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MGMT 363 TEST 2
HARRIS SPRING 2011
170
Management
Undergraduate 3
02/23/2011

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Term
stress
Definition
defined as a psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes and that ax or exceed a person's capacity or resources
Term
stressors
Definition
demands that cause people to experience stress
Term
the negative consequences that occur when demands tax o exceed a person's capacity or resources
Definition
strains
Term
transactional theory of stress
Definition
theory that explains how stressors are perceived and appraised, as well as how ppl respond to those perceptions and appraisals
Term
primary appraisal
Definition
triggered when people first encounter stressors
Term
primary appraisal
Definition
occurs as ppl evaluate the significance and the meaning of the stressors that they are confronting
Term
benign job demands
Definition
job demands that tend not to be appraised as stressful
Term
hindrance stressors
Definition
stressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment
Term
hindrance stressors
Definition
tend to trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety
Term
challenge stressors
Definition
stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities for learning, growth, and achievement
Term
role conflict
Definition
one type of work related hindrance stressor; conflicting expectations that other ppl may have of us
Term
role ambiguity
Definition
lack of information about what needs to be done in a role, as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performance in that role
Term
role overload
Definition
occurs when the number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all of the roles efectively
Term
daily hassles
Definition
one final type of work related hindrance stressor; reflects the relatively minor day to day demands that get in the way of accomplishing the things that we really want to accomplish
Term
time pressure
Definition
a strong sense that the amount of time you have to do a task is just not quite enough
Term
work complexity
Definition
refers to the degree to which the requirements of the work, in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities, tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible for performing the work
Term
work responsibility
Definition
refers to the nature of the obligations that a person has toward others
Term
work family conflict
Definition
nonwork hindrance stressor; a special form of role conflict in which the demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands of a family role
Term
negative life events
Definition
hinder the ability to achieve life goals and are associated with engative emotions
Term
financial uncertainty
Definition
refers to conditions that create uncertainties with regard to the loss of livelihood, savings, or ability to pay expenses
Term
family time demands
Definition
refer to the time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibility
Term
personal development
Definition
include participation in formal education programs, music lessons, sports related training, hobby related self education , participation in local gov, volunteer wrok
Term
positive life events
Definition
sources of nonwork challenge stresswos; marriage, pregnancy, ending school
Term
secondary appraisal
Definition
issue of how people cope with the various stressors they face
Term
coping
Definition
the behaviors and thoughts that ppl use to manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with those stressful demands
Term
behavioral coping
Definition
involves the set of physical activities that are sued to deal with a stressful situation
Term
cognitive coping
Definition
refers to the thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation
Term
problem focused coping
Definition
refers to behaviors and cognition intended to manage the stressful situation itself
Term
problem focused coping
Definition
refers to the behaviors and cognition intended to manage the stressful situation itself
Term
emotion focused coping
Definition
refers too the various ways in which ppl manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands
Term
social support
Definition
refers to the help that people receive when they're confronted with stressful demands, and there at least two major types
Term
instrumental support
Definition
refers to the help people receive that can be used to address the stressful demand directly
Term
emotional support
Definition
refers to the hp ppl receive in addressing the emotional distress that accompanies stressful demands
Term
motivation
Definition
defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
Term
engagement
Definition
contemporary synonym, more or less, for high levels of intensity and persistence in work effort
Term
expectancy theory
Definition
describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses
Term
expectancy
Definition
represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task
Term

self efficacy

Definition

defined as the belief that a person has a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success

