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OB
final
609
Management
Undergraduate 3
05/10/2011

Additional Management Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Basic building blocks of org success
Definition
people
Term
study of individuals and groups in organizations
Definition
org behavior
Term
academic discipline devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and org dynamics w the goal of improving performance of organizations and people in them
Definition
org behavior
Term
Interest in OB in the 1940s broadened to include:
Definition
the human factor
Term
ultimate goal of OB
Definition
improve performance of people, groups, and organizations and to improve the quality of work life overall
Term
simplified views of reality that attempt to explain real world phenomena
Definition
models
Term
presumed causes that influence dependent variables
Definition
independent variables
Term
outcomes of practical value and interest
Definition
dependent variables
Term
these models link independent variables w/ dependent variables
Definition
scientific methods models
Term
Scientific thinking is important because:
Definition
1) process of data collection is controlled and systematic
2) proposed explanations are carefully tested
3) only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted
Term
seeks ways to meet the needs of different management situations
Definition
contingency approach
Term
foundations of org behavior
Definition
Interdisciplinary Body of Knowledge
Applications
Contingency Thinking
Use of Scientific Methods
Term
studies in real life org settings
Definition
field studies
Term
studies in simulated and controlled settings
Definition
lab studies
Term
using stats to pool results of different studies
Definition
meta analyses
Term
studies using questionnaires and interviews in sample populations
Definition
survey studies
Term
studies looking in depth at single situations
Definition
case studies
Term
researchers identify how different situations can be best understood and handled
Definition
contingency approach
Term
modern workplace trends
Definition
Commitment to ethical behavior
Importance of human capital
Demise of “command and control”
Emphasis on teamwork
Pervasive influence of information technology
Respect for new workforce expectations
Changing definition of “jobs” and “career”
Term
a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose.
Definition
organization
Term
The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services.
Definition
Purpose
Term
focus attention on the core purpose.
Definition
Mission statements
Term
a comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors.
Definition
strategy
Term
_____ responsibilities include strategy formulation and implementation.
Definition
Term
essential to effective strategy implementation.
Definition
OB knowledge
Term
People, groups, or institutions having an interest in an organization’s performance.
Definition
stakeholders
Term
often focuses on balancing multiple stakeholder expectations.
Definition
Executive leadership
Term
The shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members.
Definition
org cultures
Term
transform human and material resource inputs into finished goods and services
Definition
open systems
Term
_______ cultures:
Have a high-performance orientation.
Emphasize teamwork
Encourage risk-taking
Emphasize innovation.
Respect people and workforce diversity.
Definition
positive cultures
Term
members encouraged to work together in ways that meet higher order human needs
Definition
constructive cultures
Term
members tend to act defensively in their working relationships, seeking to protect their security
Definition
passive/defensive culture
Term
members tend to act forcefully in their working relationships to protect their status/opinions
Definition
aggressive/defensive culture
Term
one whose organizational unit, group, or team consistently achieves its goals while its members remain capable, committed, and enthusiastic.
Definition
effective manager
Term
key results of effective management
Definition
Task performance.
Job satisfaction.
Term
presence of individual differences based on gender, race/ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness, and sexual orientation
Definition
workforce diversity
Term
refers to pluralism and respect for diversity in workplace
Definition
multiculturalism
Term
degree to which an org's culture respects and values diversity
Definition
inclusivity
Term
responsible for supporting the work efforts of others
Definition
managers
Term
quantity/quality of work produced
Definition
task performance
Term
positive feeling about one's work and work setting
Definition
job satisfaction
Term
choosing goals and means to achieve them
Definition
planning
Term
creating structures and work systems
Definition
organizing
Term
inspiring people to work hard
Definition
leading
Term
measuring performance and ensuring results
Definition
controlling
Term
defining goals, setting specific performance objectives, and identifying actions needed to achieve them
Definition
planning
Term
creating work structures and systems, arranging resources to accomplish goals
Definition
organizing
Term
instilling enthusiasm by communicating, motivating, and maintaining good relations
Definition
leading
Term
ensuring things go well by monitoring performance and taking corrective action as necessary
Definition
controlling
Term
ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance.
Definition
skill
Term
capacity to analyze and solve complex and interrelated problems.
Definition
conceptual skills
Term
ability to perform specialized tasks
Definition
tech skills
Term
ability to work well w people
Definition
human skills
Term
3 categories of managerial roles
Definition
interpersonal
informational
decisional
Term
interpersonal roles
Definition
figurehead - hosting and attending ceremonies
leader - creating enthusiam, serving needs
liaison - maintain important contacts
Term
informational roles
Definition
monitor - seeking relevant info
disseminator - share info w/ insiders
spokesperson - share info w/ outsiders
Term
decisional roles
Definition
entrepreneur - seeking probs/opportunity
disturbance handler - resolve conflict
resource allocator
negotiator
Term
ability to understand and deal with emotions
Definition
EI
Term
ability to understand your own moods and emotions
Definition
Self-awareness
Term
ability to think before acting and to control disruptive impulses
Definition
self regulation
Term
ability to work hard and persevere
Definition
motivation
Term
ability to understand emotions of others
Definition
empathy
Term
ability to gain rapport w/ others and build good relationships
Definition
social skill
Term
doesn't subscribe to ethical principles, making decisions and acting in any situation to take best personal advantage
Definition
immoral manager
Term
fails to consider ethics of a decision or behavior
Definition
amoral manager
Term
intentionally acts unethically
Definition
immoral manager
Term
unintentionally acts unethically
Definition
amoral manager
Term
incorporates ethics principles and goals into his or her personal behavior
Definition
moral manager
Term
enriched awareness that causes one to consistently behave w/ ethical consciousness
Definition
ethics mindfulness
Term
people act ethically as matter of routine
Definition
virtuous conflict
Term
an enduring change in behavior that results from experience.
Definition
learning
Term
learning continuously from day-to-day work experiences, advice from mentors and training seminars and workshops
Definition
life long learning
Term
process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances.
Definition
org learning
Term
Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes.
Definition
values
Term
influence behavior and attitudes.
