Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Physiology Chapter 5
Chapter 5 - Cell Respiration and Metabolism
44
Physiology
Undergraduate 3
02/24/2014

Additional Physiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
. ______________ reactions require energy to synthesize large molecules from small molecules.
A. Combustion
B. Catabolic
C. Anabolic
D. Decomposition
Definition
C. Anabolic
Term
Anabolic reactions do NOT
A. utilize energy.
B. synthesize molecules within cells.
C. store energy.
D. release energy.
Definition
D. release energy.
Term
Glycolysis converts glucose into two ______________ molecules.
A. glycogen
B. lactic acid
C. acetyl CoA
D. pyruvic acid
Definition
D. pyruvic acid
Term
To go through glycolysis, _________ ATP per glucose molecule must be "invested" in order to activate the glucose molecule.
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
Definition
B. two
Term
How many hydrogens are released in glycolysis?
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
Definition
D. four
Term
How many hydrogens are released in glycolysis?
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
Definition
D. four
Term
Glycolysis results in a net gain of two ATP formed by direct _____________ of ADP molecules using phosphates taken from glycolytic intermediates.
A. phosphorylation
B. hydrolysis
C. reduction
D. oxidation
Definition
A. phosphorylation
Term
________ muscle is better adapted to anaerobic conditions than cardiac muscle.
A. Smooth
B. Skeletal
Definition
B. Skeletal
Term
Lactic acid is the result of LDH (lactic acid dehydrogenase) mediated __________ of pyruvic acid with electrons taken from NADH + H+.
A. oxidation
B. reduction
C. phosphorylation
D. hydrolysis
Definition
B. reduction
Term
______________ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration metabolism.
A. Red blood
B. White blood
C. Skin
D. Nerve
Definition
A. Red blood
Term
______________ normally only produce ATP by aerobic respiration.
A. Red blood cells
B. Cardiac muscle cells
C. Skeletal muscle cells
D. Skin cells
Definition
B. Cardiac muscle cells
Term
What is the inadequate supply of blood to an organ called?
A. infarction
B. ischemic
C. necrosis
D. cramping
Definition
B. ischemic
Term
. Anaerobic respiration metabolism is triggered when the ratio of ______________ falls below a critical level.
A. carbon dioxide supply to oxygen need
B. oxygen supply to glucose need
C. glucose supply to glucose need
D. oxygen supply to oxygen need
Definition
D. oxygen supply to oxygen need
Term
. ______________ is the opposite of glycogenesis.
A. Glycolysis
B. Glyconeogenesis
C. Glycogenolysis
D. Gluconeogenesis
Definition
C. Glycogenolysis
Term
. Blood glucose concentrations can be maintained by hydrolysis of glycogen in the
A. liver.
B. skeletal muscle.
C. smooth muscle.
D. kidneys.
Definition
A. liver.
Term
. Which of the following cells relies solely on anaerobic metabolism of glucose?
A. skeletal muscle cells
B. liver cells
C. kidney cells
D. red blood cells
Definition
D. red blood cells
Term
. What percentage of energy released by aerobic respiration of glucose is captured by ATP?
A. 25-30%
B. 30-34%
C. 38-40%
D. 42-46%
Definition
C. 38-40%
Term
Lactic acid can be used as an energetic substrate by
A. nervous tissue.
B. resting skeletal muscle.
C. the kidney.
D. the heart.
Definition
D. the heart.
Term
. During the conversion of one pyruvic acid to acetyl coenzyme A, ______________ molecule(s) of carbon dioxide is/are produced.
A. no
B. one
C. two
D. four
Definition
B. one
Term
A deficiency of ______________ would limit production of coenzyme A.
A. pantothenic acid
B. linoleic acid
C. folic acid
D. thiamine
Definition
A. pantothenic acid
Term
Formation of the maximum number of acetyl CoA molecules from glucose produces ______________ molecules of carbon dioxide.
A. no
B. one
C. two
D. four
Definition
C. two
Term
Aerobic respiration
A. uses glucose.
B. generates water.
C. Both uses glucose and generates water.
D. generates oxygen.
Definition
Both uses glucose and generates water.
