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Organizational Behavior 13 Leadership: Power and Negotiation
Leadership: Power and Negotiation
50
Management
Undergraduate 3
12/12/2010

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Term
leadership
Definition
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
Term
power
Definition
the ability to influence behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return
Term
organizational power
Definition
legitimate power
reward power
coercive power
Term
legitimate power
Definition
from a position of authority inside the org.

aka formal authority

have a title
Term
reward power
Definition
someone has control over resources or rewards another person wants
Term
coercive power
Definition
a person has control over punishments in an org.
Term
personal power
Definition
expert power
referent power
Term
expert skill
Definition
derives from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend
Term
referent power
Definition
when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person, derived from affection, admiration, or loyalty
Term
contingency factors
Definition
substitutability
discretion
centrality
visibility
Term
substitutability
Definition
degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources
Term
discretion
Definition
degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own
Term
centrality
Definition
how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks
Term
visibility
Definition
how aware others are of a leader's power and position
Term
influence
Definition
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others

directional (downward, lateral, upward) and
relative
Term
influence tactics
Definition
rational persuasion
inspirational appeal
consultation
ingratiation
personal appeal
exchange tactic
apprising
pressure
coalitons
Term
rational persuasion
Definition
use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one; must be important and feasible

consistently successful in upward influence
Term
inspirational appeal
Definition
designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reacton
Term
consultation
Definition
target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out a request
Term
ingratiation
Definition
use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
Term
personal appeals
Definition
when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
Term
exchange tactic
Definition
offer a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request
Term
apprising
Definition
requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally

focuses solely on benefit to the target; benefit not necessarily something requestor gives target
Term
pressure
Definition
use of coercive power through threats and demands
Term
coalitions
Definition
influencer enlists other people to help influence the target
Term
responses to influence tactics
Definition
internalization
compliance
resistance
Term
internalization
Definition
target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request
Term
compliance
Definition
target is willing to do what leader asks, but with a degree of ambivalence
Term
resistance
Definition
target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid doing so
Term
organizational politics
Definition
actions by individuals directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests
Term
political skill
Definition
ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or org. objectives

networking ability (adept at id-ing and developing diverse contacts)
social astuteness (tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior)

interpersonal influence (have an unassuming and convincing personal style flexible enough to adapt to different situations
apparent sincerity (appear to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness)
Term
conflict resolution
Definition
competing
avoiding
accommodating
collaboration
compromise
Term
competing
Definition
high assertiveness, low cooperation

one party attempts to get her own goals met w/o concern for the other party's results
Term
avoiding
Definition
low assert, low coop

1 party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, postpone conflict to gather info or let things cool down
Term
accommodating
Definition
low assert, high coop

one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way
Term
collaboration
Definition
high assert, high coop

both parties work together to maximize outcomes; win-win

most effective
Term
compromise
Definition
mod assert, mod coop

conflict resolved through give-and-take concessions

most common form
Term
negotiation
Definition
process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences
Term
negotiation strategies
Definition
distributive bargaining
integrative bargaining
Term
distributive bargaining
Definition
involves win-lose negotiating over a fixed-pie of resources

one person gains, one person loses (zero sum condition)
Term
integrative bargaining
Definition
use of problem solving, mutual respect to achieve outcome good for both parties

win-win
Term
negotiation strategies
Definition
preparation
exchanging info
bargaining
closing and commitment
Term
preparation
Definition
most important stage

each party determines what its goals are for the negotiation, whether or not other party has anything to offer and determine best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)
Term
exchanging info
Definition
nonconfrontational

each party makes case for position, attempts to put all favorable info on the table; inform other party how it arrived at the conclusions it has and which issues it believes are important
Term
bargaining
Definition
both parties make concessions, give up something to get something in return
Term
closing and commitment
Definition
formalize an agreement reached during bargaining stage
Term
power and influence
Definition
moderate correlation with job perf
moderate correlation with org. commitment
Term
alternative dispute resolution
Definition
two parties resolve conflicts through the use of neutral 3rd party

mediation, arbitration
Term
mediation
Definition
3rd party facilitates dispute resolution process, though has no formal authority
Term
arbitration
Definition
3rd party determines a binding settlement to a dispute
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