Definition
values
Term
reflect a person’s preferences concerning the “ends” to be achieved
Definition
terminal values
Term
reflect a person’s beliefs about the means for achieving desired ends
Definition
instrumental values
Term
Theoretical values
Economic values
Aesthetic values
Social values
Political values
Religious values
Definition
Allport's value categories
Term
Achievement
Helping and concern for others
Honesty
Fairness
Definition
Maglino’s categories of workplace values
Term
occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own
Definition
value congruence
Term
The learned and shared way of thinking and acting among a group of people or society
Definition
culture
Term
the ability to identify, understand, and act with sensitivity and effectiveness in cross-cultural situations.
Definition
cultural intelligence
Term
willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among its members
Definition
power distance
Term
The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity.
Definition
uncertainty avoidance
Term
Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations.
Definition
uncertainty avoidance
Term
The cultural tendency to emphasize individual self-interests or group relationships
Definition
individualism-collectivism
Term
Preferences for working individually or in groups
Definition
individualism-collectivism
Term
The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits.
Definition
Masculinity-femininity
Term
Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships.
Definition
Masculinity-femininity
Term
The tendency of a culture to emphasize future-oriented values versus present-oriented values.
Definition
Long-term/short-term orientation
Term
Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons.
Definition
Long-term/short-term orientation
Term
The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others.
Definition
personality
Term
combine a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels
Definition
personality
Term
play a substantial role in the development of an individual's personality and behaviors
Definition
cultural values and norms
Term
demands of differing ________ emphasize or constrain different aspects of an individual's personality
Definition
situational factors
Term
systematic models of ways in which personality develops across time
Definition
developmental approaches
Term
ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustment
Definition
personality dynamics
Term
sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics
Definition
heredity
Term
The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings
Definition
self-concept
Term
belief about one's own worth based on an overall self evaluation
Definition
self esteem
Term
"effectance motive"
Definition
self-efficacy
Term
individual's belief about the likelihood of successfully completing a specific task
Definition
self efficacy
Term
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Emotional stability
Openness to experience
Definition
Big Five personality traits
Term
Outgoing, sociable, assertive
Definition
extraversion traits
Term
good-natured, trusting, cooperative
Definition
agreeableness traits
Term
responsible, dependable, persistent
Definition
conscientiousness traits
Term
unworried, secure, relaxed
Definition
emotional stability traits
Term
imaginative, curious, broad-minded
Definition
openness to experience
Term
determine how positively or negatively an individual scores on each "big 5" dimension
Definition
standardized personality tests
Term
Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings
Definition
social traits
Term
Getting and organizing data for use
Definition
info gathering
Term
Styles range from sensation to intuitive
Definition
info gathering
Term
prefer routine and order and emphasize well defined details in gathering info
Definition
sensation type individuals
Term
prefer big picture, solving new problems, dislike routines
Definition
intuitive type individuals
Term
components of prob solving
Definition
gather info
evaluate info
Term
making judgments about how to deal w info once it has been collected
Definition
evaluation
Term
oriented toward conformity and try to accomodate themselves to other people
Definition
feeling-type individuals
Term
use reason and intellect to deal w problems and downplay emotions
Definition
thinking type individuals
Term
The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation concerning a range of issues
Definition
personal conception traits
Term
prob solving styles most frequently measured by
Definition
MBTI
Term
personal conception traits
Definition
Locus of control
Authoritarianism
Dogmatism
Machiavellian personality
Self-monitoring
Term
extent to which a person feels able to control his own life and is concerned w a person's internal-external orientation
Definition
locus of control
Term
tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and obey authority
Definition
authoritarianism
Term
leads a person to see the world as a threatening place and to regard authority as absolute
Definition
dogmatism
Term
themes of manipulation and deceit
Definition
machiavellianism
Term
personality in which person will approach situations logically and possibly lie to achieve personal goals
Definition
high mach personality
Term
personality in which person will accept direction imposed by others
Definition
low mach personality
Term
relects a persons ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors
Definition
self monitoring
Term
measures how much an individual experiences emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts
Definition
emotional adjustment traits
Term
orientation characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism
Definition
type A orientation
Term
orientation characterized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events
Definition
type B orientation
Term
A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities
Definition
stress
Term
Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization
Definition
constructive stress (eustress)
Term
Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization
Definition
destructive stress (distress)
Term
A loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions
Definition
job burnout
Term
Taking action to keep stress from reaching destructive levels in the first place
Definition
stress prevention
Term
Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge
Definition
stress management
Term
Pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program
Definition
personal wellness
Term
Provide help for employees who are experiencing personal problems and related stress
Definition
employee assistance programs
Term
The presence of individual human characteristics that make people different from one another
Definition
workforce diversity
Term
occurs when one thinks of an individual belonging to a group and the characteristics commonly associated with the group are assigned to the individual in question
Definition
stereotyping
Term
background variables that help shape what a person becomes over time
Definition
demographic characteristics
Term
set of remedial actions designed to compensate for proven discrimination or correct for statistical imbalances in the labor force
Definition
affirmative action
Term
No intent to exclude or disadvantage legally protected groups
Definition
Nondiscriminatory employment decisions
Term
Older workers are more susceptible to
Definition
stereotyping
Term
_____ workers tend to perform well, be absent less, and have low turnover
Definition
experienced
Term
A person’s capability of learning something
Definition
aptitude
Term
A person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job
Definition
ability
Term
The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information from the world around them
Definition
perception
Term
People process information inputs into responses involving
Definition
feeling and action
Term
way of forming impressions about oneself, others, and daily life experiences
Definition
perception
Term
serves as a screen or filter through which info passes before it has an effect on people
Definition
perception
Term
factors influencing perceptual process
Definition
perceiver - experiences, needs, values
setting - physical, social, org
perceived - contrast, figure-ground separation, intensity, size, motion
Term
Lets in only a tiny portion all the information that is available
Definition
selective screening
Term
Two types of selective screening
Definition
Controlled processing
Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness
Term
Cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience
Definition
schemas
Term
stages of perceptional process
Definition
attention/selection
organization
interpretation
retrieval
Term
help organize info efficiently
Definition
schemas
Term
contain info about a persons own appearance, etc
Definition
Self Schemas
Term
way individuals sort others
Definition
person schemas
Term
knowledge framework taht describes the appropriate sequence of events in a given situation
Definition
script schema
Term
combine schemas built around persons and events
Definition
person-in-situation schemas
Term
Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli are grouped
Definition
interpretation
Term
Attention and selection, organization, and interpretation are part of memory

Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used
Definition
Retrieval
Term
Combines information based on the category or class to which a person, situation, or object belongs
Definition
stereotypes or prototypes
Term
Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation
Definition
halo effect
Term
The tendency to single out for attention those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes.