Term
Acetyl CoA is
A. generated from oxaloacetate.
B. generated from pyruvate.
C. generated from citric acid.
D. generated from water.
Definition
B. generated from pyruvate.
Term
. Energy lost during the process of aerobic cell respiration is given off as
A. carbon dioxide.
B. water.
C. oxygen.
D. metabolic heat.
Definition
D. metabolic heat.
Term
. Which of the following is a superoxide radical?
A. an oxygen molecule with an extra, unpaired electron
B. an oxygen molecule with two paired electrons
C. hydrogen peroxide
D. All of these choices are correct.
Definition
A. an oxygen molecule with an extra, unpaired electron
Term
. What theory explains the ability of the electron transport system to pump protons between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes?
A. tricarboxylic acid theory
B. chemiosmotic theory
C. phosphorylation theory
D. proton pump theory
Definition
B. chemiosmotic theory
Term
. The actual yield of ATP from 1 glucose is
A. 18-20 ATP.
B. 36-38 ATP.
C. 30-32 ATP.
D. 26-28 ATP.
Definition
C. 30-32 ATP.
Term
ATP formation in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle is called
A. substrate level phosphorylation.
B. oxidative phosphorylation.
C. direct phosphorylation.
D. Both substrate level phosphorylation and direct phosphorylation are correct.
Definition
D. Both substrate level phosphorylation and direct phosphorylation are correct.
Term
ATP formation in the electron transport system is called
A. substrate level phosphorylation.
B. oxidative phosphorylation.
C. direct phosphorylation.
D. Both substrate level phosphorylation and direct phosphorylation are correct.
Definition
B. oxidative phosphorylation.
Term
The amount of energy contained in fat is
A. 4 kilocalories per gram.
B. 5 kilocalories per gram.
C. 9 kilocalories per gram.
D. 15 kilocalories per gram.
Definition
C. 9 kilocalories per gram.
Term
The process of fat formation from acetyl CoA is called
A. lipogenesis.
B. lipolysis.
C. beta-oxidation.
D. deamination.
Definition
A. lipogenesis.
Term
The hydrolysis of triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol is called
A. lipogenesis.
B. lipolysis.
C. beta-oxidation.
D. deamination.
Definition
B. lipolysis.
Term
. Fatty acid metabolism
A. occurs via glycolysis.
B. occurs via oxidative deamination.
C. occurs via the Cori cycle.
D. occurs via beta-oxidation.
Definition
D. occurs via beta-oxidation.
Term
In newborns, _________ occurs in brown fat.
A. lipogenesis
B. thermogenesis
C. gluconeogenesis
D. biogenesis
Definition
B. thermogenesis
Term
. Sweet smelling breath may be the result of elevated ______________ in the blood.
A. glucose
B. fructose
C. acetone
D. cholesterol
Definition
C. acetone
Term
. The primary site of ketone body synthesis is
A. the lung.
B. the kidney.
C. the liver.
D. adipose tissue.
Definition
C. the liver.
Term
. Ketone bodies are produced by
A. excessive protein breakdown.
B. excessive carbohydrate breakdown.
C. excessive fat breakdown.
Definition
C. excessive fat breakdown.
Term
The process in which an amine group is transferred from one amino acid to another is called
A. deamination.
B. beta-oxidation.
C. phosphorylation.
D. transamination.
Definition
D. transamination.
Term
How many amino acids are essential for an adult?
A. eight
B. nine
C. ten
D. twelve
Definition
A. eight
Term
Ammonia is produced by
A. transamination.
B. oxidative deamination.
C. glycogenolysis.
D. the Cori cycle.
Definition
B. oxidative deamination.
Term
Most of the glucose secreted by the liver during fasting is due to
A. glycogenolysis.
B. gluconeogenesis.
C. lipolysis.
D. deamination.
Definition
B. gluconeogenesis.
Term
. Oxidative deamination is required for
A. carbohydrate synthesis.
B. carbohydrate breakdown.
C. protein synthesis.
D. protein breakdown.
Definition
D. protein breakdown.
Term
Fatty acids are NOT an energy source for
A. the brain.
B. resting skeletal muscle.
C. the liver.
D. the heart.
Definition
A. the brain.
Term
. What type of tissue is especially dependent on adequate plasma glucose levels?
A. skeletal muscle
B. cardiac muscle
C. nervous
D. liver
Definition
C. nervous
Supporting users have an ad free experience!