Term
past accomplishments
Definition
the degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past
Term
vicarious experiences
Definition
observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks
Term
instrumentality
Definition
represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes
Term
valence
Definition
reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
Term
needs
Definition
defined as cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences
Term
40 percent
Definition
what percent of US workers feel their jobs are stressful?
Term
stress
Definition
defined as a psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes that tax or exceed a person's capacity or resources
Term
primary appraisal
Definition
occurs as ppl evaluate the significance and the meaning of the stressors they are confronting
Term
benign job demands
Definition
job demands that tend not to be appraised as stressful
Term
hindrance stressors
Definition
have little to no benefit to the employee in the long term
Term
hindrance stressors
Definition
stressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment; tend to trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety
Term
work hindrance stressors
Definition
role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, daily hassles
Term
nonwork hindrance stressors
Definition
work family conflict, negative life events, financial uncertainty
Term
work challenge stressors
Definition
time pressure, work complexity, work responsibility
Term
nonwork challenge stressors
Definition
family time demands, personal development, positive life events
Term
time pressure
Definition
a strong sense that the amount of time you have to do a task is just not quite enough
Term
work complexity
Definition
refers to the degree to which the requirement of the work , in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities, tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible for performing the work
Term
secondary appraisal
Definition
what should i do and what can i do to deal with this situation?
Term
behavioral versus cognitive; problem focused versus emotion focused
Definition
dimensions of coping
Term
behavioral coping
Definition
involves the set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation
Term
cognitive coping
Definition
the thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation
Term
problem focused coping
Definition
refers to behaviors and cognition intended to manage the stressful situation itself
Term
emotion focused coping
Definition
refers to the various ways in which ppl manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands
Term
physiological strains
Definition
occur in in at least 4 systems of the human body; reduced effectiveness of immune system; harm cardiovascular system; musculoskeletal system problems; gastrointestinal system problems
Term
psychological strains
Definition
include depression, anxiety, anger, hostility, reduced self confidence, forgetfulness, etc
Term
burnout
Definition
emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion that results from having to cope with stressful demands on an ongoing basis
Term
behavioral strains
Definition
unhealthy behaviors such as grind teeth, overly bossy, smoking, gum chewing, compulsive eating
Term
Type A behavior pattern
Definition
strong sense of time urgency, tend to be impatient, hard driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, and even hostile
Term
type a
Definition
more likely to appraise demands as being stressful rather than being benign
Term
social support
Definition
individual factor that affects the way pll manage stress; refers to the help that ppl receive when they're confrotned with stressful demands
Term
instrumental support; emotional support
Definition
two types of social support
Term
instrumental support
Definition
refers to the help ppl receive that can be used to address the stressful demand directly
Term
weak negative
Definition
hindrance stressors have what kind of relationship with job performance
Term
strong negative
Definition
hindrance stressors have what kind of relationship with organizational commitment
Term
weak positive
Definition
challenge stressors have what kind of relationship with job performance
Term
moderate positive
Definition
challenge stressors have what kind of relationship with organizational commitment
Term
movere
Definition
Latin word for movement
Term
motivation
Definition
a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, imitates work related effort, and determines its direction , inensity, and persistence
Term
engagement
Definition
contemporary synonym for high levels of intensity and persistence in work effort
Term
expectancy theory
Definition
describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses
Term
expectancy theory
Definition
employee behavior is directed toward pleasure and away from pain
Term
expectancy
Definition
represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task
Term
self efficacy
Definition
belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success
Term
efficacy levels -consider past accomplishments
Definition
the degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past
Term
vicarious experiences
Definition
taking into account observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks
Term
verbal persuasion, emotional cues, past accomplishments, vicarious experiences
Definition
dictates efficacy
Term
emotional cues
Definition
feelings of fear or anxiety can create doubts about task accomplishment, whereas pride and enthusiasm can bolster confidence levels
Term
instrumentality
Definition
represents the belief that successful performance will result ins some outcomes
Term
valence
Definition
reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
Term
needs
Definition
can be defined as congitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences
Term
extrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance
Term
intrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward
Term
meaning of money
Definition
the degree to which they view money as having symbolic, not just economic, value
Term
goal setting theory
Definition
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort
Term
goals
Definition
defined as the objective or aim of an action and typically refer to attaining a specific standard of proficiency, oftenin within a specificed time limiet
Term
goal setting theory
Definition
argues that assigning employees specific and difficult goals will result in higher level sof performance than ssigning no goals, easy goals, or do your best ogals
Term
self set goals
Definition
shaped by assignment of a specific and difficult goal; the internalized goals that ppl use to monitor their own task prgoress
Term
task strategies
Definition
learning plans and problem solving approaches used to achieve successful performance
Term
moderators
Definition
affect eh strength of the relationships between variables
Term
feedback
Definition
moderator that consists of updates on employee progress toward goal attainment
Term
task complexity
Definition
moderator that reflects how complicated the information and actions involved in a task are, as well as how much the task changes
Term
goal commitment
Definition
moderator defined as the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it
Term
specific, measurable achievable, results based, time sensitive
Definition
SMART goals
Term
equity theory
Definition
acknowledges that motivation doesn't just depend on your won beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people
Term
equity theory
Definition
compare your ratio of outcomes and inputs to the ratio of some comparison other
Term
comparison other
Definition
some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity
Term
equity distress
Definition
an internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios
Term
cognitive distortion