Definition
selective perception
Term
The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals
Definition
projection
Term
Occur when an individual’s characteristics are contrasted with those of others recently encountered, who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Definition
contrast effects
Term
The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find
Definition
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Term
The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information from the world around them
Definition
perception
Term
A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes
Definition
impression management
Term
managers should:
Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage
Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage
Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage
Definition
distortion management
Term
attempt to:
Understand the causes of a certain event.
Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event.
Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.
Definition
attribution theory
Term
in applying attribution theory we are especially concerned with:
Definition
whether an individuals behavior has been internally or externally caused
Term
according to attribution, three factors influence internal/external determination:
Definition
distinctiveness
consensus
consistency
Term
considers how consistent a persons behavior is across different situations
Definition
distinctiveness
Term
takes into account how likely all those facing a similar situation are to respond in the same way
Definition
consensus
Term
concerns whether an individual responds the same way across time
Definition
consistency
Term
tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else’s behavior
Definition
Fundamental attribution error
Term
tendency to deny personal responsibility for performance problems but to accept personal responsibility for performance success
Definition
Self-serving bias
Term
uses modeling or vicarious learning to acquire behavior through observing and imitating others by means of perception and attribution.
Definition
Social learning theory
Term
The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior
Definition
Reinforcement
Term
a form of learning through association that involves the manipulation of stimuli to influence behavior
Definition
Classical conditioning
Term
something that incites action
Definition
stimulus
Term
the once neutral stimulus is called a _______ when it affects behavior in the same way as the initial stimulus
Definition
conditioned stimulus
Term
the process of controlling behavior by manipulating, or “operating” on, its consequences
Definition
operant conditioning
Term
condition leading up to or cueing behavior
Definition
antecedent
Term
Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated
Definition
law of effect
Term
two perspectives of individual learning
Definition
reinforcement and social learning
Term
positively valued work outcomes that are given to the individual by some other person
Definition
extrinsic rewards
Term
The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior
Definition
OB mod
Term
The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings
Definition
positive reinforcement
Term
a view that claims that for a reward to have max reinforcing value, it must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited
Definition
law of contingent reinforcement
Term
view that states taht the more immediate the delivery of a reward after the occurrence of a desirable behavior, the greater the reinforcing effect on behavior
Definition
law of immediate reinforcement
Term
the creation of a new behavior by the positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior
Definition
shaping
Term
Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs
Definition
continuous reinforcement
Term
Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited
Definition
intermittent reinforcement
Term
typically result in more consistent patterns of desired behavior than do fixed reinforcement schedules
Definition
variable schedules
Term
provide rewards at the first appearance of a behavior after a given time has elapsed
Definition
fixed interval schedules
Term
result in a reward each time a certain number of the behaviors have occurred
Definition
fixed ratio schedules
Term
rewards behavior at random times
Definition
variable interval schedule
Term
rewards behavior after a random number of occurrences
Definition
variable ratio schedule
Term
The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in a similar setting
Definition
negative reinforcement
Term
also known as negative reinforcement
Definition
avoidance
Term
The administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings
Definition
punishment
Term
The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior
Definition
extinction
Term
achieved through the reciprocal interactions among people, behavior, and environment
Definition
social learning
Term
the person’s belief that he or she can perform adequately in a situation
Definition
self efficacy
Term
forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work
Definition
motivation
Term
refers to an individual's choice when presented w a number of possible alternatives
Definition
direction
Term
refers to the amount of effort a person puts forth
Definition
level
Term
refers to the length of time a person sticks with a given action
Definition
persistence
Term
Focus on individual needs – that is, physiological or psychological deficiencies that we feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate
Definition
content theories
Term
Focus on the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the minds of people and that influence their behavior
Definition
process theories
Term
examine the thought processes that motivate individual behavior
Definition
process theories
Term
profile different needs that may motivate individual behavior
Definition
content theories
Term
try to explain work behaviors based on pathways to need satisfaction and the influence of blocked needs
Definition
content theories
Term
a ____ approach would probe further to identify why the person decides to behave in certain ways relative to available rewards and work opportunities
Definition
process
Term
Assumes that some needs are more important than others and must be satisfied before the other needs can serve as motivators
Definition
maslows hierarchy of needs
Term
higher order needs
Definition
esteem and self actualization
Term
lower order needs
Definition
physiological, safety, social
Term
identifies existence, relatedness, and growth needs
Definition
ERG theory
Term
Desire for physiological and material well-being.
Definition
existence needs
Term
Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships.
Definition
relatedness needs
Term
Desire for continued personal growth and development.
Definition
growth needs
Term
The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.
Definition
need for achievement (nAch)
Term
The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others.
Definition
need for affiliation (nAff)
Term
The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
Definition
need for power (nPow)
Term
Sources of job satisfaction related to job content
Definition
motivator factors
Term
identifies job context as the source of job dissatisfaction and job content as the source of job satisfaction
Definition
two-factor theory
Term
in the job context, these are sources of job dissatisfaction
Definition
hygiene factors
Term
posits that peoplw will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received for their work in comparison to others
Definition
equity theory
Term
people usually feel less comfortable when they are
Definition
overrewarded
Term
issue of how fair and equitable people view workplace practices
Definition
organizational justice
Term
degree to which rules are always properly followed to implement policies
Definition
procedural justice
Term
degree to which all people are treated the same under a policy
Definition
distributive justice
Term
degree to which people are treated w/ dignity and respect in decisions affecting them
Definition
interactional justice
Term
degree to which people are treated w/ dignity and respect in decisions affecting them
Definition
interactional justice
Term
Argues that work motivation is determined by individual beliefs regarding effort/performance relationships and work outcomes
Definition
expectancy theory
Term
motivation is a result of rational calculation - people will do what they can do when they want to do it
Definition
expectancy theory
Term
A person’s motivation is a function of
Definition
expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (M = E x I x V)
Term
probability that work effort will be followed by performance accomplishment
Definition
expectancy
Term
probabilty that performance will lead to various work outcomes
Definition
instrumentality
Term
value to the individual of various work outcomes
Definition
valence
Term
The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior.
Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior.
