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Organizational Behavior
Improving Performance and Commitment in the Workplace
274
Management
Undergraduate 3
01/05/2010

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Term
360-degree Feedback
Definition
A performace evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, coworkers, subordinates, customers and then employees themselves.
Term
ASA Framework
Definition
A theory (Attraction-Selection-Attrition) that states that employees will be drawn to organizations with cultures that match their personality, organizations will select employees that match, and employees will leave or be forced out when they are not a good fit.
Term
Absenteeism
Definition
A form of physical withdrawal in which employees do not show up for an entire day of work.
Term
Abuse
Definition
Employee assault or endangerment from which physical and psychological injuries may occur.
Term
Accommodating
Definition
A conflict resolution style by which one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way.
Term
Action Learning
Definition
Team process training in which a team has the opportunity to work on an actual problem within the organization.
Term
Action Processes
Definition
Teamwork processes, such as helping and coordination, that aid in the accomplishment of teamwork as the work is actually taking place.
Term
Action Team
Definition
A team of limited duration that performs complex tasks in contexts that tend to be highly visible and challenging.
Term
Active Management-by-exception
Definition
When the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and takes corrective action when required.
Term
Adaptive Task Performance
Definition
Thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands.
Term
Additive Tasks
Definition
Tasks for which the contributions from every member add up to determine team performance.
Term
Affective Commitment
Definition
An employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of emotional attachment.
Term
Ambassador Activities
Definition
Boundary-spanning activities that are intended to protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain important resources for the team.
Term
Anticipatory Stage
Definition
A stage of socialization that begins as soon as a potential employee develops an image of what it would be like to work for a company.
Term
Apathetics
Definition
Employees with low commitment levels and low task performance levels who exert the minimum amount of effort needed to keep their jobs.
Term
Apprising
Definition
An influence tactic in which the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally.
Term
Autocratic Style
Definition
A leadership style where the leader makes the decisions alone without asking for opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit.
Term
Avoiding
Definition
A conflict resolution style by which one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down.
Term
Basic Underlying Assumptions
Definition
The ingrained beliefs and philosophies of employees.
Term
Behaviorally anchored Rating Scales
BARS)
Definition
Use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee's job performance behaviors directly.
Term
Boosterism
Definition
Positively representing the organization when in public.
Term
Boundary Spanning
Definition
Interactions among team members and individuals and groups who are not part of the team.
Term
Brainstorming
Definition
A team process used to generate creative ideas.
Term
Bureaucratic Structure
Definition
An organizational form that exhibits many of the facets of a mechanistic organization.
Term
Business Environment
Definition
The outside environment, including customers, competitors, suppliers, and distributors, which all have an impact on organizational design.
Term
Centrality
Definition
How important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks.
Term
Centralization
Definition
Refers to where decisions are formally made in organizations.
Term
Ceremonies
Definition
Formal events, generally performed in front of an audience of organizational members.
Term
Chain of Command
Definition
Answer to the question of "who reports to whom?" and signifies formal authority relationships.
Term
Citizens
Definition
Employee's with high commitment levels and low task performance levels who volunteer to do additional activities around the office.
Term
Citizenship Behavior
Definition
Voluntary employee behaviors that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place.
Term
Civic Virtue
Definition
Participation in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level through voluntary meetings, readings, and keeping up with news that affects the company.
Term
Client Structure
Definition
An organizational form in which employees are organized around serving customers.
Term
Coalitions
Definition
An influence tactic in which the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target.
Term
Coercive Power
Definition
A form of organizational power based on the ability to hand out punishment.
Term
Cohesion
Definition
A team state that occurs when members of the team develop strong emotional bonds to other members of the team and to the team itself.
Term
Collaboration
Definition
Seen as both a conflict resolution style and an influence tactic whereby both parties work together to maximize outcomes.
Term
Communal Cultures
Definition
An organizational culture type in which employees are friendly to one another, but everyone thinks differently and does his or her own thing.
Term
Company Size
Definition
The number of employees in a company.
Term
Company Strategy
Definition
An organization's objectives and goals and how it tries to capitalize on its assets to make money.
Term
Compensatory Forms Model
Definition
A model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviors are negatively correlated - that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one less likely to engage in other types.
Term
Competing
Definition
A conflict resolution style by which one party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results.
Term
Compliance
Definition
When targets of influence are willing to do what the leader asks but do it with a degree of ambivalence.
