prevent neuronal depolarization.
A. K+
B. Cl-
C. Na+
D. Mg2+
Definition
C. Na+
Term
During an action potential
A. Na+ efflux causes depolarization.
B. K+ influx causes repolarization.
C. Na+ influx causes depolarization.
D. K+ influx causes after-hyperpolarization
Definition
C. Na+ influx causes depolarization.
Term
Local anesthetics block conduction of action potentials in sensory neurons by
A. inhibiting the release of acetylcholine.
B. binding to potassium channels.
C. binding to sodium channels.
D. binding to calcium channels.
Definition
C. binding to sodium channels.
Term
. The mechanism that allows many Na+ ions to move into the axon is
A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. equilibrium feedback.
D. None of the choices are correct.
Definition
B. positive feedback.
Term
An axon will depolarize only if the membrane potential reaches between -70mV and -55mV. This follows the
A. All-or-none law.
B. recruitment law.
C. graduated law.
D. threshold law.
Definition
A. All-or-none law.
Term
. The minimum depolarization needed to open Na+ gates is called the
A. repolarization.
B. threshold.
C. refractory period.
D. All-or-none law.
Definition
B. threshold.
Term
. The period of time when Na+ channels are recovering from their inactive state and K+ channels are still open is the
A. repolarization.
B. absolute refractory period.
C. relative refractory period.
D. Both repolarization and relative refractory period are correct.
Definition
D. Both repolarization and relative refractory period are correct.
Term
The ability of a neuron to transmit charge through its cytoplasm is called cable properties and is very
A. good.
B. strong.
C. poor.
D. easy.
Definition
C. poor.
Term
. Action potentials would be conducted most rapidly by
A. a 10 mm diameter myelinated axon.
B. a 10 mm diameter unmyelinated axon.
C. a 40 mm diameter myelinated axon.
D. a 40 mm diameter unmyelinated axon
Definition
C. a 40 mm diameter myelinated axon.
Term
. Conduction of an action potential in a myelinated axon is called
A. point to point conduction.
B. saltatory conduction.
C. refractory conduction.
D. cable conduction
Definition
B. saltatory conduction.
Term
. ______ synapses occur between axons of postsynaptic cells and axons of presynaptic cells.
A. Axodendritic
B. Axosomatic
C. Myoneural
D. Axoaxonic
Definition
A. Axodendritic
Term
. In a myelinated axon, Na+ channels are
A. along the whole length of the axon.
B. every 5 mm.
C. concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier.
D. less numerous at the nodes of Ranvier.
Definition
C. concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier.
Term
. Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are called
A. hormones.
B. enzymes.
C. neurotransmitters.
D. neurotrophins
Definition
C. neurotransmitters.
Term
Chemical synapses
A. have a delayed impulse transmission.
B. utilize gap junctions.
C. occur when two nerve cells are in direct contact with each other.
D. do not require the release of neurotransmitters.
Definition
A. have a delayed impulse transmission.
Term
What type of proteins are present in gap junctions that form water-filled channels between neurons?
A. connexons
B. myelin
C. terminal boutons
D. cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Definition
A. connexons
Term
What type of proteins are present at chemical synapses to ensure the close proximity of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes?
A. connexins
B. myelin
C. terminal boutons
D. cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Definition
D. cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Term
Synaptic vesicles are docked to the plasma membrane of the axon terminal by a protein complex called
A. boutons.
B. connexons.
C. synaptotagmins.
D. SNARE.
Definition
D. SNARE.
Term
Botulism toxin prevents release of Ach, causing
A. flaccid paralysis.
B. hemiplegia.
C. spastic paralysis.
D. None of the choices are correct.
Definition
A. flaccid paralysis.
Term
. Neurotransmitter release would be inhibited by
A. stimulating repolarization of the axon terminal.
B. blocking Ca2+ influx in the axon terminal.
C. blocking repolarization of the axon terminal.
D. stimulating protein kinase activity.
Definition
B. blocking Ca2+ influx in the axon terminal.
Term
Hyperpolarization in the postsynaptic cell is caused by
A. excitatory postsynaptic potentials.
B. inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
C. movement of K+ out of the cell.
D. Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and movement of K+ out of the cell are correct.
Definition
D. Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and movement of K+ out of the cell are correct.