Definition
reinforcement theory
Term
the process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that a person is responsible for accomplishing
Definition
goal setting
Term
process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate
Definition
MBO
Term
MBO establishes ____________ consistent with higher level work unit and organizational objectives.
Definition
performance goals
Term
process through which managers plan and specify job tasks and the work arrangements that allow them to be accomplished
Definition
job design
Term
Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well
Definition
scientific management
Term
Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks
Definition
job simplification
Term
Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs
Definition
job simplification
Term
Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers
Definition
job enlargement
Term
Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks
Definition
job rotation
Term
sometimes known as horizontal loading
Definition
job enlargement
Term
sometimes known as vertical loading
Definition
job enrichment
Term
The practice of increasing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job
Definition
job enrichment
Term
Adds planning and evaluating duties
Definition
job enrichment
Term
low intrinsic rewards, high specialization
Definition
job simplification
Term
mid intrinsic rewards, mid specialization
Definition
job enlargement and rotation
Term
high intrinsic rewards, low specialization
Definition
job enrichment
Term
identifies Five Core job characteristics
Definition
JCM
Term
degree to which a job includes a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of skills/talents
Definition
skill variety
Term
degree to which the job requires completion of whole work, beg to end, visible outcome
Definition
task identity
Term
degree to which the job is important and involves meaning to organization or society in general
Definition
task significance
Term
degree to which job gives employee freedom, etc.
Definition
autonomy
Term
degree to which carrying out work activities provides direct and clear info to employee regarding how well it was done
Definition
job feedback
Term
indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people.
Definition
mps
Term
A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the
Definition
core characteristics
Term
Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states, which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when:
Definition
growth-need strength is high
employee has knowledge and skill
Employee context satisfaction exists
Term
Social information in organizations influences the way people _____________ their jobs and respond to them.
Definition
perceive
Term
asserts that individual needs and task perceptions result from socially constructed realities
Definition
social info processing theory
Term
Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance work systems
Definition
Sociotechnical systems
Term
using a machine to do work previously accomplished by a human
Definition
automation
Term
Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products.
Definition
flex manu systems
Term
the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal
Definition
process reengineering
Term
Typical activities of process value analysis
Definition
Identify the core processes
Map the core processes in respect to workflows
Evaluate all tasks for the core processes
Search for ways to eliminate unnecessary tasks
Search for ways to eliminate delays, errors, and misunderstandings
Search for efficiencies in how work is shared and transferred among people and departments
Term
Compressed work weeks.
Flexible working hours.
Job sharing.
Work at Home (telecommuting)
Part-time work.
Definition
alternative work arrangements
Term
allows one full time job to be divided among two or more persons
Definition
job sharing
Term
work at home or in remote locations using computer and telecommunications linkage with the office
Definition
telecommunications
Term
working most of the time from a home office and coming into offices only for special meetings
Definition
flexispace
Term
individual literally works from the road and while traveling from place to place or from customer to customer by car or plane
Definition
virtual office
Term
positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance
Definition
intrinsic rewards
Term
positively valued work outcomes that are given to an individual or group by some other person or source in the work setting
Definition
extrinsic rewards
Term
performance is influenced most by
Definition
individual attributes (ability, exp)
org support (resources, tech)
effort (willingness to work hard)
Term
compensation system that directly ties an individual’s salary or wage increase to measures of performance accomplishments during a specific time period
Definition
merit pay
Term
should create a belief among employees that the way to achieve high pay is to perform at high levels
Definition
merit pay
Term
gives workers the opportunity to earn more by receiving shares of any productivity gains that they help to create
Definition
gain sharing
Term
reward employees based on overall organizational profit
Definition
profit sharing plans
Term
may give stock to employees, or allow stock to be purchased by them at a price below market value
Definition
ESOPs
Term
allows someone to elect the option of receiving all of an annual increase in one or more lump-sum payments
Definition
lump sum increase
Term
rewards people for acquiring and developing job relevant skills
Definition
skill based pay
Term
allow workers to select benefits according to needs
Definition
flex benefit plans
Term
process of managing performance measurement and the associated human resource management decisions
Definition
performance management
Term
formal procedure for measuring and documenting a person’s work performance
Definition
performance appraisal
Term
From a counseling perspective, facilitates decisions relating to planning for and gaining commitment to the continued training and personal development of workers
Definition
performance measurement
Term
Identify and set clear and measurable performance goals
Take performance measurements to monitor goal progress
Provide feedback and coaching on performance results
Use performance assessment for human resource management decisions
Definition
steps in performance mgmt
Term
assess actual work results
Definition
output measures
Term
assess work efforts or inputs
Definition
activity measures
Term
process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback on which performance adjustments need to be made
Definition
performance appraisal
Term
comparative method of performance appraisal involving rank ordering of each individual based on each performance dimension
Definition
ranking
Term
comparative method of performance appraisal whereby each person is directly compared w/ every other person
Definition
paired comparison
Term
method of performance appraisal that uses small number of performance categories and forces a certain proportion of people into each
Definition
forced distribution
Term
scale that lists variety of dimensions thought to be related to high performance outcomes
Definition
graphic rating scales
Term
method of performance appraisal that records incidents of unusual success or failure for a given performance aspect
Definition
critical incident diary
Term
perf appraisal approach that describes observable job behaviors, each of which is evaluated to determine good vs bad performance
Definition
BARS
Term
individual rates himself or herself
Definition
self eval
Term
persons in the work team or doing similar jobs rate the individual as a co-worker
Definition
peer eval
Term
using not only the evaluations of bosses, peers, and subordinates, but also self-ratings, customer ratings, and ratings by others with whom the ratee deals outside the immediate work unit
Definition
360 eval
Term
Link the team’s results to organizational goals
Definition
group performance eval sys
Term
To be meaningful, an appraisal system must be:
Definition
reliable - consistent over time
valid - measure on relevant job content
Term
one person rates another on several diff dimensions and gives a similar rating for each one
Definition
halo error
Term
tendency to give relatively high ratings to almost everyone
Definition
leniency error
Term
rater tends to give everyone low rating
Definition
strictness error
Term
raters restrict themselves to a small part of the rating scale
Definition
low differentiation error
Term
biased rating developed by allowing individual's most recent behavior to speak for overall performance
Definition
recency error
Term
rater allows specific biases to enter into appraisal
Definition
personal bias error
Term
criticism of employees based on cultural differences such as time orientation or idea of power distance
Definition
cultural bias
Term
collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals.