Term
Comprehensive Interdependence
Definition
A form of task interdependence in which group members
Term
Compromise
Definition
A conflict resolution style by which conflict is resoled through give-and-take actions.
Term
Conjunctive Tasks
Definition
Tasks for which the team's performance depends on the abilities of the team's weakest link.
Term
Consideration
Definition
A pattern of behavior where the leader creates job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings.
Term
Consultation
Definition
An influence tactic whereby the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
Term
Consultative Style
Definition
A leadership style where the leader present the problem to employees asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision him or herself.
Term
Contingent Reward
Definition
When the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using rewards in exchange for adequate performance.
Term
Continuance Commitment
Definition
An employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to an awareness of the costs of leaving.
Term
Coordination Loss
Definition
Process loss due to the time and energy it takes to coordinate work activities with other team members.
Term
Correlation
Definition
The statistical relationship between two variables.  Abbreviated r, it can be positive or negative and range from 0 (no statistical relationship)  to ±1 (a perfect statistical relationship).
Term
Countercultures
Definition
When a subcultures' values do not match those of the organization.
Term
Counterproductive Behavior
Definition
Employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment.
Term
Courtesy
Definition
Sharing important information with coworkers.
Term
Creativity Culture
Definition
A specific culture type focused on fostering a creative atmosphere.
Term
Cross-Training
Definition
Training team members in the duties and responsibilities of their teammates.
Term
Culture Strength
Definition
The degree to which employees agree about how things should happen within the organization and behave accordingly.
Term
Customer Service Culture
Definition
A specific culture focused on service quality.
Term
Cyberloafing
Definition
A form of psychological withdrawal in which employees surf the Internet, e-mail, and instant message to avoid doing work-related activities.
Term
Daydreaming
Definition
A form of psychological withdrawal in which one's work is interrupted by random thoughts or concerns.
Term
Decision Informity
Definition
The degree to which team members possess adequate information about their own task responsibilities.
Term
Deep-level Diversity
Definition
Diversity of attributes that are inferred through observation or experience, such as one's values or personality.
Term
Delegating
Definition
When the leader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to employees.
Term
Delegative Style
Definition
A leadership style where the leader gives the employee the responsibility for making decisions within some set of specific boundary conditions.
Term
Discretion
Definition
The degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own.
Term
Disjunctive Tasks
Definition
Tasks with an objectively verifiable solution for which the member with the highest level of ability has the most influence on team effectiveness.
Term
Distributive Bargaining
Definition
A negotiation strategy in which one person gains and the other person loses.
Term
Diversity Culture
Definition
A specific culture type focused on fostering or taking advantage of a diverse group of employees.
Term
Embeddedness
Definition
An employee's connection to and sense of fit in the organization and community.
Term
Encounter Stage
Definition
A stage of socialization that begins as soon as an employee starts work, during which the employee compares the information as an outsider to the information learned as an insider.
Term
Engagement
Definition
In the context of mood, it represents how active or sluggish a mood is. In the context of influence tactics, it occurs when one agrees and becomes committed to an influencer's request.
Term
Erosion Model
Definition
A model that suggests that employees with fewer bonds with coworkers are more likely to quit the organization.
Term
Espoused Values
Definition
The beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states.
Term
Exchange Tactic
Definition
An influence tactic in which the requestor offers a reward in return for performing a request.
Term
Exit
Definition
A response to a negative work event by which one becomes often absent from work or voluntarily leaves the organization.
Term
Expert Power
Definition
A form of organizational power based on expertise or knowledge.
Term
Facilitative Style
Definition
A leadership style where the leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight that anyone else's.
Term
Focus of Commitment
Definition
The people, places, and things that inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization.
Term
Formalization
Definition
The degree to which rules and procedures are used to standardize behaviors and decisions in an organization.
Term
Forming
Definition
The first stage of team development, during which members try to get a feel for what is expected of them, what types of behaviors are out of bounds, and who's in charge.
Term
Fragmented Cultures
Definition
An organizational culture type in which employees are distant and disconnected from one another.
Term
Functional Structure
Definition
An organizational form in which employees are grouped by the functions they perform for the organization.
Term
Geographic Structure
Definition
An organizational form in which employees are grouped around the different locations where the company does business.
Term
Goal Interdependence
Definition
The degree to which team members have a shared goal and align their individual goals with that vision.
Term
Gossiping
Definition
Casual conversations with other people in which the facts are not confirmed as true.
Term
Groupthink
Definition
Behaviors that support conformity and team harmony at the expense of other team priorities.
Term
Harassment
Definition
Unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague.
