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MGMT 363 FINAL
HARRIS SPRING 2011
193
Management
Undergraduate 3
04/08/2011

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Term
leadership
Definition
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
Term
power
Definition
the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist wanted influence in return
Term
organizational and personal power
Definition
the two dimensions that types of power are grouped into
Term
person's position within the organization
Definition
from what source is a person's position derived from in organizational power?
Term
legitimate power
Definition
derived from a position of authority inside the organization; sometimes referred to as formal authority
Term
legitimate power, reward power, coercive power
Definition
types of organizational power
Term
reward power
Definition
exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants
Term
coercive power
Definition
exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization
Term
coercive power
Definition
operates primarily on the principle of fear
Term
EXPERT POWER
Definition
TYPE OF personal power; derives from a person's expertise, skills, or knowledge on which others depend
Term
expert power and reference power
Definition
types of personal power
Term
referent power
Definition
exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person
Term
personal forms of powers
Definition
more strongly related to organizational commitment and job performance
Term
SUBSTITUTABILITY, DISCRETION, CENTRALITY, VISIBILITY
Definition
four factors that have an effect on the strength of a person's ability to use power to influence others
Term
sustainability
Definition
the degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources
Term
discretion
Definition
the degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own
Term
centrality
Definition
represents how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person t accomplish their tasks
Term
visibility
Definition
how aware others are of a leader's power and position
Term
influence
Definition
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others
Term
influence can be seen as directional; influence is all relative
Definition
two important aspects of influence to keep in mind
Term
rational persuasion
consultation
inspirational appeals
collaboration
Definition
four most effective influence tactics
Term
rational persuasion
Definition
use official arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one
Term
inspirational appeal
Definition
tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional attitudinal reaction
Term
rational persuasion
Definition
most successful in upward influence
Term
consultation
Definition
occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request
Term
consultation
Definition
this tactic increases commitment from the target
Term
collaboration
Definition
attempts to make it easier for the target t complete the request
Term
ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, apprising
Definition
moderately effective tactics
Term
ingratiation
Definition
the use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
Term
personal appeals
Definition
occur when the requester asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
Term
exchange tactic
Definition
used when the requester offers a reward or resource to the target in return of performing a request
Term
apprising
Definition
occurs when the requester clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally
Term
pressure, coalitions
Definition
least effective tactics
Term
pressure
Definition
the use of coercive power through threats and demands
Term
coalitions
Definition
occur when the influencer enlists other ppl to help influence the target
Term
internalization, compliance, resistance
Definition
three possible responses people have to influence tactics
Term
internalization
Definition
occurs when the target of influence agree with and becomes committed to the influence request
Term
compliance
Definition
occurs when targets of influence are wiling to do what the leader asks, but they do it with a degree of ambivalence
Term
resistance
Definition
occurs when the target refuse to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it
Term
organizational politics
Definition
actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self interests
Term
political skill
Definition
the ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives
Term
networking ability
Definition
an adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts
Term
networking ability, social astuteness, apparent sincerity, interpersonal influence
Definition
four aspects of political skill
Term
social astuteness
Definition
the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior
Term
interpersonal influence
Definition
involves having an unassuming and convincing personal style that's flexible enough to adapt to different situations
Term
apparent sincerity
Definition
involves appearing to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness
Term
Machiavellian tendencies
Definition
manipulation and deceiving of others to acquire power
Term
limited or changing resources, ambiguity in roles, high performance pressure, unclear performance evaluations
Definition
organizational characteristics that foster organizational politics
Term
conflict
Definition
arises when two or more individuals perceive that their goals are in opposition
Term
assertiveness, cooperativeness
Definition
two main factors that can be combined to resolve conflict
Term
competing
Definition
occurs when one part attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results; high assertiveness, low cooperation
Term
avoiding
Definition
occurs when one party wants to remain neutral, avoid conflict, or postpone conflict to gather information or let tings cool down; low assertiveness, low cooperation
Term
accommodating
Definition
low assertiveness, high cooperation; occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way
Term
collaboration
Definition
high assertiveness, high cooperation; occurs when both parties work together to maximize outcomes; win win
Term
collaboration
Definition
most effective form of conflict resolution
Term
compromise
Definition
moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation; occurs when conflict is resolved through give and take concessions