Definition
group
Term
group members are:
Definition
mutual dependent
regularly interactive w/ one another
Term
thrive in conditions of crisis and competition.
Definition
hot groups
Term
achieve high levels of task performance, member satisfaction, and team viability
Definition
effective groups
Term
Members attain performance goals regarding quantity, quality, and timeliness of work results.
Definition
task performance
Term
Members believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs.
Definition
member satisfaction
Term
Members are sufficiently satisfied to continue working together on an ongoing basis.
Definition
team viability
Term
Creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
Definition
synergy
Term
The tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually.
Definition
social loafing
Term
reasons for loafing
Definition
Individual contributions are less noticeable
Prefer to see others carry the workload.
Term
The tendency for a person’s behavior to be influenced by the presence of others.
Definition
social facilitation
Term
Positively affects performance when a person is proficient on the task.
Negatively affects task performance when the task is not well-learned.
Definition
social facilitation
Term
Officially designated to serve a specific organizational purpose.
Definition
formal groups
Term
The head of a formal group is responsible for the group’s performance and serves a ____ role
Definition
linking pin
Term
formal group with special problem-solving efforts drawing on input of the functional areas.
Definition
Cross-functional teams
Term
formal group set out to complete a specific task with a defined end point.
Definition
project team
Term
formal group workign together via computer networks
Definition
virtual groups
Term
unofficial and emerge to serve special interests
Definition
informal groups
Term
Emerge without being officially designated by the organization.
Definition
informal groups
Term
stages of group development
Definition
form, storm, norm, perform, adjourn
Term
Initial entry of members to a group.
Definition
forming stage
Term
A period of high emotionality and tension among group members.
Definition
storming stage
Term
The point at which the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit.
Definition
norming stage
Term
Marks the emergence of a mature, organized, and well-functioning group.
Definition
performing stage
Term
A well-integrated group is:
Able to disband when its work is finished and Willing to work together in the future.
Definition
adjourning stage
Term
initial givens of any group situation
Definition
inputs (task, goals, rewards, resources, tech, membership characteristics, diversity, group size)
Term
LT performance relies on
Definition
Appropriate goals.
Well-designed reward systems.
Adequate resources.
Term
groups performance can suffer when:
Definition
Goals are unclear, unchallenging, or arbitrarily imposed.
Goals are focused too much on individuals.
Adequate budgets, facilities, good work methods and procedures, and the best technologies are not available.
Term
Provides the means to get work accomplished.
Definition
technology
Term
Increasing diversity makes it harder for group members to work together, even though the diversity itself expands the skills and perspectives
Definition
diversity-consensus dilemma
Term
Identifies individual differences in how people relate to one another in groups.
Groups who have compatible characteristics are likely to be more effective.
Definition
FIRO - B theory
Term
A person’s relative rank, prestige, or standing in a group.
Definition
status
Term
consistency between a person's status within and outside a group
Definition
status congruence
Term
good size for prob solving groups
Definition
5-7
Term
forces operating in groups that affect the ways members work together
Definition
group dynamics
Term
those behaviors that are formally defined and expected by the organization.
Definition
required behaviors
Term
those behaviors that group members display in addition to what the organization asks of them.
Definition
emergent behaviors
Term
things people do or actions they take in groups while working on tasks
Definition
activities
Term
interpersonal communications and contacts
Definition
interactions
Term
feelings, attitudes, beliefs, or values held by group members
Definition
sentiments
Term
Interactions that take place between two or more groups
Definition
intergroup dynamics
Term
network in which all groups members communicate directly with one another
Definition
decentralized comm networks
Term
link group members through a central control point
Definition
centralized comm networks
Term
link subgroups that disagree w/ one another's positions
Definition
restricted comm networks
Term
group decision that has the expressed support of most members
Definition
consensus
Term
tendency of cohesive group members to lose their critical evaluative capabilities
Definition
groupthink
Term
actively generate as many ideas and alternatives, relatively quickly and without inhibitions.
Definition
brainstorming
Term
small groups of 6 to 7 members and who respond individually and in writing to a “nominal” question.
Definition
nominal group technique
Term
Involves generating alternatives through a series of survey questionnaires.
Definition
delphi technique
Term
takes place across great distances with the aid of decision support systems.
Definition
comp-mediated decision making
Term
involves structured rules for generating and prioritizing ideas
Definition
nominal group technique
Term
small group of people with complimentary skills who work together to achieve a common purpose
Definition
team
Term
Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them.
Definition
teams that recommend
Term
Have formal responsibility for leading other groups.
Definition
teams that run things
Term
Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks.
Definition
teams that make/do
Term
occurs when group members work together in ways that use their skills effectively to accomplish a purpose
Definition
teamwork
Term
Team building occurs during an offsite retreat.
Definition
formal retreat approach
Term
colloborative way to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork
Definition
team building
Term
The manager, team leader, or members take responsibility for ongoing team building.
Definition
continuous improvement approach
Term
Members engage in physically challenging situations that require teamwork.
Definition
outdoor experience approach
Term
New members are concerned about issues of:
Definition
Participation.
Goals.
Control.
Relationships.
processes
Term
sharing of responsibility for meeting group task and maintenance needs
Definition
distr. leadership
Term
directly contribute to performance of important tasks
Definition
task activities
Term
support emotional life of team as an ongoing social sys
Definition
maintenance activities
Term
team member profiles
Definition
Tough battler.
Friendly helper.
Objective thinker.
Term
occurs when a person is uncertain about his/her role.
Definition
role ambiguity
Term
occurs when too much is expected and the person feels overwhelmed with work
Definition
role overload
Term
occurs when too little is expected and the person feels underutilized.
Definition
role underload
Term
occurs when a person is unable to meet conflicting expectations
Definition
role conflict
Term
set of expectations for a team member or person in a job
Definition
role
Term
rules or standards of conduct.
Definition
norms
Term
is the degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of the team
Definition
cohesiveness
Term
members meet regularly to examine work-related probs and opportunities
Definition
employee involvement teams
Term
members meet regularly to find ways for continuous improvement of quality operations
Definition
quality circle
Term
A special type of employee involvement team.
Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality, productivity, or cost.
Definition
quality circle
Term
include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues.
Definition
employee involvement teams
Term
Consist of members representing different functional departments or work units.
