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Personality Ch. 10
Personality
48
Psychology
Undergraduate 1
03/25/2006

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Term
Personality
Definition
a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
Term
4 perspectives on personality
Definition
1) psychodynamic 2) behavioral and social cognitive 3) humanistic 4) trait
Term
psychodynamic perspective
Definition
a strong biogenetic foundation on what determines personality and the belief that we are largely unaware of how our individual personalities developed with an emphasis on the importance of internal dimensions of personality; developing in stages--Freud
Term
behavioral and social cognitive perspective
Definition
theorists who endorse environment as a powerful determinant of personality. Behaviorists argue that unconscious or conscious awareness is important in determining personality whereas social cognitive theorists believe that conscious thought affects the way the environment influences personality. Behaviorists emphasize personality's external, situational determinants and social cognitive theorists examine both internal and external determinants
Term
humanistic perspective
Definition
belief that people have the power to reach their full potential, stressing the conscious aspects of personality, esp. in self-perception, emphasizing the internal dimensions of personality
Term
Trait perspective
Definition
trait theorists emphasize the importance of both heredity and environment, pay little attention to the conscious and unconscious awareness of behavior and emphasize the internal dimensions of personality
Term
What are the 3 structures Freud believed made up the personality?
Definition
The id, the ego, and the superego
Term
What is the id and the principle it follows?
Definition
It consists of instincts and is a person's reservoir of psychic energy. It is unconscious with no contact with reality.
Term
What is the pleasure principle and which personality structure follows it?
Definition
The id always seeks pleasure and avoids pain
Term
What is the ego and which principle does it follow?
Definition
the structure that deals with the demands of reality, houses our higher mental functions and it follows the reality principle by trying to bring individual pleasure within the norms of society
Term
superego
Definition
It is the moral branch of personality, aka our "conscience". Doesn't consider reality, only if the id's impulses can be satisfied in moral terms
Term
defense mechanisms
Definition
the ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Term
repression
Definition
the most powerful defense mechanism which pushes unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious mind
Term
2 points regarding defense mechanisms
Definition
1) they are unconscious 2) not necessarily unhealthy if used in moderation
Term
Oedipus complex
Definition
Freud's theory that the young child's development of an intense desire to replace the same-sex parent and enjoy the affections of the opposite-sex parent
Term
fixation
Definition
the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage because needs are under- or over-gratified
Term
3 dissenters and revisionists of Freud's theories
Definition
1)Horney 2)Jung 3)Adler
Term
Horney
Definition
The importance of socio-cultural influences, the need for security is the prime motive for human existence, and there are 3 strategies humans use in dealing with anxiety--move away, towards, or against people
Term
Jung
Definition
unconscious mind
Term
Collective unconscious
Definition
the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, share by all human beings because of their common ancestral past
Term
Archetypes
Definition
emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people through which the collective unconscious is expressed
Term
Adler
Definition
believed that social factors are more important than sexual motivation and that people have the ability to consciously monitor their lives, believed that everyone strives for superiority
Term
individual psychology
Definition
Adler's theory that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that they are creators of their own lives
Term
compensation
Definition
the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing other abilities
Term
overcompensation
Definition
the individual's attempt to deny rather than acknowledge a real situation or for the exaggerated effort to conceal a weakness
Term
inferiority/superiority complexes
Definition
exaggerated feelings of inadequacy or self importance to mask feelings of inferiority
Term
Skinner
Definition
behaviorist who emphasized the effects of environment on personality
Term
Social cognitive theory
Definition
behavior, environment, and cognitive factors are important in understanding personality, developed by Bandura
Term
locus of control
Definition
the concept that individuals' beliefs about whether the outcomes of their actions depend on what they do or on events outside of their personal control
Term
Seligman
Definition
known for research on Optimism and its effects
Term
Rogers
Definition
known humanist for creating 3 concepts:
1)the self
2)unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness
3)the fully functioning person
Term
self-concept
Definition
individuals' overall perceptions and assessments of their abilities
Term
unconditioned positive regard
Definition
accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior
Term
Maslow
Definition
one of the most powerful figures in the humanistic movement who emphasized self-actualization and the importance of high self-esteem
Term
self-esteem
Definition
a person's overall evaluation of his or her self-worth or self-image
Term
trait
Definition
an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
Term
Allport
Definition
believed each person has a unique set of personality traits and they can predict behavior. Defined 3 types of traits: 1)cardinal 2)central and 3)secondary
Term
trait
Definition
an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
Term
Allport
Definition
believed each person has a unique set of traits that can predict behavior. Defined 3 types of traits: 1)cardinal, 2)central, and 3)secondary
Term
Eysenck
Definition
Dimensions of personality--1)introverted/extroverted 2)stable/unstable 3)psychoticism
Term
Big 5 factors of personality
Definition
1)openness 2) conscientousness 3)extraversion 4)agreeableness 5)neuroticism OCEAN
Term
projective test
Definition
presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it (to project their own meaning onto the stimulus)
Term
Rorschach inkblot test
Definition
a widely used projective test that determines an indiviudal's personality through his or her perception of inkblots
Term
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Definition
a projective test designed to elicit stories that will reveal somethinga bout an idividual's personality
Term
graphology
Definition
the use of handwriting analysis to determine an individual's personality
Term
self-report tests (
Definition
aka objective tests or inventories

directly ask people wheter items describe their personalities or not
Term
empirically keyed test
Definition
relies on items to predict some criterion
Term
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Definition
the most widely used and researched self-report personality test
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