Term
Helping
Definition
Assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they are first on the job.
Term
Hierarchical Sensitivity
Definition
The degree to which the team leader effectively weights the recommendations of the members.
Term
History
Definition
A collective pool of experience, wisdom, and knowledge created by people that benefits the organization.
Term
Human Resource Management
Definition
Field of study that focuses on the applications of OB theories and principles in organizations.
Term
Hybrid Outcome Interdependence
Definition
When team members receive rewards based on both their individual performance and that of the team to which they belonged.
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
Written predictions that specify relationships between variables.
Term
Idealized Influence
Definition
When the leader behaves in ways that earn admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader.
Term
Incivility
Definition
Communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous, and lacking in good manners.
Term
Independent Forms Model
Definition
A model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated - that engaging in one type of withdrawal has little bearing on engaging in other types.
Term
Individualistic Roles
Definition
Behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of the team.
Term
Individualized Consideration
Definition
When the leader behaves in ways that help followers achieve their potential through coaching, development, and mentoring.
Term
Influence
Definition
The use of behaviors to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others.
Term
Ingratiation
Definition
The use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer.
Term
Inimitable
Definition
Incapable of being imitated or copied.
Term
Initiating Structure
Definition
A pattern of behavior where the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment.
Term
Inspirational Appeal
Definition
An influence tactic designed to appeal to one's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.
Term
Inspirational Motivation
Definition
When the leader behaves in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision of the future.
Term
Integrative Bargaining
Definition
A negotiation strategy that achieves an outcome that is satisfying for both parties.
Term
Intellectual Stimulation
Definition
When the leader behaves in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and reframing old situations in new ways.
Term
Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior
Definition
Going beyond normal job expectations to assists, support, and develop coworkers and colleagues.
Term
Interpersonal Processes
Definition
Teamwork processes, such as motivating and confidence building, that focus on the management of relationships among team members.
Term
Job Analysis
Definition
A process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs.
Term
Job Performance
Definition
Employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals.
Term
Knowledge Work
Definition
Jobs that primarily involve cognitive activity versus physical activity.
Term
Laissez-faire Leadership
Definition
When the leader avoids leadership duties altogether.
Term
Language
Definition
The jargon, slang, and slogans used within an organization.
Term
Leader Effectiveness
Definition
the degree to which the leader's actions result in the achievement of the unit's goals, the continued commitment of the unit's employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader-member dyads.
Term
Leader Emergence
Definition
The process of becoming a leader in the first place.
Term
Leader-member Exchange Theory
Definition
A theory describing how leader-member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis.
Term
Leader-staff Teams
Definition
A type of team that consists of members who make recommendations to the leader who is ultimately responsible for team decisions.
Term
Leadership
Definition
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.
Term
Leadership
Definition
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.
Term
Legitimate Power
Definition
A form of organizational power based on authority or position.
Term
Life Cycle Theory of Leadership
Definition
A theory stating that the optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit.
Term
Lone Wolves
Definition
Employees with low commitment levels and high task performance levels who focus on their own career rather than what benefits the organization.

Term
Long Breaks
Definition
A form of physical withdrawal in which employees take longer-than-normal lunches or breaks to spend less time at work.
Term
Looking Busy
Definition
A form of psychological withdrawal in which one attempts to appear consumed with work when not performing actual work tasks.
Term
Loyalty
Definition
A passive response to a negative work event in which one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement.
Term
Management Team
Definition
A relatively permanent team that participates in managerial-level tasks that affect the entire organization.
Term
Management by Objectives
Definition
A management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met.
Term
Matrix Structure
Definition
A complex form of organizational structure that combines a functional and multi-divisional grouping.
Term
Mechanistic Organizations
Definition
Efficient, rigid, predictable, and standardized organizations that thrive in stable environments.
Term
Mental Models
Definition
The degree to which team members have a shared understanding of important aspects of the team and its task.
Term
Mentoring
Definition
The process by which a junior-level employee develops a deep and long-lasting relationship with a more senior-level employee within the organization.
Term
Mercenary Cultures
Definition
An organizational culture type in which employees think alike buy are not friendly to one another.
Term
Meta-analysis
Definition
A method that combines the results of multiple scientific studies by essentially calculating a weighted average correlation across studies (with larger studies receiving more weight).
Term
Method of Authority
Definition
Knowing something because a respected official, agency, or source has said it is so.
Term
Method of Experience
Definition
Knowing something because it is consistent with one's own experience and observations.