Definition
cross functional teams
Term
occurs when people fail to communicate across functions
Definition
functional silos problem
Term
Used to overcome functional silos problem.
Used to solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative systems thinking.
Definition
cross functional teams
Term
convenes and operates w/ members linked via networked computers and IT
Definition
virtual team
Term
small groups empowered to make the decisions needed to manage themselves
Definition
self managing teams
Term
team members are trained in performing more than one job on the team
Definition
multiskilling
Term
The ability to get someone to do something you want done.
The ability to make things happen in the way you want.
Definition
power
Term
behavioral response to the exercise of power
Definition
influence
Term
foundation for power rests on
Definition
interdependence
Term
obedience experiments
Definition
milgram
Term
range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond w/o subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment
Definition
zone of indifference
Term
power derives from a person’s position in the organizational hierarchy.
Definition
position power
Term
formal authority, extent to which manager can use right of command to control people
Definition
legitimate power
Term
extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control people
Definition
reward power
Term
extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or punish people
Definition
coercive power
Term
control over methods of production and analysis
Definition
process power
Term
access to and/or control of info
Definition
info power
Term
formal right conferred by firm to speak for and to a potentially important group
Definition
representative power
Term
power derived from individual sources.
Definition
personal power
Term
ability to control another's behavior b/c of possession of knowledge or experience
Definition
expert power
Term
ability to control another's behavior b/c, through the individual's efforts, person accepts desirability of offered goal and a reasonable way of achieving it
Definition
rational persuasion
Term
ability to control another's behavior b/c of the individual's desire to ID w/ the power source
Definition
referent power
Term
ability to control another's behavior b/c the individual owes an obligation to you or another as part of a larger collective interest
Definition
coalition power
Term
action directed primarily at developing or using relationships in which otehrs are to some degree willing to defer to one's wishes
Definition
power-oriented behavior
Term
Increase the visibility of their job performance.

Controlling decision premises.

Perfecting Influence Techniques.
Definition
influence and info techniques
Term
The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.
Definition
empowerment
Term
emphasizes the ability to make things happen.
Definition
empowerment
Term
Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement groups.
Definition
empowerment
Term
Changing position power.
Expanding the zone of indifference.
Power as an expanding pie.
Definition
keys to empowerment
Term
Defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means.
Definition
org politics traditional view
Term
Emphasizes self-interest and the use of nonsanctioned means.
Definition
traditional view of org politics
Term
Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals.
Politics is the art of creative compromise among competing interests.
Politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests.
Definition
Alternate tradition of organizational politics.
Term
treats politics as necessary function resulting from differences in the self interests of individuals
Definition
alternate tradition of org politics
Term
can serve # of important functions, including overcoming personnel inadequacies, coping w change, and subbing for formal authority
Definition
org politics
Term
is quite common where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction.
Definition
avoidance
Term
3 strategies of self protection
Definition
avoid, redirect accountability, defend turf
Term
Managers are “agents” of the
Definition
owners
Term
Public corporations can function effectively even though its managers are
Definition
self-interested
Term
suggests public corporations can function effectively even though their managers are self interested and do not automatically bear the full consequences of their managerial actions
Definition
agency theory
Term
The firm’s need for resources that are controlled by others.
Definition
resource dependencies
Term
The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization
Definition
org governance
Term
establishes the following:
What is important.
How issues will be defined.
Who should and should not be involved in key choices
Boundaries for acceptable implementation.
Definition
org governance
Term
to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly
Definition
role of management
Term
to promote adaptive or useful changes
Definition
role of leadership
Term
process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared efforts
Definition
leadership
Term
exerted by persons appointed to or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations
Definition
formal leadership
Term
exerted by persons who become influential b/c they have special skills that meet resource needs of others
Definition
informal leadership
Term
assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes.
Definition
trait perspectives
Term
assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes
Definition
behavioral perspective
Term
Concerned with people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers.
Definition
consideration
Term
Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda.
Definition
initiating structure
Term
approach using 9 position grid that places concern for production on horizontal axis and concern for people on vertical axis
Definition
leadership grid
Term
Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with
Definition
situational contingencies
Term
Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory.
Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory.
House’s path-goal theory of leadership.
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model.
Definition
major sit contingency models
Term
The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions.
Definition
situational control (fiedler)
Term
measure of a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom respondents have been able to work least well
Definition
least preferred coworker scale (LPC scale)
Term
Fiedler measures range of control w/ following three variables:
Definition
leader-member relations
task structure
position power
Term
cognitive resources are
Definition
abilities or competencies
Term
A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on:
Definition
The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency
Stress
Experience
Group support of the leader
Term
assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies.
Definition
House path goal
Term
Rooted in the expectancy model of motivation.
Definition
House path goal
Term
Emphasizes how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links, or paths, found between these two sets of goals.
Definition
House path goal
Term
spells out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks
Definition
Directive leadership
Term
focuses on subordinate needs, well-being, and promotion of a friendly work climate.
Definition
supportive leadership
Term
leaders trained to diagnose situation to match their high and low LPC scores w/ situational control
Definition
leader match training
Term
emphasizes setting challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance and showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve high standards of performance.
Definition
Achievement oriented leadership
Term
focuses on consulting with subordinates and seeking and taking their suggestions into account before making decisions.
Definition
participative leadership
Term
directive leadership is predicted to have a positive impact on subordinates when task is
Definition
ambiguous
Term
supportive leadership is predicted to increase satisfaction of subordinates who work on ____ tasks
Definition
repetitive, or unpleasant tasks
Term
focuses on situational contingency of maturity or readiness of followers
Definition
situational leadership model
Term
Sit Leadership model styles:
Definition
Telling S1
Selling S2
Participating S3
Delegating S4
Term
emphasizes the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers.
Definition
Leader member exchange theory
LMX
Term
make a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence
Definition
substitutes for leadership
Term
assesses degree to which leaders/followers have mutual respect, trust, and obligation to one antoher
Definition
LMX theory
Term
is where people attribute romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership
Definition
romance of leadership
Term
Emphasizes leadership effectiveness as inferred by perceived group/organizational performance outcomes
Definition
inference based
Term
is leadership effectiveness based on how well a person fits characteristics of a good or effective leader
Definition
recognition based
Term
by force of their personal abilities, can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.
