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MGMT 363
Chapter 13
55
Management
Undergraduate 3
05/09/2009

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Term
Leadership
Definition
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.
Term
Power
Definition
The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return.
Term
Organizational Power, Personal Power
Definition
Types of Power
Term
Legitimate, Reward, and Coercive Power
Definition
Types of Organizational Power
Term
Legitimate Power
Definition
Derived from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as "formal authority."
Term
Reward Power
Definition
exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants.
Term
Coercive Power
Definition
Exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization. Operates primarily on the principle of fear.
Term
Expert Power
Definition
Derived from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend.
Term
Referent Power
Definition
Exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person. This desire is generally derived from an affection, admiration, or loyalty toward a specific individual.
Term
Expert Power, Referent Power
Definition
Types of Personal Power
Term
Substitutability, centrality, discretion, and visibility
Definition
4 Factors that have an effect on the strength of a person's ability to use power to influence others.
Term
Substitutability
Definition
the degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources.
Term
Discretion
Definition
The degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own.
Term
Centrality
Definition
Represents how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks.
Term
Visibility
Definition
How aware others are of a leader's power and position
Term
Influence
Definition
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others.
Term
1. It is directional
2. It is relative
Definition
Two important aspects of influence
Term
Rational persuasion, consultation, inspirational appeals, collaboration
Definition
Most effective influence tactics
Term
Ingratiation, exchange, personal appeals, apprising
Definition
moderately effective influence tactics
Term
pressure and coalitions
Definition
least effective influence tactics
Term
Rational persuasion
Definition
The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
Term
Inspirational Appeal
Definition
Tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.
Term
Consultation
Definition
Occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
Term
Collaboration
Definition
Tactic that attempts to make it easier for the target to complete the request. Ex: leader helps complete task
Term
Ingratiation
Definition
The use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer. Also referred to as "sucking up."
Term
Personal appeals
Definition
When the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty.
Term
Exchange tactic
Definition
Used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request.
Term
Apprising
Definition
occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally.
Term
Pressure
Definition
The use of coercive power through threats and demands.
Term
Coalitions
Definition
Occur when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target
Term
Engagement
Definition
occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request.
Term
Compliance
Definition
Occurs when targets of influence are willing to do what the leader asks, but they do it with a degree of ambivalence.
Term
Resistance
Definition
Occurs when the target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth effort to avoid having to do it.
Term
Organizational politics
Definition
Actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self interests.
Term
Political skill
Definition
Ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives.
Term
Networking ability, social astuteness, interpersonal influence, apparent sincerity
Definition
Aspects of political skill
Term
Networking ability
Definition
adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts
Term
social astuteness
Definition
tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior
Term
Interpersonal influence
Definition
Involves having an unassuming and convincing personal style that is flexible enough to adapt to different situations.
Term
Apparent sincerity
Definition
involves appearing to others as having high levels of honesty and genuineness.
Term
Personal Characteristics (need for power, high self-monitors, Machiavellianism) and Organizational Characteristics (limited or changing resources, ambiguity in roles, high performance pressure, unclear performance evaluations.)
Definition
Factors that foster Organizational Politics
Term
Need for power
Definition
Some employees have a strong need for power that provides them with an incentive to engage in political behaviors.
Term
High self-monitors
Definition
Employees who have a tendency to be closely guarded in their actions and behaviors.
Term
Machiavellian tendencies
Definition
Tendencies of employees that are willing to manipulate and deceive others to acquire power.
Term
Avoiding, Competing, Compromise, Accommodating, and Collaborating
Definition
5 Styles of Conflict Resolution
Term
Competing
Definition
Occurs when one party attempts to get his own goals met without concern for the other party's results. (high assertiveness, low cooperation)
Term
Avoiding
Definition
Occurs when one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from the conflict, or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down. (low assertiveness, low cooperation)
Term
Accommodating
Definition
Occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way. (low assertiveness, high cooperation)
Term
Collaboration
Definition
Occurs when both parties work together to maximize outcomes. (high assertiveness, high cooperation)
Term
Compromise
Definition
Occurs when conflict is resolved through give-and-take concessions. ( moderate assertiveness and cooperation)
Term
Moderate
Definition
corr. b/w power & influence and job performance
Term
moderate
Definition
corr. b/w power & influence and job performance
Term
Negotiation
Definition
Process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences.
Term
Distributive bargaining
Definition
Involves win-lose negotiating over a "fixed-pie" of resources. That is, when one person gains, the other person loses ( also known as a "zero-sum" condition)
Term
Integrative bargaining
Definition
Aimed at accomplishing a win-win scenario. It involves the use of problem solving and mutual respect to achieve an outcome that is satisfying for both parties.
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