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Organizational Behavior
Ch 13 pt 1
50
Management
Undergraduate 3
04/18/2011

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Term
Decision Making Steps
Definition
1)Recognize/define the problem/opportunity
2) Identify/analyze alternative, and estimate their effects on problem/opp
3) Choose preferred action
4) Implement action
5) Evaluate results and follow up
Term
North American view on decision making
Definition
Emphasizes decisiveness, speed, and individual selection of alternatives. Speaks more to choice and less to implementation
Term
Other cultures' views on decision making
Definition
Less emphasis on individual choice than on developing implementations that work
Term
Ringi system
Definition
Lower level managers indicate written approval of proposals prior to formal implementation. Written approval is not an issue of whether the change should be made, but whether it's feasible for the group to implement.
Term
Certain environments
Definition
Provide full info on the expected results for decision-making alternatives.
Term
Risk environments
Definition
Decision makers lack complete certainty regarding possible outcomes but are aware of probabilities
Term
Uncertain Environments
Definition
Provide no information to predict expected results for decision-making alternatives.. can't even assign probabilities
Term
Organized anarchy
Definition
Firm or division of a firm in a transition characterized by rapid change and lack of a legitimate hierarchy
Term
Organized anarchy relates to
Definition
Uncertain environments
Term
KPMG systematically asks managers to separately identify
Definition
1) Strategic Risks
2) Operational Risks
3) Reputation Risks
Term
Routine problems arise on a regular basis and can be addressed through these standard responses
Definition
Programmed decisions
Term
Simply implement solutions that have already been determined by past experience
Definition
Programmed decisions
Term
Unique and new problems that often involve issues that have never been encountered before
Definition
Nonroutine problems
Term
Created to deal uniquely with a problem at hand
Definition
Nonprogrammed decisions
Term
Higher-level managers often spend a greater proportion of their decision making time which type of problems?
Definition
Nonroutine problems
Term
For firms characterized by organized anarchy, there is a third class of decisions called
Definition
Associative choices
Term
Decisions that can be loosely linked to nagging continual problems but that are not specifically developed to solve the problem
Definition
Associative choices
Term
Types of decision-making models
Definition
Classical decision theory
Behavioral decision theory
Term
Models that view the manager as acting in a world of complete certainty
Definition
Classical decision theory
Term
Models accepting the notion of bounded rationality and suggest that people act only in terms of what they perceive about a given situation
Definition
Behavioral decision theory
Term
Views decision makers as acting only in terms of what they perceive about a given situation
Definition
Behavioral Decision theory
Term
Normative and prescriptive approach, often used as a model for how managers hsould make decisions
Definition
Classical approach
Term
Compromise the ability of decision makers to achieve complete certainty and otherwise operate according to the classical model
Definition
Information deficiencies and overload
Term
Human decision makers operate with ________, whether this is in the choices of problems, the analysis of alternatives, or the development of AI systems themselves
Definition
Bounded rationality
Term
T/F: Classical model doesn't give a full and accurate description of how most decisions are made in organizations
Definition
True
Term
Satisficing
Definition
choosing the first alternative that appears to give an acceptable or satisfactory resolution of the problem; Herbert Simon
Term
Main components of the choice process
Definition
Problems, solutions, participants, and choice situations
Term
Garbage can model
Definition
Third view of decision making that views the main components of the choice process as all mixed up together in the "garbage can" of the organization
Term
Capabilities independent of problems or opportunities
Definition
potential capabilities
Term
Many problems go unsolved in this view
Definition
Garbage can
Term
Ability to know or recognize quickly the possibilities of a situation
Definition
Intuition
Term
Adds elements of personality and spontaneity to decision making
Definition
Intuition
Term
Managers favor what type of communication?
Definition
verbal
Term
Are managers more likely to gather data and to make decisions in:

a relational or interactive way?
or an isolated, systematic, step-by-step fashion?
Definition
Relational or interactive way
Term
Managers are more like to (synthesize or analyze) data as they search for the big picture in order to redefine problems and link problems with a variety of solutions
Definition
Synthesize
Term
Use of one's intellect
Definition
Judgment
Term
Rules of thumb used to make decisions
Definition
Heuristics
Term
Availability heuristic
Definition
bases a decision on recent events relating to the situation at hand
Term
Representativeness heuristic
Definition
bases a decision on similarities between the situation at hand and stereotypes of similar occurrences
Term
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Definition
bases a decision on incremental adjustments to an initial value determined by historical precedent or some reference point
Term
Three types of Judgmental Heuristics
Definition
Availability, Representativeness, Anchoring/Adjustment
Term
Decision maker seeks confirmation for what is already thought to be true and neglects opportunities to acknowledge or find disconnecting information
Definition
Confirmation trap
Term
Decision maker overestimates the degree to which he or she could have predicted an event that has already taken place
Definition
Hindsight trap
Term
Generates unique and novel responses to problems
Definition
Creativity
Term
Stages of creative thinking
Definition
1) Preparation
2) Concentration
3) Incubation
4) Illumination
5) Certification
Term
Step in creative decision making in which people engage in the active learning and day to day sensing required to deal successfully with complex environments
Definition
preparation
Term
Step in creative thinking where actual problems are defined and framed so that alternatives can be considered for dealing with them
Definition
concentration
Term
Stage in creative thinking where people look at the problems in deverse ways that permit the consideration of unusual alternatives, avoiding tendencies toward purely linear and systematic problem solving
Definition
incubation
Term
Stage in creative thinking in which people respond to flashes of insight and recognize when all pieces to the puzzle fit
Definition
illumination
Term
Stage in creative thinking which proceeds with logical analysis to confirm that good problem-solving decisions have been made
Definition
Certification
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