Definition
charismatic leaders
Term
Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests
Definition
transformational leadership
Term
Leaders provide resources or act as liaisons with other units but without the trappings of authority associated with traditional first-line supervisors.
Definition
in self managing work teams
Term
Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers.
Definition
transactional leadership
Term
Transactional leadership involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine agreed-upon performance.. these exchanges involve four dimensions:
Definition
Use of contingent rewards.
Active management by exception.
Passive management by exception.
laissez-faire - Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions.
Term
dimensions of transformational leadership
Definition
charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration
Term
provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride along w/ follower respect and trust
Definition
charisma
Term
communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, and expresses important purposes simply
Definition
inspiration
Term
promotes intelligence, rationality, and prob solving
Definition
intellectual stimulation
Term
provides personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches/advises
Definition
individualized consideration
Term
approaches w/ special emphasis on vision often emphasize
Definition
training
Term
FRLT, transformational and transactional leadership, and shared leadership fall under
Definition
integrative leadership
Term
Involves nine dimensions covering both transformational and transactional leadership, especially emphasizing contextual variables
Definition
Full range leadership theory
Term
designed to recognize contextual variables that link observations to a set of relevant facts, events, or points of view
Definition
full range leadership theory
Term
link observations to a set of relevant facts, events, or points of view
Definition
contextual variables
Term
a dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both.
Definition
shared leadership
Term
often involves peer or lateral influence
Definition
shared leadership
Term
Leaders provide resources or act as liaisons with other units but without the trappings of authority associated with traditional first-line supervisors
Definition
Leadership in self-managing work teams
Term
key is to coordinate the effort both inside and outside the team
Definition
efficient goal directed effort
Term
represent a portfolio of self-influence strategies that positively influence individual behavior, thought processes, and related activities
Definition
self leadership activities
Term
self leadership activities divided into three broad categories:
Definition
behavior-focused, natural-reward, and constructive-thought-pattern
Term
attributes and entities that differentiate a specified culture predict organizational practices, leader attributes, behaviors that are most often carried out and are most effective in that culture
Definition
GLOBE
Term
GLOBE leadership dimensions
Definition
Charismatic/value based
Team-oriented
participative
Humane-oriented
autonomous
Self-protective
Term
there are three different organizational domains from the bottom to the top of the organization
Definition
Multi level leadership
production domain(bottom), org domain, sys domain (top)
Term
are those who process information differently and perform better than less cognitively complex persons because they use more categories to discriminate
Definition
cognitive complexity
Term
ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals
Definition
social intelligence
Term
use demographic characteristics as proxies for harder to obtain psych variables
Definition
Top Mgmt Teams
Term
the ability to learn
Definition
absorptive capacity
Term
refers to the ability to change
Definition
adaptive capacity
Term
involves the ability to perceive variation in the environment and an understanding of the social actors and their relationships.
Definition
managerial wisdom
Term
involves both owning one’s personal experiences and acting in accordance with one’s true self.
Definition
authentic leadership
Term
concern for others
Definition
altruism
Term
an individual’s belief about the likelihood of successfully completing a specific task
Definition
self efficacy
Term
the expectation of positive outcomes
Definition
optimism
Term
the tendency to look for alternative pathways to reach a desired goal
Definition
hope
Term
the ability to bounce back from failure and keep forging ahead
Definition
resiliency
Term
an approach for organizational transformation designed to create an intrinsically motivated, learning organization
includes values, attitudes, and behaviors required to intrinsically motivate self and others to have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership
Definition
spiritual leadership
Term
helps deal with the idea of an organization that masters the challenges of change while still creating a satisfying, healthy, and effective workplace for its employees
Definition
change leadership
Term
radically shifts the fundamental character of an organization
Definition
transformational change
Term
individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system
Definition
change agents
Term
builds on existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions
Definition
incremental change
Term
occurs spontaneously and without a change agent’s direction
Definition
unplanned change
Term
intentional and occurs with a change agent’s direction
Definition
planned change
Term
a discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs
Definition
performance gap
Term
Organization-environment relationship
Organizational life cycle
Political nature of organizations
Definition
forces for change
Term
stage at which a situation is prepared for change
Definition
unfreezing
Term
stage in which specific actions are taken to create change
Definition
changing
Term
stage in which changes are reinforced and stabilized
Definition
refreezing
Term
uses authority, rewards, and punishments to create change
Definition
forced coercion strategy
Term
uses facts, special knowledge, and rational argument to create change
Definition
rational persuasion strategy
Term
uses participatory methods and emphasizes common values to create change
Definition
shared power strategy
Term
Reflect an organization’s intended contributions to the broader society
Definition
societal goals
Term
Enable organizations to make legitimate claims over resources, individuals, markets, and products
Definition
societal goals
Term
A written statement of organizational purpose
Definition
mission statement
Term
Define the type of business the organization is pursuing
Definition
output goals
Term
Provide some substance to the more general aspects of mission statements
Definition
output goals
Term
Concerned with the conditions within the organization that are expected to increase the organization’s survival potential
Definition
system goals
Term
provide road map that helps link various units of organization to assure survival
Definition
systems goals
Term
A hierarchical division of labor that distributes formal authority and establishes where and how critical decisions are to be made
Definition
vertical specialization
Term
diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations
Definition
org charts
Term
A listing of who reports to whom up and down the organization
Definition
chain of command
Term
Each person has only one boss and each unit one leader
Definition
unity of command
Term
The number individuals reporting to a supervisor
Definition
span of control
Term
Work groups that conduct the major business of the organization
Definition
line units
Term
Work groups that assist the line units by providing specialized expertise and services to the organization
Definition
staff units
Term
production and marketing functions are examples of ___ units
Definition
line
Term
accting/public relations are examples of ___ units
Definition
staff
Term
The set of mechanisms used to keep actions or outputs within predetermined limits
Definition
control
Term
Deals with:
Setting standards
Measuring results against standards
Instituting corrective action
Definition
control
Term
Focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods to reach defined targets
Definition
output controls
Term
Part of overall method of managing by exception
Definition
output controls
Term
Attempt to specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished
