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Organizational Behavior
Test 2a
37
Management
Undergraduate 3
03/22/2011

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Term
Explicit Knowledge
Definition
information you're likely to think about when you picture someone sitting down at a desk to learn
Term
Tactic Knowledge
Definition
what employees can typically learn only through experience
Term
Contingencies of Reinforcement
Definition
four specific consequences typically used by organizations to modify employee behavior
Term
Positive reinforcement
Definition
occurs when a positive outcome follows a desired behavior
Term
Negative Reinforcement
Definition
occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior
Term
Punishment
Definition
occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior
Term
Extinction
Definition
occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior
Term
Schedule of Reinforcement
Definition
the timing of when the contingencies are applied
Term
Continuous reinforcement
Definition
simplest; when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior
Term
Fixed Interval
Definition
most common; workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time, and the length of time between reinforcement periods stay the same
Term
Variable Interval
Definition
reinforce behavior at random points during the day
Term
Fixed Ratio
Definition
reinforce behaviors after a certain number of them have been exhibited.
Term
Variable Ratio
Definition
reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors
Term
Social Learning Theory
Definition
argues that people in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others
Term
Behavior Modeling
Definition
when employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe , and then repeat the observed behavior, they're engaging in.
Term
Learning Orientation
Definition
where building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence
Term
Performance-prove Orientation
Definition
focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them.
Term
Performance-avoid orientation
Definition
focus on demonstating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them
Term
Programmed decisions
Definition
decisions that become somewhat automatic because people's knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken.
Term
Intuition
Definition
emotionally charged judgements that arise through quick, nonconscious, and holistic associations.
Term
Crisis Situation
Definition
a change-whether sudden or evolving- that result in an urgent problem that must be addresses immediately
Term
Non programmed decision
Definition
a situation arises that is new, complex, and not recognized
Term
Rational Decision Making Model
Definition
step-step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives
Term
Bounded Rationality
Definition
the notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision
Term
Satisficing
Definition
results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative considered
Term
Selective perception
Definition
the tendency for people to see their environment around us, they can often become distorted versions of reality
Term
Projection Bias
Definition
people project their own thoughts, attitudes, and motives onto other people
Term
Social Identity Theory
Definition
people identify themselves by the groups to which they belong and perceive and judge others by their group membership
Term
Heuristics
Definition
simple, efficient, rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily
Term
Availability Bias
Definition
the tendency for people to base their judgement on information that is easier to recall
Term
Fundamental Attribution Error
Definition
argues that people have the tendency to judge others' behaviors as due to internal factors
Term
Self-Serving Bias
Definition
occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors
Term
Escalation of Commitment
Definition
refers to the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action
Term
Behavior Modeling Training
Definition
the ability to observe and learn from those in the company with significant amounts of tacit knowledge
Term
Communities of Practice
Definition
groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time
Term
Transfer of Training
Definition
occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviors used on the job are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to the workplace once the learner returns to the job
Term
Climate for transfer
Definition
an environment that can support the use of new skills.
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