Term
Neurotransmitters
A. are released by endocytosis.
B. all bind to the same receptor.
C. usually regulate ion channels.
D. are actively transported across the synaptic cleft.
Definition
C. usually regulate ion channels.
Term
. The binding of a NT to its receptor protein causes ion channels to open in the post-synaptic membrane. What type of gates are these?
A. chemically-regulated gates
B. voltage-regulated gates
C. ligand-regulated gates
D. Both chemically-regulated gates and ligand-regulated gates are correct.
Definition
D. Both chemically-regulated gates and ligand-regulated gates are correct.
Term
. Acetylcholine
A. is always an excitatory neurotransmitter.
B. can bind to adrenergic receptors.
C. is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by motor neurons.
D. can bind to nicotinic receptors.
Definition
D. can bind to nicotinic receptors.
Term
Muscarinic Ach receptors are found in all of the following locations EXCEPT
A. skeletal muscle
B. smooth muscle
C. cardiac muscle
D. glands
Definition
A. skeletal muscle
Term
Which of the following is NOT true of EPSPs?
A. they are graded responses
B. they are capable of summation
C. they have a refractory period
D. they are initiated by neurotransmitters
Definition
C. they have a refractory period
Term
Acetylcholine usually induces an excitatory postsynaptic potential when binding to ________ receptors and an inhibitory postsynaptic potential when binding to ____________ receptors.
A. NMDA, nicotinic
B. nicotinic, muscarinic
C. muscarinic, NMDA
D. muscarinic, nicotinic
Definition
B. nicotinic, muscarinic
Term
Acetylcholine can induce hyperpolarization by
A. binding to nicotinic receptors.
B. binding to muscarinic receptors.
C. binding to a-adrenergic receptors.
D. binding to b-adrenergic receptors.
Definition
B. binding to muscarinic receptors.
Term
____________ is an acetylcholinesterase antagonist used to treat myasthenia gravis.
A. Neostigmine
B. Muscarine
C. Naloxone
D. Nitric oxide
Definition
A. Neostigmine
Term
Curare is a competitive Ach antagonist at _____________ Ach receptors.
A. muscarinic
B. NMDA
C. kainate
D. nicotinic
Definition
D. nicotinic
Term
What portion of the neuron is NOT involved in integration?
A. cell body
B. axon
C. dendrites
D. axon hillock
Definition
B. axon
Term
Cholinergic fibers use ____ as the neurotransmitter.
A. norepinephrine
B. acetylcholine
C. dopamine
D. serotonin
Definition
B. acetylcholine
Term
Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid
A. alanine.
B. glycine.
C. tryptophan.
D. serine.
Definition
C. tryptophan.
Term
Monoamine NTs are degraded by
A. acetylcholinesterase.
B. monoamine oxidase.
C. catechol-O-methyltransferase.
D. adenylate cyclase.
Definition
B. monoamine oxidase.
Term
. MAO inhibitors may cause hypertensive crisis by a person eating foods rich in
A. phenylalanine.
B. tyramine.
C. glutamic acid.
D. tryptophan.
Definition
B. tyramine.
Term
Catecholamines activate postsynaptic cells by
A. inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
B. increased Ca2+ influx into the target cell.
C. inhibition of calmodulin.
D. increased production of cyclic AMP.
Definition
D. increased production of cyclic AMP.
Term
Epinephrine degradation by the postsynaptic cells is catalyzed by
A. acetylcholinesterase, Achase.
B. monoamine oxidase, MAO.
C. catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT.
D. adenylate cyclase.
Definition
C. catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT.
Term
What NT used by neurons with cell bodies in the raphe nuclei along the midline of the brainstem?
A. serotonin
B. dopamine
C. glycine
D. GABA
Definition
A. serotonin
Term
. The __________ dopamine system may be involved in emotional reward and drug addiction.
A. nigrostriatal.
B. mesolimbic
C. amygdala
D. dentate
Definition
B. mesolimbic
Term
. Neuroleptics, which are used to treat schizophrenia, are
A. dopamine agonists.
B. Ach antagonists.
C. dopamine antagonists.
D. glutamate agonists.
Definition
C. dopamine antagonists.
Term
Addictive drugs, as well as nicotine activate dopamine release in the
A. nucleus accumbens.
B. corpus striatum.
C. basal nuclei.
D. corpus callosum.
Definition
A. nucleus accumbens.
Term
The mesolimbic dopamine neurons arise in the midbrain and terminate in the
A. nucleus accumbens.
B. corpus striatum.
C. basal nuclei.
D. corpus callosum.
Definition
A. nucleus accumbens.
Term
. Mutation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor would affect the ability of ____________ to regulate neural function.
