Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Physiology Chapter 14
Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure
54
Physiology
Undergraduate 4
03/23/2014

Additional Physiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Cardiac output is equal to 
A. stroke volume - cardiac rate.
B. stroke volume / cardiac rate.
C. stroke volume + cardiac rate.
D. Stroke volume x cardiac rate
Definition
D. Stroke volume x cardiac rate
Term
. Norepinephrine is released from __________ nerves, causing heart rate to _______. 
A. parasympathetic, increase.
B. parasympathetic, decrease.
C. sympathetic, increase.
D. sympathetic, decrease.
Definition
C. sympathetic, increase.
Term
3. The volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole is known as the 
A. after-load.
B. pre-diastolic volume (PDV).
C. stroke volume (SV).
D. end-diastolic volume (EDV).
Definition
D. end-diastolic volume (EDV).
Term
The ejection fraction is 
A. normally about 60% at rest.
B. the ratio of end diastolic volume to end systolic volume.
C. increased by parasympathetic agonists.
D. decreased by sympathetic agonists.
Definition
A. normally about 60% at rest.
Term
Stroke volume is affected by all of the following EXCEPT 
A. total peripheral resistance.
B. emotional stress.
C. cardiac contractility.
D. end diastolic volume (EDV).
Definition
B. emotional stress.
Term
According to the Frank-Starling Law of the heart, as contraction strength increases the stroke volume 
A. decreases.
B. increases.
C. shows no change.
Definition
B. increases.
Term
Stroke volume is directly proportional to 
A. preload.
B. contractility.
C. total peripheral resistance.
D. Both preload and contractility.
Definition
D. Both preload and contractility.
Term
Stroke volume is inversely proportional to 
A. preload.
B. contractility.
C. total peripheral resistance.
D. Both preload and contractility.
Definition
C. total peripheral resistance.
Term
In response to increased ventricular filling 
A. total peripheral resistance increases.
B. sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine.
C. myocardial cells stretch.
D. myocardial contractility in decreases.
Definition
C. myocardial cells stretch.
Term
Muscle length has a more pronounced effect on contraction strength in cardiac muscle than in skeletal muscle. This is because cardiac muscle has a greater sensitivity to 
A. depolarization.
B. lactic acid.
C. calcium.
D. parasympathetic antagonists.
Definition
C. calcium.
Term
. Cardiac output would be increased by 
A. sympathetic antagonists.
B. parasympathetic agonists.
C. negative inotropic agents.
D. positive chronotropic agents
Definition
D. positive chronotropic agents
Term
The ______________ is equal to the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the capillaries minus the hydrostatic pressure of tissue interstitial fluid outside the capillaries. 
A. net filtration pressure
B. blood pressure
C. osmotic pressure
D. None of the choices are correct.
Definition
A. net filtration pressure
Term
. Net filtration would be decreased by 
A. liver damage.
B. increased hepatic protein synthesis.
C. hypotension.
D. increased cellular metabolism.
Definition
C. hypotension.
Term
. Edema would be induced by all of the following EXCEPT 
A. hypertension.
B. protein malnutrition.
C. lymphatic blockage.
D. hyperthyroidism.
Definition
D. hyperthyroidism.
Term
Elephantiasis is caused by 
A. decreased plasma protein concentration.
B. obstruction of lymphatic drainage.
C. high arterial blood pressure.
D. myxedema.
Definition
B. obstruction of lymphatic drainage.
Term
. Vasopressin induces renal water 
A. secretion.
B. excretion.
C. filtration.
D. reabsorption.
Definition
D. reabsorption.
Term
. __________ is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which stimulates kidney salt reabsorption in the kidneys. 
A. ADH
B. Aldosterone
C. Renin
D. Angiotensin
Definition
B. Aldosterone
Term
Angiotensin I is formed from the plasma protein ____ by the action of the enzyme _____. 
A. Angiotensin II; renin.
B. angiotensinogen; ACE.
C. angiotensinogen; renin.
D. renin: ACE.
Definition
C. angiotensinogen; renin.
Term
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like captopril block the formation of angiotensin II, thus reducing 
A. vasodilation.
B. renal reabsorption.
C. vasoconstriction.
D. renal excretion.
Definition
C. vasoconstriction.
Term
The heart produced hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), functions antagonistically to 
A. ADH.
B. aldosterone.
C. angiotensin I.
D. glucocorticoids.
Definition
B. aldosterone.
Term
Hypotension could be induced by 
A. excessive renin secretion.
B. excessive antidiuretic hormone secretion.
C. excessive aldosterone secretion.
D. excessive atrial natriuretic factor secretion.
Definition
D. excessive atrial natriuretic factor secretion.
Term
At rest, blood flow is greatest in the 
A. skin and GI tract.
B. brain and liver.
C. GI tract and liver.
D. kidneys and skin.
Definition
C. GI tract and liver.
Term
. Increased blood flow resistance is caused by 
A. increased blood vessel length.
B. decreased blood viscosity.
C. vasodilation.
D. increased blood pressure.
Definition
A. increased blood vessel length.
Term
Blood flow is increased by 
A. hypotension.
B. anemia.
C. vasoconstriction.
D. edema.
Definition
B. anemia.
Term
ADH would be considered a(n) ____________ regulator of blood flow. 
A. intrinsic
B. extrinsic
C. hormonal
D. Both extrinsic and hormonal are correct
Definition
D. Both extrinsic and hormonal are correct
Term
. ____________ inhibits norepinephrine reuptake thereby it induces vasoconstriction. 