Term
Method of Intuition
Definition
Knowing something because it seems obvious or self-evident.
Term
Method of Science
Definition
Knowing something because scientific studies have replicated the result using a series of samples, settings, and methods.
Term
Missing Meetings
Definition
A form of physical withdrawal in which employees my neglect important work functions while away from the office
Term
Moonlighting
Definition
A form of psychological withdrawal in which employees use work time and resources to do nonwork-related activities.
Term
Motivational Loss
Definition
Process loss due to team members' tendency to put forth less effort on team tasks than they could.
Term
Multi-Divisional Structure
Definition
An organizational form in which employees are grouped by product, geography, or client.
Term
Neglect
Definition
A passive, destructive response to a negative work event in which one's interest and effort in work decline.
Term
Negotiation
Definition
A process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to reach agreement about their differences.
Term
Networked Cultures
Definition
An organizational culture type in which employees are friendly to one another and all think alike.
Term
Neutralizers
Definition
Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader and do not improve employee performance in any way.
Term
Newcomer Orientations
Definition
A common form of training during which new hires learn more about the organization.
Term
Nominal Group Technique
Definition
A team process used to generate creative ideas, whereby team members individually write down their ideas and then take turns sharing them with the group.
Term
Normative Commitment
Definition
An employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation.
Term
Norming
Definition
The third stage of team development, during which members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals and consequently begin to cooperate.
Term
Numerous Small Decisions
Definition
People making many small decisions every day that are invisible to competitors.
Term
Observable Artifacts
Definition
Aspects of an organization's culture that employees and outsider's can easily see or talk about.
Term
Occupational Information Network
Definition
An online database containing job tasks, behaviors, required knowledge, skills and abilities.
Term
Organic Organizations
Definition
Flexible, adaptive, outward-focused organizations that thrive in dynamic environments.
Term
Organizational Behavior
Definition
Field of study devoted to understanding, explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.
Term
Organizational Chart
Definition
A drawing that represents every job in the organization and the formal reporting of relationships between those jobs.
Term
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Definition
Going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it.
Term
Organizational Commitment
Definition
An employee's desire to remain a member of an organization.
Term
Organizational Culture
Definition
Formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company.
Term
Organizational Design
Definition
The process of creating, selecting, or changing the structure of an organization.
Term
Organizational Politics
Definition
Individual actions directed toward the goal of furthering a person's own self-interests.
Term
Organizational Structure
Definition
Formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company.
Term
Outcome Interdependence
Definition
The degree to which team members share equally in the feedback and rewards that result from the team achieving its goals.
Term
Parallel Team
Definition
A team composed of members from various jobs within the organization that meets to provide recommendations about important issues.
Term
Participating
Definition
When the leader shares ideas and tries to help the group conduct its affairs.
Term
Passive Management-by-exception
Definition
When the leader waits around for mistakes and errors, then takes corrective action as necessary.
Term
Performing
Definition
The final stage of team development, during which members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress towards goals.
Term
Person-organization Fit
Definition
The degree to which a person's values and personality match the culture of the organization.
Term
Personal Aggression
Definition
Hostile verbal and physical actions directed towards other employees.
Term
Personal Appeals
Definition
An influence tactic in which the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty.
Term
Personal Clarification
Definition
Training in which members simply receive information regarding the roles of the other team members.
Term
Physical Structures
Definition
The organization's buildings and internal office designs.
Term
Physical Withdrawal
Definition
A physical escape from the work environment.
Term
Political Deviance
Definition
Behaviors  that intentionally disadvantage other individuals.
Term
Political Skill
Definition
The ability to understand others and the use of that knowledge to influence them to further personal or organizational objectives.
Term
Pooled Interdependence
Definition
A form of task independence in which group members complete their work assignments independently, and then their work is simply added together to represent the group's output.
Term
Positional Modeling
Definition
Training that involves observations of how other team members perform their roles.
Term
Positional Rotation
Definition
Training that gives members actual experiences carrying out the responsibilities of their teammates.
Term
Potency
Definition
A team state reflecting the degree of confidence among team members that the team can be effective across situations and tasks.
Term
Power
Definition
The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return.
Term
Pressure
Definition
An influence tactic in which the requestor attempts to use coercive power through threats and demands.
Term
Process Gain
Definition
When team outcomes are greater than expected based on the capabilities of the individual members.
Term
Process Loss
Definition
When team outcome are less that expected based on the capabilities of the individual members.
Term
Product Structure
Definition
An organizational form in which employees are grouped around different products that the company produces.