Definition
process controls
Term
Guideline for action that outlines important objectives and broadly indicates how activities are to be carried out
Definition
policy
Term
Indicate the best method for performing a task, show which aspects of a task are most important, or outline how an individual is to be rewarded
Definition
procedures
Term
Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is to be performed, or indicate what cannot be done
Definition
rules
Term
The written documentation of policies, procedures, and rules to guide behavior and decision making
Definition
formalization
Term
The degree to which the range of allowable actions in a job or series of jobs is limited so that actions are performed in a uniform manner
Definition
standardization
Term
process approach to continual improvement based on statistical analyses of the firm’s operations
Definition
TQM
Term
Deming’s 14 points deal with
Definition
TQM
Term
Degree to which the authority to make decisions is restricted to higher levels of management
Definition
centralization
Term
Degree to which the authority to make decisions is given to lower levels in an organization’s hierarchy
Definition
decentralization
Term
A division of labor that establishes specific work units or groups within an organization
Often referred to as departmentation
Definition
horizontal specialization
Term
grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action
Definition
functional departmentation
Term
individual and departments are grouped by products, territories, services, clients, or legal entities
Definition
divisional departments
Term
uses both the functional and divisional forms simultaneously
Definition
matrix departmentation
Term
The set of mechanisms that an organization uses to link the actions of its units into a consistent pattern
Definition
coordination
Term
Form of organization that emphasizes legal authority, logic, and order
Definition
bureaucracy
Term
Relies on a division of labor, hierarchical control, promotion by merit with career opportunities for employees, and administration by rule
Definition
bureaucracy
Term
Emphasizes vertical specialization and control
Definition
mechanistic type/machine bureaucracy
Term
Stresses rules, policies, and procedures; specifies techniques for decision making; and use well-documented control systems
Definition
mechanistic type/machine bureaucracy
Term
Emphasizes horizontal specialization
Procedures are minimal, and those that do exist are not highly formalized
Definition
Organic type/pro bureaucracy
Term
Composed of quasi-independent divisions so that different divisions can be more or less organic or mechanistic
Definition
Divisional firm (hybrid)
Term
A single corporation that contains a number of unrelated businesses
Definition
conglomerate (hybrid)
Term
the process of positioning the organization in the competitive environment and implementing actions to compete successfully
Definition
strategy
Term
the process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice
Definition
innovation
Term
introduce new goods or services to better meet customer needs
Definition
product innovations
Term
introduce into operations new and better ways of doing things
Definition
process innovations
Term
Process of knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and information retention in adapting successfully to changing circumstances
Definition
org learning
Term
Occurs when managers copy what they believe are the successful practices of others
Definition
mimicry
Term
Org Innovation steps
Definition
Idea creation
initial experiment
feasibility determination
final application
Term
A primary way to acquire knowledge
Definition
experience
Term
Involves looking outside the firm and bringing back useful solutions.
Definition
scanning
Term
The process of acquiring individuals, units, or firms to bring in useful knowledge.
Definition
grafting
Term
The major problem with emphasizing learning by doing is the inability to precisely
Definition
forecast changes
Term
The most important storehouses of information for organizations are
Definition
individuals/employees
Term
Documents, rule books, written procedures,
and even standard but unwritten methods of operation are all transformation
mechanisms used to store accumulated information.
Definition
transformation mechanisms
Term
less obvious but equally important mechanisms for storing
information
Definition
formal structure and positions in organizations
Term
(or ecology, in the language of
learning theorists) are potentially important mechanisms used to store information.
Definition
physical structures
Term
can be tapped to provide valuable information
about most larger organizations.
Definition
external archives
Term
can provide a powerful and individually tailored mechanism for storing
information
Definition
IT systems
Term
The process of choosing and implementing a structural configuration.
Definition
org design
Term
The choice of an appropriate organizational design is contingent on:
Definition
Firm’s size
Operations and information technology
Environment
Strategy for growth and survival
Term
Shaping capabilities via the organization’s design is a dynamic aspect of
Definition
co-evolution
Term
The firm can adjust to external changes even as it shapes some of the challenges facing it
Definition
co-evolution
Term
A configuration involving one or two ways of specializing individuals and units
Definition
simple design
Term
A series of well-known routines for problem identification and alternative generation and analysis that are common to managers in a firm
Definition
managerial scripts
Term
Commonly held cause-effect relationship or assertion that cannot be empirically supported
Definition
org myth
Term
The combination of resources, knowledge, and techniques that creates a product or service output
Definition
operations technology
Term
The combination of machines, artifacts, procedures, and systems used to gather, store, analyze, and disseminate information for translating it into knowledge
Definition
info technology
Term
Uncertainty as to how to produce desired outcomes
Definition
intensive technology
Term
Links parties that want to become interdependent
Definition
mediating technology
Term
The way to produce desired outcomes is known and broken down into a number of sequential steps
Definition
long linked technology
Term
a variety of custom products are tailor-made to fit customer specifications
Definition
small batch production
Term
The organization produces one or a few products through an assembly line system
Definition
mass prodcution
Term
The organization produces a few products using considerable automation
Definition
continuous process technology
Term
org structure emphasizing shared, decentralized, decision making; extreme horizontal specialization; few mgmt levels; virtual absence of formal controls; and few rules, policies, procedures
Definition
adhocracy
Term
An adhocracy is useful when:
Definition
The tasks facing the firm vary considerably and provide many exceptions.
Problems are difficult to define and solve.
Term
an ever-shifting constellation of firms, with a lead corporation, that pool skills, resources, and experiences to thrive jointly
Definition
virtual org
Term
The set of cultural, economic, legal-political, and educational conditions found in the areas in which the organization operates
Definition
general environment
Term
The owners, suppliers, distributors, government agencies, and competitors with which an organization must interact to grow and survive
Definition
specific environment
Term
The magnitude of problems and opportunities in the organization’s environment, as reflected in the degree of richness, degree of interdependence and degree of uncertainty
Definition
environmental complexity
Term
Overall the environment is richer when the economy is growing, individuals are improving their education and those on whom the organization relies are prospering
Definition
environmental richness
Term
firms can co-evolve by altering their environment by forming:
Definition
networks and alliances
Term
competitors work cooperatively inthe market to decrease uncertainty and improve favorability for all
Definition
informal combines and cartels
Term
Japan netwrok of relationships
Definition
keiretsu
Term
Announced cooperative agreements or joint ventures between two independent firms
Definition
interfirm alliances
Term
pattern of successful adjustments followed by further improvement
Definition
benefit cycle
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