A. Ach
B. epinephrine
C. glutamate
D. nitric oxide
Definition
C. glutamate
Term
Which of the following is NOT a type of glutamate receptor?
A. NMDA receptor
B. muscarinic receptor
C. kainate receptor
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
B. muscarinic receptor
Term
. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are produced by
A. glycine.
B. glutamic acid.
C. gamma-aminobutyric acid.
D. benzodiazepines.
Definition
B. glutamic acid.
Term
. Benzodiazepines act by increasing ________ activity.
A. GABA
B. glutamate
C. Ach
D. enkephalin
Definition
A. GABA
Term
Which poison inhibits glycine receptors?
A. strychnine
B. curare
C. tetrodotoxin
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
A. strychnine
Term
The most common neurotransmitter in the brain is
A. glycine.
B. acetylcholine.
C. serotonin.
D. GABA.
Definition
D. GABA.
Term
The capacity of synapses for alteration at the molecular level is termed
A. synaptic modulation.
B. synaptic alteration.
C. synaptic capacitance.
D. synaptic plasticity.
Definition
D. synaptic plasticity.
Term
The normal effect of b-endorphin can be blocked by
A. curare.
B. naloxone.
C. muscarine.
D. nicotine
Definition
B. naloxone.
Term
Which of the following are natural analgesics?
A. endorphins
B. enkephalins
C. dynorphins
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
D. All of the choices are correct.
Term
The most abundant neuropeptide in the brain is
A. neuropeptide Y.
B. neuropeptide Z.
C. substance P.
D. CCK.
Definition
A. neuropeptide Y.
Term
Inhibition of neuropeptide Y synthesis would
A. induce euphoria.
B. induce obesity.
C. stimulate leptin secretion.
D. inhibit eating
Definition
D. inhibit eating
Term
The brain produces lipid analgesic neurotransmitters called
A. endocannabinoids.
B. endorphins.
C. enkephalins.
D. nitric oxide.
Definition
A. endocannabinoids.
Term
. Endocannabinoids are retrograde NTs, meaning they are
A. released from presynaptic neurons and diffuse to the postsynaptic neuron.
B. released from postsynaptic neurons and diffuse to the presynaptic neuron.
C. released from presynaptic neurons and diffuse back to the presynaptic cell body.
D. None of the choices are correct.
Definition
B. released from postsynaptic neurons and diffuse to the presynaptic neuron.
Term
. Relaxation of cerebral blood vessels would be stimulated by excessive ________ activity.
A. nitric oxide
B. Ach
C. norepinephrine
D. glutamate
Definition
A. nitric oxide
Term
. Nitric oxide
A. is a chemical messenger activating adenylate cyclase.
B. stimulates the dilation of blood vessels.
C. is produced from L-asparagine.
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
B. stimulates the dilation of blood vessels.
Term
Which gas(es) can function as a neurotransmitter?
A. carbon dioxide
B. nitric oxide
C. carbon monoxide
D. both nitric oxide and carbon monoxide.
Definition
D. both nitric oxide and carbon monoxide.
Term
Spatial summation
A. occurs when a single neuron releases neurotransmitter rapidly.
B. occurs because of the convergence of many neurons on a single postsynaptic cell.
C. only involves excitatory postsynaptic potentials.
D. only involves inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
Definition
B. occurs because of the convergence of many neurons on a single postsynaptic cell.
Term
. Excitotoxicity is caused by
A. insufficient synaptic release of glutamate.
B. excessive synaptic release of glutamate.
C. GABA inhibition.
D. insufficient synaptic release of Ach.
Definition
B. excessive synaptic release of glutamate.
Term
. Both long-term potentiation and long-term depression requires release of ___ from the postsynaptic neuron membrane.
A. Cl-
B. K+
C. Ca2+
D. Mg2+
Definition
C. Ca2+
Term
. Postsynaptic inhibition is caused by
A. Acetylcholine
B. GABA
C. glycine
D. Both GABA and glycine
Definition
D. Both GABA and glycine
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