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OB Motivation
Test 1
32
Accounting
Graduate
03/26/2009

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Term
Motivation
Definition
set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
Term
Job Performance is function of 2 factors
Definition
motivation and ability
Term
Motivation determines the...
Definition
DIRECTION of Effort, INTENSITY of Effort, PERSISTENCE of Effort
Term
Expectancy Theory
Definition
describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices amoung different voluntary responses. Based on expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
Term
Expectancy
Definition
belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task; probability. Important factor is self-efficacy
Term
Self-efficacy
Definition
belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors requires for task success. Self-confidence---consider past accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional cues
Term
Instrumentality
Definition
belief that successful performance will result in some outcome
Term
Valence
Definition
Reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance;ie bonuses; need to satisfy needs (clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences)
Term
Extrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance -- pay, bonuses, promotions, benefits and perks, spot awards
Term
Intrinsic outcomes
Definition
motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own rewards
Term
Meaning of money
Definition
degree to which they view money as having symbolic, not just economic value- achievement, respect, and freedom
Term
Goal Setting Theory
Definition
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort

Goal: objective or aim of an action and typically refer to attaining a specific standard of proficiency, often wihtin a specified time limit *better to have specific and difficult goals
Term
Self-set goals
Definition
shaped by specific and difficult goals; the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress
Term
Task strategies
Definition
learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance
Term
Moderators
Definition
variables that specify when assigned goals will have stronger or weaker effects on task performance- feedback, task complexity, and goal commitment
Term
Feedback
Definition
updates on employee progress toward goal attainment
Term
Task Complexity
Definition
reflects how complicatred the info. and actions involved in a task are, as well as how much the task changes
Term
Goal commitment
Definition
degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it
Term
S.M.A.R.T. goals
Definition
specific, measurable, achievable, results-based, and time-sensitive
Term
Strategies for fostering goal commitment
Definition
rewards, publicity, support, participation, resources
Term
Equity Theory
Definition
motivation doesn't just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people.
Term
comparison other
Definition
person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity. Outcomes could be balanced (feel sense of equity), your ratio could be less (angry decrease inputs or steal), ratio could be more (feel guilt, cognitive justification)
Term
equity distress
Definition
ratio of outcomes to inputs is less than your comparison other's ratio- internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios
1. constructive and proactive
2. counterproductive behaviors- theft
3. Shrink your efforts
Term
Cognitive distortion/justification
Definition
allows you to restore balance mentally, without altering your behavior in any way. Reevaluate your inputs and decide your inputs are really inportant. Mentally increase your inputs
Term
Can create an "overall equity" judgment
Definition
job equity is the most powerful driver of citizenship behavior, whereas occupational equity is the most powerful driver of employee withdrawal
Term
Psychological empowerment
Definition
belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose- intrinsic motivation: meaningfulness, self-determination, competence, and impact
Term
Meaningfulness
Definition
value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions. Contributes to society in some way.
Term
Self-determination
Definition
a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks. Doing it because you chose to do it.
Term
Competence
Definition
captures a person's belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully- self- efficacy concept
Term
Impact
Definition
"make a difference". a person's actions are making progress towards fulfilling some important pupose
Term
Motivating force with the strongest performance effect
Definition
1. self-efficacy/competence
2. difficult goals
3. valence, instrumentality, and expectancy
Term
Difficult Goal
Definition
one that stretches an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of his or her ability
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