Term
Production Blocking
Definition
A type of coordination loss resulting from team members having to wait on each other before completing their own part of the team task.
Term
Production Deviance
Definition
Intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output.
Term
Progression Model
Definition
A model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated - that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one more likely to engage in other types.
Term
Project Team
Definition
A team formed to take on one-time tasks, most of which tend to be complex and require input from members from different functional areas.
Term
Property Deviance
Definition
Intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output.
Term
Psychological Withdrawal
Definition
Mentally escaping the work environment.
Term
Punctuated Equilibrium
Definition
A sequence of team development during which not much gets done until the halfway point of a project, after which teams make necessary changes to complete the project on time.
Term
Quitting
Definition
A form of physical withdrawal in which employees voluntarily leave the organization.
Term
Rational Persuasion
Definition
The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show someone that a request is worthwhile.
Term
Readiness
Definition
The degree to which employees have the ability and the willingness to accomplish their specific tasks.
Term
Realistic Job Previews
Definition
The process of ensuring that a potential employee understands both the positive and negative aspects of the potential job.
Term
Reality Shock
Definition
A mismatch of information that occurs when an employee finds that aspects of working at a company are not what the employee expected it to be.
Term
Reciprocal Interdependence
Definition
A form of task interdependence in which group members interact with only a limited subset of other members to complete to complete the team's work.
Term
Referent Power
Definition
A form of organizational power based on the attractiveness and charisma of the leader.
Term
Relationship Conflict
Definition
Disagreements among team members with regard to interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities in personal values or preferences.
Term
Resistance
Definition
When a target refuses to perform a request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it.
Term
Resource-based View
Definition
A model that argues that rare and inimitable resources help firms maintain competitive advantage.
Term
Restructuring
Definition
The process of changing an organization's structure.
Term
Reward Power
Definition
A form of organizational power based on the control of resources or benefits
Term
Rituals
Definition
The daily or weekly planned routines that occur in an organization.
Term
Role
Definition
The behavior a person is generally expected to display in a given context.
Term
Role Making
Definition
The phase in a leader-follower relationship when a follower voices his or her own expectations for the relationship, resulting in a free-flowing exchange of opportunities and resources for activities and effort.
Term
Role Taking
Definition
The phase in a leader-follower relationship when a leader provides an employee with job expectations and the follower tries to meet those expectations.
Term
Routine Task Performance
Definition
Well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands.
Term
Rule of one-eighth
Definition
The belief that at best one-eighth of 12 percent of organizations will actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first.
Term
Sabotage
Definition
Purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational processes, or company products.
Term
Safety Culture
Definition
A specific culture type focused on the safety of employees.
Term
Scout Activities
Definition
Boundary-spanning activities that are intended to obtain information about technology, competitors, or the broader marketplace.
Term
Selling
Definition
When the leader explains key issues and provides opportunities for clarification.
Term
Sequential Interdependence
Definition
A form of task interdependence in which group members perform different tasks in a prescribed sequence, and members only depend on the member who comes before them in the sequence.
Term
Service Work
Definition
Providing a service that involves direct verbal or physical interactions with customers.
Term
Similarity-attraction Approach
Definition
A theory explaining that team diversity can be counterproductive because people tend to avoid interacting with other who are unlike them.
Term
Simple Structure
Definition
An organizational form that features one person as the central decision-making figure.
Term
Social Influence Model
Definition
A model that suggests that employees with direct linkages to coworkers who leave the organization will themselves become more likely to leave.
Term
Social Loafing
Definition
A type of motivational loss resulting from members feeling less accountable for team outcomes relative to independent work that results in individually identifiable outcomes.
Term
Socialization
Definition
The primary process by which employees learn the social knowledge that enables them to understand and adapt to the organization's culture.
Term
Socializing
Definition
A form of psychological withdrawal in which one verbally chats with coworkers about non-work topics.
Term
Socially Complex Resources
Definition
Resources created by people, such as culture, teamwork, trust, and reputation.  The source of competitive advantage is known, but the method of replicating the advantage is unclear.
Term
Span of Control
Definition
Represents how many employees each manager in the organization has responsibility for.
Term
Sportsmanship
Definition
Maintaining a positive attitude with coworkers through good and bad times.
Term
Staff Validitiy
Definition
The degree to which team members make good recommendations to the team leader.
Term
Stars
Definition
Employee's with high commitment levels and high task performance levels who serve as role models within the organization.