Term
compromise
Definition
most common form of conflict resolution
Term
negotiation
Definition
process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences
Term
distributive bargaining; integrative bargaining
Definition
two negotiation strategies
Term
distributive bargaining
Definition
involves win lose negotiating over a fixed pie of resources
Term
distributive bargaining
Definition
when one person gains, the other person loses; "zero sum" condition
Term
integrative bargaining
Definition
aimed at accomplishing a win win scenario
Term
integrative bargaining
Definition
involves the use of problem solving and mutual respect to achieve an outcome that's satisfying for both parties
Term
preparation
Definition
the stage of the negotiating process when each party determines what its goals are for the negotiation and whehter or not the other party has antyhign to fofer
Term
BATNA
Definition
describes each negotiator's bottom line; best alternative to a negotiated agreement
Term
preparation,exchanging information, bargaining, closing and commitment
Definition
stages of negotiation
Term
internalization, compliance, and resistance
Definition
three possible responses to influence attempts
Term
moderately
Definition
power and influence are ____ correlated with job performance and organizational commitment
Term
alternative dispute resolution
Definition
process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, neutral third party
Term
mediation, arbitration
Definition
two of the most common forms of alternative dispute resolution
Term
mediation
Definition
requires a third party to facilitate the dispute resolution process, though this third party has no formal authority to dictate a solution
Term
arbitration
Definition
occurs when a third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute
Term
leadership
Definition
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
Term
leader member exchange theory
Definition
describes how leader/member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis
Term
new leader member relationships are typically marked by a role taking phase, during which a manger describes role expectations to an employee and the employee attempts to fulfill those expectations with his or her job behaviors
Definition
what is the premise of the leader-member exchange theory
Term
role making
Definition
the employee's own expectations for the dyad get mixed in with those of the leader
Term
leader effectiveness
Definition
the degree to which the leader's actions result in the achievement of the unit's goals, the continued commitment of the nit's employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader member dyads
Term
leader emergence
Definition
who becomes a leader in the first place
Term
traits are more predictive of leader emergence than of leader effectiveness
Definition
Term
decision making styles, day to day behaviors, and behaviors that fall outside of a leader's typical duties
Definition
3 types of leader actions
Term
delegative, facilitative, consultative, autocratic
Definition
leader decision making styles
Term
autocratic style
Definition
the leader makes the decision alone without asking for opinions/suggestions of the employees in the work unit (highest leader control)
Term
consultative style
Definition
leader presents the problem to individual employees or a group of employees, asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision him or herself
Term
facilitative style
Definition
leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else's
Term
delegative style
Definition
the leader gives an individual employee or a group of employees the responsibility for making the decision within some set of specified boundary conditions
Term
allowing employees to participate in decision making increases their job satisfaction
Definition
Term
time driven model of leadership
Definition
helps leaders effectively manage their choice of decision making styles; suggests that the focus should shift away from [styles] leaders to [styles] situations
Term
decision significance, importance of commitment, leader expertise, likelihood of commitment, shared objectives, employee expertise, teamwork skills
Definition
time driven model of leadership seven factors that combine to make some decision making styles more effective in a given situation
Term
initiating structure
Definition
reflects the extent to which the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment
Term
consideration
Definition
reflects the extent to which leaders create job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings
Term
life cycle theory of leadership (situational model of leadership)
Definition
argues that the optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readineness of the employees in the work unit
Term
readiness
Definition
the degree to which employees have the ability and the willingness to accomplish their specific tasks
Term
telling
Definition
high initiating structure and low consideration
Term
selling
Definition
high initiating structure and high consideration
Term
participating
Definition
low initiating structure and high consideration
Term
delegating
Definition
low initiating structure and ow consideration --responsibility turned over to employees
Term
transformational leadership
Definition
involves inspiring followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives
Term
laissez faire
Definition
hands off leadership; avoiding leadership altogether
Term
transactional leadership
Definition
occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the follower's performance
Term
passive management by exception (transactional)
Definition
the leader waits around for mistakes and errors, then takes corrective action if necessary
Term
active management by exception
Definition
the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and again takes corrective action when required
Term
contingent reward
Definition
represents a more active and effective brand of transactional leadership, in which the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for adequate performance
Term
transformational leadership
Definition
most active and effective approach in types of leadership
Term
idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration
Definition
four dimensions of transformational leadership