A. Nicotine
B. Cocaine
C. Norepinephrine
D. Muscarine
Definition
B. Cocaine
Term
. Blood flow would be increased by 
A. histamines.
B. antihistamines.
C. thromboxane A2.
D. angiotensin II.
Definition
A. histamines.
Term
. Nitric oxide (NO) causes 
A. vasoconstriction.
B. vasodilation.
C. no effect.
Definition
B. vasodilation.
Term
Endothelin causes 
A. vasoconstriction.
B. vasodilation.
C. no effect.
Definition
A. vasoconstriction.
Term
. Reactive hyperemia is 
A. increased blood flow due to increased metabolism.
B. increased blood flow after removal of constriction due to accumulated metabolic products.
C. increased blood flow due to sepsis.
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
B. increased blood flow after removal of constriction due to accumulated metabolic products
Term
Active hyperemia is 
A. increased blood flow due to increased metabolism.
B. increased blood flow after removal of constriction due to accumulated metabolic products.
C. increased blood flow due to sepsis.
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
A. increased blood flow due to increased metabolism.
Term
. Coronary bypass surgery is performed 
A. to limit myocardial ischemia.
B. to increase blood pressure.
C. in response to an aneurysm.
D. in response to hypertension.
Definition
A. to limit myocardial ischemia.
Term
. Which type of muscle has the greatest capillary density? 
A. skeletal
B. smooth
C. cardiac
Definition
C. cardiac
Term
During maximal exercise, the skeletal muscles can receive as much as ____ of the total blood flow. 
A. 35%
B. 45%
C. 65%
D. 85%
Definition
D. 85%
Term
Cardiovascular changes resulting from moderate exercise include 
A. increased total peripheral resistance.
B. increased blood flow to the skin.
C. increased visceral blood flow.
D. decreased stroke volume.
Definition
B. increased blood flow to the skin.
Term
. During exercise, all of the following occur EXCEPT 
A. increased stroke volume.
B. increased cardiac rate.
C. shunting of blood from visceral organs to skeletal muscle and heart.
D. increased vasoconstriction of coronary arteries.
Definition
D. increased vasoconstriction of coronary arteries.
Term
. When active areas of the brain receive excessive blood flow over their aerobic requirements, this is called 
A. hyperemia.
B. hypoemia.
C. hypersensitive.
D. myogenic.
Definition
A. hyperemia.
Term
Dizziness during hyperventilation is due to a decrease in cerebral blood flow. The decreased blood flow is caused by 
A. vasodilation.
B. decreased stroke volume.
C. vasoconstriction.
D. decreased respiration.
Definition
A. vasodilation.
Term
. Arterial blood pressure is influenced by 
A. vasoconstriction.
B. cardiac rate.
C. cardiac output.
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
D. All of the choices are correct.
Term
. If cardiac output increases, the peripheral resistance must _____ for arterial blood pressure to remain constant. 
A. increase
B. decrease
C. no change
Definition
B. decrease
Term
. Inhibition of the baroreceptor reflex would not allow for proper regulation of 
A. cardiac rate.
B. stroke volume.
C. respiratory rate.
D. blood pressure.
Definition
D. blood pressure.
Term
A condition in which there is a fall in blood pressure upon standing that is not compensated for by the baroreceptor reflex is called 
A. postural hypotension.
B. postural bradycardia.
C. postural tachycardia.
D. postural atherosclerosis.
Definition
A. postural hypotension.
Term
. Increased blood pressure stimulates 
A. decreased outflow from the baroreceptors.
B. decreased sympathetic outflow to the heart.
C. decreased parasympathetic outflow to the heart.
D. postural hypotension.
Definition
D. postural hypotension.
Term
Damage to the vagus nerve would 
A. decrease heart rate.
B. decrease cardiac output.
C. decrease blood pressure.
D. decrease responsiveness of the baroreceptor reflex.
Definition
D. decrease responsiveness of the baroreceptor reflex.
Term
. The last Korotkoff sound occurs when the blood pressure is equal to 
A. atmospheric pressure.
B. systolic pressure.
C. diastolic pressure.
D. pulmonary pressure.
Definition
C. diastolic pressure.
Term
. The sounds heard during the first phase of blood-pressure measurement are 
A. murmurs.
B. snapping sounds.
C. thumping sounds.
D. muffled thumping sounds.
Definition
B. snapping sounds.
Term
. There is no mixing of blood layers or sounds from vessels during ____ flow. 
A. turbulent
B. Korotkoff
C. laminar
D. restricted
Definition
C. laminar
Term
The mean arterial pressure of a person with a blood pressure of 128/68 would be 
A. 20.
B. 60.
C. 68.
D. 81.
Definition
D. 81.
Term
Essential hypertension 
A. is the type of hypertension that most patients have.
B. is the result of a known disease process.
C. is a necessary physiological state.
D. All of the choices are correct.
Definition
A. is the type of hypertension that most patients have.
Term
. Secondary hypertension may result from 
A. a renin secreting tumor.
B. an atrial natriuretic factor secreting tumor.
C. an aldosterone antagonist.
D. an epinephrine antagonist.
Definition
A. a renin secreting tumor.
Term
A person with a decreased blood pressure, rapid pulse, and cold clammy skin would be suffering from 
A. peripheral edema.
B. hypovolemic shock.
C. myocardial ischemia.
D. atherosclerosis.
Definition
B. hypovolemic shock.
Term
Dangerously low blood pressure that results from infection is 
A. septic shock.
B. anaphylactic shock.
C. neurogenic shock.
D. cardiogenic shock.
Definition
A. septic shock.
Term
The type of shock resulting from lipopolysaccharides is termed 
A. hypovolemic shock.
B. cardiogenic shock.
C. septic shock.
D. neurogenic shock
Definition
C. septic shock.
Term
Cardiogenic shock can result from 
A. myocardial ischemia infarction.
B. increased cardiac output.
C. increased sympathetic outflow to the heart.
D. parasympathetic antagonists.
Definition
A. myocardial ischemia infarction.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!