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Nursing Physiology
Test 5
100
Physiology
Undergraduate 2
04/23/2013

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Cards

Term
1) Which of the following processes is NOT a part of external respiration?
Definition
the use of oxygen and generation of carbon dioxide by the mitochondria during energy metabolism
Term
2) Which of the following specifically describes the movement of air into and out of the lungs?
Definition
Pulmonary ventilation
Term
3) Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?
Definition
electrolyte balance of blood
Term
4) Which of the following statements about respiratory system anatomy is FALSE?
Definition
Each lung has three lobes.
Term
5) Food is prevented from entering the respiratory tract by the ________, which is/are located in the ________, the entry to the larynx.
Definition
epiglottis : glottis
Term
6) What structure bifurcates into the bronchi that enter the right and left lungs?
Definition
trachea
Term
7) What are the smallest (and most distal) structures that remain a component of the conducting zone in the respiratory tract?
Definition
terminal bronchioles
Term
8) What is the function of ciliated cells in the conducting zone?
Definition
propel mucus containing trapped particles toward the glottis
Term
9) Which of the following becomes more abundant deeper into the conducting zone (from
Definition
Smooth muscle
Term
10) Which of the following is most abundant in the trachea and bronchi, becoming much less dense (and eventually absent) in the bronchioles.
Definition
cartilage
Term
11) The transition from the conducting to the respiratory zone in the lungs occurs at the
Definition
respiratory bronchioles
Term
12) What structure is the region of the lungs where the majority of gas exchange occurs?
Definition
alveolus
Term
13) What are the most common cells that line the surface of the alveoli and are therefore associated with the exchange of gases within the lungs?
Definition
Type I alveolar cells
Term
14) What is the thin barrier (0.2 μm) that allows for the efficient exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood called?
Definition
respiratory membrane
Term
15) What type of cells secrete mucus in the respiratory tract?
Definition
goblet cells
Term
16) Which of the following decreases when traveling from upper airways to the conducting zone to the respiratory zone?
Definition
both cilia and goblet cells
Term
17) What type of cell in the respiratory tract functions in phagocytosis of inhaled pathogens and foreign particles?
Definition
macrophages
Term
18) Which of the following is NOT a muscle involved in breathing?
Definition
the pleural muscle
Term
19) The ________ is bounded by the interior surface of the chest wall and the exterior surface of the lung.
Definition
interpleural space
Term
20) What is the connective tissue surround each lung called?
Definition
pleural sac
Term
21) Internal respiration refers to the use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by cells.
Definition
true
Term
22) The upper airway refers to the passageway for air that is located within the head and neck.
Definition
true
Term
23) The bronchus diverges into two lobes, the left and right lungs.
Definition
false
Term
24) The trachea rhythmically collapses and expands during the respiratory cycle.
Definition
false
Term
25) The conducting zone adjusts the temperature and humidity of the air entering the respiratory tract.
Definition
true
Term
26) At sea level, what is the normal partial pressure of oxygen in the systemic veins?
Definition
40 mm Hg
Term
27) At sea level, what is the normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in systemic veins?
Definition
46 mm Hg
Term
28) During intense exercise, the metabolic activity of muscle causes a ________ in the partial pressure of oxygen in the tissue, ________ the movement of oxygen into the tissue.
Definition
decrease : facilitating
Term
29) A typical value for blood PO2 in the pulmonary vein is ________, whereas PCO2 is
Definition
100 mm Hg : 40 mm Hg
Term
30) Under resting conditions, equilibration between alveolar PO2 and PCO2 with blood PO2 and PCO2 in the pulmonary capillaries occurs in approximately how many seconds?
Definition
0.25
Term
31) Under resting conditions, equilibration between alveolar PO2 and PCO2 with blood PO2 and PCO2 in the pulmonary capillaries is completed by the time the blood has traveled what portion of the distance of the pulmonary capillaries?
Definition
1/3
Term
32) Mixed venous blood samples can be taken from which of the following blood vessels?
Definition
pulmonary artery
Term
33) The venous blood in the right ventricle is referred to as "mixed" because the blood that enters the heart ________.