Term
Stories
Definition
Anecdotes, accounts, legends, and myths passed down from cohort to cohort within an organization.
Term
Storming
Definition
The second stage of team development, during which conflict occurs due to members' ongoing commitment to ideas they bring with them to the team.
Term
Strategic Management
Definition
Field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organizations profitability.
Term
Subcultures
Definition
A culture created within a small subset of the organization's employees.
Term
Substance Abuse
Definition
The abuse of drugs or alcohol before coming to work or while on the job.
Term
Substitutability
Definition
The degree to which people have alternatives in accessing the resources a leader controls.
Term
Substitutes
Definition
Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance.
Term
Substitutes for Leadership Model
Definition
A model that suggests that characteristics of the situations can constrain the influence of the leader which makes it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance.
Term
Surface-level diversity
Definition
Diversity of observable attributes such as race, gender, ethnicity, and age.
Term
Symbols
Definition
The images an organization uses, which generally convey messages.
Term
Tardiness
Definition
A form of physical withdrawal in which employees arrive late to work or leave work early.
Term
Task Conflict
Definition
Disagreements among members about the team's task.
Term
Task Coordinator Activities
Definition
Boundary-spanning activities that are intended to coordinate task-related issues with people or groups in other functional areas.
Term
Task Interdependence
Definition
The degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
Term
Task Performance
Definition
Employee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces.
Term
Taskwork Processes
Definition
The activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks.
Term
Team
Definition
Two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.
Term
Team Building
Definition
Fun activities that facilitate team problem solving, trust, relationship building, and the clarification of role responsibilities.
Term
Team Building Roles
Definition
Behaviors that influence the quality of the team's social climate.
Term
Team Composition
Definition
The mix of the various characteristics that describe the individuals who work in the team.
Term
Team Diversity
Definition
The degree to which team members are different from one another.
Term
Team Process
Definition
The different types of activities and interactions that occur within a team as the team works towards its goals.
Term
Team Process Training
Definition
The use of team experiences that facilitates the team's ability to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit.
Term
Team States
Definition
Specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together.
Term
Team Task Roles
Definition
Behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks.
Term
Team Viability
Definition
Team commitment; the likelihood a team can work together effectively into the future.
Term
Teamwork Processes
Definition
The interpersonal activities that promote the accomplishment of team tasks but do not involve task accomplishment itself.
Term
Technology
Definition
The method by which an organization transforms inputs and outputs.
Term
Telling
Definition
When the leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance.
Term
Theft
Definition
Stealing company products or equipment from the organization.
Term
Theory
Definition
A collection of verbal and symbolic assertions that specify how and why variables are related, as well as the conditions in which they should (and should not) be related.
Term
Time-driven model of leadership
Definition
A model that suggests that seven factors, including the importance of the decision, the expertise of the leader, and the competence of the followers, combine to make some decision-making styles more effective than others in a given situation.
Term
Transactional Leadership
Definition
A pattern of behavior where the leader rewards or disciplines the follower based on performance.
Term
Transactive Memory
Definition
The degree to which team members' specialized knowledge is integrated into an effective system of memory for the team.
Term
Transformational Leadership
Definition
A pattern of behavior where the leader inspires followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives.
Term
Transition Processes
Definition
Teamwork processes, such as mission analysis and planning, that focus on preparation for future work in the team.
Term
Transportable Teamwork Competencies
Definition
Team training that involves helping people develop general teamwork competencies that they can transport from one team context to another.
Term
Understanding and Adaptation
Definition
The final stage of socialization, during which newcomers come to learn the content areas of socialization and internalize the norms and expected behaviors of the organization.
Term
Value in Diversity Problem-Solving Approach
Definition
A theory that supports team diversity because it provides a larger pool of knowledge and perspectives.
Term
Virtual Team
Definition
A team in which the members are geographically dispersed, and interdependent activity occurs through e-mail, Web conferencing, and instant messaging.
Term
Visibility
Definition
How aware others are of a leader and the resources that leader can provide.
Term
Voice
Definition
When an employee speaks up to offer constructive suggestions for change, often in reaction to a negative work event.
Term
Voice
Definition
When an employee speaks up to offer constructive suggestions for changes, often in reaction to a negative work event.
Term
Wasting Resources
Definition
Using too many materials or too much time to do too little work.
Term
Withdrawal Behavior
Definition
Employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations.
Term
Work Specialization
Definition
The degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs.
Term
Work Team
Definition
A relatively permanent team in which members work together to produce goods and or provide services.
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