Definition
allows you to restore balance mentally, without altering your behavior in anyway
Term
internal comparison
Definition
refer to someone in the same company
Term
external comparisons
Definition
refer to someone in a different company
Term
occupational equity
Definition
most powerful driver of employee withdrawal
Term
job equity
Definition
most powerful driver of citizenship behaviors
Term
psychological empowerment
Definition
reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose; form of intrinsic motivation
Term
meaningfulness, self determination, competence, impact
Definition
concepts important to psychological empowerment
Term
meaningfulness
Definition
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions
Term
self determination
Definition
reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks
Term
competence
Definition
captures a person's belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully
Term
impact
Definition
reflects the sense that person's actions make a difference--that progress is being made toward fulfilling some iportant purpsoe
Term
expectancy, instrumentality, valence
Definition
expectancy theory concepts
Term
self efficacy/competency
Definition
the motivating force with the strongest performance effect
Term
strong positive
Definition
motivation has what relationship with job performance
Term
moderate positive
Definition
equity has what relationship with commitment
Term
learning
Definition
reflects relatively permanent changes in an employee's knowledge or skill that result from experience
Term
decision making
Definition
refers to the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem; impacted significantly by learnign
Term
expertise
Definition
refers to the knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people
Term
explicit knowledge
Definition
the kind of information you're likely to think about when you picture someone sitting down at a desk to learn
Term
tacit knowledge
Definition
what employees can typically learn only through experience
Term
90
Definition
what percent of the knowledge contained in organizations occurs in tacit form?
Term
reinforcement, observation, and experience
Definition
how do employees learn tacit types of knowledge?
Term
contingencies of reinforcement
Definition
four specific consequences typically used by organizations to modify employee behavior
Term
positive reinforcement, extinction, punishment, negative reinforce mt
Definition
name the contingents of reinforcement
Term
positive reinforcement
Definition
used to increase desired behaviors; occurs when a positive outcome follows a desired behavior
Term
negative reinforcement
Definition
occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior; used to increase desired behaviors
Term
punishment
Definition
designed to DECREASE undesired behaviors; occurs when a n unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior
Term
extinction
Definition
designed to decease undesirable behaviors; occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior
Term
schedules of reinforcement
Definition
timing of when the contingencies are applied
Term
continuous,, fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, variable ratio
Definition
5 schedules of reinforcement
Term
continuous reinforcement
Definition
simplest schedule and happens when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior
Term
fixed interval schedule
Definition
single most common form of reinforcement schedule; workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time and the length of time between reinforcemetn periods stays the same
Term
variable interval schedule
Definition
designed to reinforce behavior at more random points in time
Term
fixed ratio and variable ratio
Definition
two reinforcement schedules based on actual behaviors
Term
fixed ratio schedules
Definition
reinforce behaviors after a certain number of them have been exhibited
Term
variable ratio schedules
Definition
reward ppl after a varying number of exhibited behaviors
Term
continuous or fixed schedules
Definition
can be better for reinforcing new behaviors or behaviors that don't occur on a frequent basis
Term
social learning theory
Definition
argues that ppl in organizations have tha ability to learn through the observation of others
Term
behavioral modeling
Definition
observe actions of others, learn from observation, and repeat observed behavior
Term
attentional processes, retention, production, reinforcement
Definition
modeling process steps
Term
learning orientation
Definition
building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence
Term
performance prove orientation
Definition
demonstration of competence motivation; focus on demonstrating competence so that others think favorably of them
Term
performance avoid orientation
Definition
demonstration of competence motivation; ; focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them
Term
programmed decisions
Definition
decisions that become somewhat automatic because people's knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation and the course of actions that needs to be taken
Term
intuition
Definition
can be described as emotionally charged judgments that arise through quick, non conscious, and holistic associations
Term
crisis situation
Definition
a change, whether sudden or evolving, that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately
Term
non programmed decision
Definition
a situation arises that is new, complex and not recognized
Term
rational decision making model
Definition
offers a step by step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examingina ll available alternatives
Term
bounded rationality
Definition
notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal deicsion (limited information is a decision making problem)
Term
satisficing
Definition
results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative consdiered
Term
perception
Definition
the process of selecting organizing, storing, and retrieving information about the environment
Term
selective perception
Definition
tendency for ppl to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations
Term
projection bias
Definition
our false assumption when it comes to other ppl that others think, feel, and act the same way we do; ppl project their own thoughts, attitudes, and moties onto toehr ppl
Term
social identity theory
Definition
holds that ppl identify themselves by the groups to which ty belong ad perceive and judge others by their group memberships
Term
stereotype
Definition
occurs when assumptions re made about others on the basis of their membership in a social group
Term
heuristics
Definition
simple, efficient rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily when confronted with situations of uncertainty
Term
availability bias
Definition
tendency for ppl to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall (ie plane crashes, r as the first letter)
Term
fundamental attributions error
Definition
argues that ppl have a tendency to judge others' behaviors as due to internal factors
Term
self serving bias
Definition
occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors
Term
escalation of commitment
Definition
refers to the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action
Term
moderate positive
Definition
learning has what effect on performance
Term
weak positive
Definition
learning has what effect on commitment
Term
communities of practice
Definition
groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time
Term
transfer of training
Definition
occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviors used on the job are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to the workplace once the learner returns to the job
Term
climate of transfer
Definition
an environment that can support the use of new skills
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