Definition
comes from tissue with differing metabolic activities
Term
34) What is an increase in alveolar ventilation to match the demands of increased metabolic activity in the cells called?
Definition
hyperpnea
Term
35) Hyperventilation would lead to a(n) ________ within the systemic arteries.
Definition
increase in PO2 and decrease in PCO2
Term
36) What is a decrease in carbon dioxide within the blood called?
Definition
hypocapnia
Term
37) The majority of oxygen present within the blood is ________.
Definition
bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells
Term
38) Each ________ on the hemoglobin subunit is capable of binding an oxygen molecule, thereby allowing ________ oxygen to bind with one hemoglobin molecule.
Definition
heme : four
Term
39) What is the primary driving force for the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin?
Definition
PO2
Term
40) If hemoglobin is saturated (1.3 mL of oxygen per gram) and there are 150 grams of hemoglobin per liter of blood, how much oxygen can be delivered to the tissue if cardiac output is 15 liters per minute?
Definition
2925 mL O2/min
Term
41) What is the definition of anemia?
Definition
a decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Term
42) What is labored or difficult breathing called?
Definition
dyspnea
Term
43) What is a deficiency of oxygen in the tissues called?
Definition
hypoxia
Term
44) What is rapid shallow breathing called?
Definition
tachypnea
Term
45) What is a decrease in oxygen in the blood called?
Definition
hypoxemia
Term
46) At the same partial pressure, all gases in a solution will be at equal concentration.
Definition
false
Term
47) Dalton's law describes the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
Definition
false
Term
48) Oxygen is much more soluble in aqueous solution than carbon dioxide.
Definition
false
Term
49) There is a substantial safety margin for the uptake of gases in the alveolus because at rest, blood is completely oxygenated after traveling only 1/3 the length of the pulmonary capillary bed.
Definition
true
Term
50) In active skeletal muscle, the gradient for oxygen movement into the muscle is increased by a decreased within the muscle cell.
Definition
true
Term
51) Which of the following is FALSE concerning renal handling of glucose?
Definition
The maximum rate of glucose filtration is 375 mg/min.
Term
52) Which of the following substances is NOT secreted at any point into the renal tubules?
Definition
sodium
Term
53) By the time filtrate reaches the loop of Henle, what percentage of the sodium and water has been reabsorbed?
Definition
70%
Term
54) By the time the filtrate reaches the loop of Henle, the reabsorption of water and ions has ________.
Definition
left the filtrate iso-osmotic
Term
55) Which of the following is NOT an accurate description of differences between epithelial cells of the proximal and distal tubules?
Definition
greater paracellular transport in the epithelial cells of the distal tubule
Term
56) In diabetes mellitus, why does polyuria occur?
Definition
hyperglycemia causes some glucose to remain in the renal tubules which pulls water with it by osmosis
Term
57) What is the brush border?
Definition
microvilli on the apical membrane of the proximal tubule
Term
58) Most reabsorption occurs in the ________ and is ________.
Definition
B) proximal tubule : not regulated
Term
59) Tubular epithelial cells of the collecting duct and distal tubule contain receptors for what hormone that stimulates sodium reabsorption?
Definition
aldosterone
Term
60) Tubular epithelial cells of the collecting duct and distal tubule contain receptors for what
Definition
antidiuretic hormone
Term
61) What creates the osmotic gradient in the renal medulla?
Definition
special transport systems of the loops of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons
Term
62) Substances can enter the renal tubules by what renal processes?
Definition
both filtration and secretion
Term
63) The amount of a substance excreted from the kidneys is calculated by which of the following equations?
Definition
filtration + secretion - reabsorption
Term
64) Solutes that enter the lumen of the renal tubules are excreted unless they are ________.
Definition
reabsorbed
Term
65) If the amount of solute excreted per minute is greater than the filtered load, then the NET effect on the solute is ________.
Definition
secretion into the renal tubules
Term
66) Which of the following equations for determining clearance is correct?
Definition
Clearance = excretion rate/plasma concentration
Term
67) Which of the following equations for determining clearance is correct?
Definition
Clearance = "(urine concentration x urine flow rate)" /"(plasma concentration)"
Term
68) Calculate renal clearance of X given the following information: GFR = 100 mL/min, urine flow rate = 5 mL/min, plasma concentration of X = 10 mg/mL, urine concentration of X = 50 mg/mL.
Definition
25 mL/min
Term
69) Given that GFR is 125 mL/min and the clearance of substance Y is 200 mL/min, which of the following MUST be true of the renal handling of substance Y.
Definition
Y is secreted.
Term
70) The clearance of what substance provides the best estimate of glomerular filtration rate?
Definition
inulin
Term
71) Glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure is greater than systemic capillary hydrostatic pressure.
Definition
true
Term
72) Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure is greater than systemic interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure.
Definition
true
Term
73) Glomerular filtration is approximately 3 L/day.
Definition
false
Term
74) Filtration fraction is calculated as glomerular filtration rate × plasma concentration of a solute.
Definition
false
Term
75) The intrinsic and extrinsic controls of glomerular filtration rate ultimately involve changes in resistance at the afferent arteriole.
Definition
true
Term
76) Which of the following does NOT occur as a consequence of the increased release of renin and its effects on other hormones?
Definition
increased heart rate
Term
77) The hemorrhage-induced decrease in blood flow to the kidneys will ________.
Definition
increase the production of erythrocytes
Term
78) Which of the following is NOT one of the effects of changes in pH on the body?
Definition
alteration in water balance
Term
79) The activity of the respiratory system can increase pH by ________.
Definition
a hyperventilation-induced decrease in PCO2
Term
80) What is the normal range of blood pH?
Definition
7.35-7.45
Term
81) During hyperventilation, why do some people detect a tingling sensation in their hands and feet?
Definition
due to hyperexcitability of afferent neurons
Term
82) Which of the following is NOT a metabolic disturbance that can result in a metabolic acidosis?
Definition
excessive vomiting
Term
83) What is the most rapid defense against changes in blood pH?
Definition
buffering of hydrogen ions
Term
84) How does severe diarrhea cause a metabolic acidosis?
Definition
loss of bicarbonate
Term
85) How does severe vomiting cause a metabolic alkalosis?
Definition
loss of hydrogen ions
Term
86) Which of the following ions acts as a buffer to minimize changes in intracellular pH?
Definition
phosphate
Term
87) The role of a buffer is to ________.
Definition
limit the change in pH with changing hydrogen ion concentrations
Term
88) What is the secondary defense against changes in pH that requires minutes to be activated?
Definition
respiratory compensation
Term
89) Respiratory compensation for changes in pH are originated by ________.
Definition
peripheral chemoreceptors
Term
90) When an increase in hydrogen ions remains after one hour, this will lead to a(n) ________.
Definition
increase in hydrogen ion secretion from the kidneys
Term
91) Which of the following is an effect of the transporters in the proximal tubules?
Definition
reabsorption of bicarbonate
Term
92) In the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells, bicarbonate is moved out of the cells by ________.
Definition
both HCO3- /CI- countertransporters and Na+ / HCO3- cotransporters
Term
93) In the proximal tubule, hydrogen ions are transported into the filtrate by ________.
Definition
both Na+/H+ countertransporters and H+ primary active transporters
Term
94) Bicarbonate crosses the apical membrane of the proximal tubule by ________.
Definition
conversion to carbon dioxide
Term
95) Which of the following transporters is NOT found embedded in the membrane of the intercalated cells of the late distal tubule and collecting ducts?
Definition
Na+/HCO3- cotransporters in the basolateral membrane
Term
96) Antidiuretic hormone increases water reabsorption by increasing the permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct to water.
Definition
true
Term
97) If plasma volume is below normal, the changes originated by the kidneys will be able to return the plasma osmolarity back to normal.
Definition
false
Term
98) If glomerular filtration decreases, water excretion tends to decrease as well.
Definition
true
Term
99) In the proximal tubule, sodium moves from the lumen into the tubule epithelial cell by diffusion through sodium channels.
Definition
false
Term
100) Aldosterone stimulates an increase in sodium reabsorption at the same time it stimulates an increase in potassium secretion.
Definition
true
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