Term
idealized influence
Definition
involves behaving in ways tat earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader
Term
idealized influence
Definition
aka charisma
Term
inspirational motivation
Definition
involves behaving in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision of the future
Term
intellectual stimulation
Definition
involves behaving in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and re framing old situation in new ways
Term
individualized consideration
Definition
involves behaving in ways that help followers achieve their potential through coaching, development, and mentoring
Term
individualized consideration
Definition
represents treating employees as unique individuals with specific needs, abilities, and aspiration that need to be tied into the unit's mission
Term
strong positive
Definition
what effect does transformational leadership have on organizational commitment
Term
moderate positive
Definition
what effect does transformational leadership have on performance
Term
substitutes for leadership model
Definition
suggests that certain characteristics of the situation can constrain the influence of the leader, making it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance
Term
substitutes
Definition
reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance
Term
neutralizers
Definition
only reduce the importance of the leader (have no beneficial impact on performance)
Term
organizational structure
Definition
formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company
Term
organizational chart
Definition
a drawing that represents every job in the organization and the formal reporting relationships between those jobs
Term
work specialization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, formalization
Definition
five key elements of an organization's structure that describe how work tasks, authority relationships, and decision making responsibilities are organized within a company
Term
work specialization
Definition
the degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs
Term
chain of command
Definition
answers the question of who reports to whom? and signifies formal authority relationships
Term
span of control
Definition
represents how many employees each manager in the organization has responsibility for
Term
centralization
Definition
refers tow here decisions are formally made in organizations
Term
formalization
Definition
the degree to which rules and procedures are used to standardize behaviors and decisions in an organization
Term
work specialization
Definition
the way in which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs
Term
chain of command
Definition
specific flow of authority down through the levels of an organization's structure
Term
span of control
Definition
represents how many employees a manger is responsible for in the organization
Term
centralization
Definition
reflects where decisions are formally made in organizations
Term
wide spa of control associated with decentralization; high level of work specialization associated with high formalization
Definition
Term
mechanistic organizations
Definition
efficient, rigid, predictable, standardized organizations that thrive in stable environments; high formalization, high work specialization, centralization, hierarchical chain of command, narrow span of control
Term
organic organizations
Definition
flexible, adaptive, outward focused organizations that thrive in dynamic environments; low formalization, multiple chains of command, low work specialization, wide span of control
Term
organizational design
Definition
the process of creating, selecting, or changing the structure of an organization
Term
environment, strategy/technology, size
Definition
factors that influence the process of organizational design
Term
business environment
Definition
consists of a business' customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, and other factors external to the firm, all of which have an impact on organizational design
Term
company strategy
Definition
describes an organization's objectives and goals and how it tries to capitalize on its assets to make money
Term
technology
Definition
the method by which an organization transforms inputs into outputs
Term
simple structures
Definition
perhaps the most common form of organizational design (more small organizations than large ones)
Term
bureaucratic structure
Definition
an organizational form that exhibits many of the facets of mechanistic organizations
Term
bureaucracies
Definition
designed for efficiency and rely on high levels of work specialization, formalization, centralization, defined chains of command, narrow spans of control
Term
functional structure
Definition
most basic of bureaucratic structures; groups employees by the functions they perform for the organization
Term
multi-divisional structures
Definition
bureaucratic; employees are grouped into divisions around products, geographic regions, or clients
Term
product structures
Definition
group business units around different products that the company produces
Term
geographic structures
Definition
generally based around different locations where the company does business
Term
client structure
Definition
type of multidivisional structure that organizes around serving customers
Term
matrix structures
Definition
more complex designs that try to take advantage of two types of structures at the same time
Term
matrix structures
Definition
represents a combination of a functional and a product structure
Term
work specialization, chain of command, span of control centralization, formalization
Definition
five elements of organizational structure
Term
functional, product, geographic, client
Definition
forms of bureaucratic structure
Term
restructuring
Definition
the process of changing an organization's structure
Term
weak negative
Definition
relationship between restructuring and job performance
Term
moderate negative
Definition
restructuring has what effect on organizational commitment
Term
flattening
Definition
most common kind of restructuring
Term
organizational culture/climate
Definition
the shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules , norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees
Term
observable artifacts, espoused values, basic underlying assumptions
Definition
three major componenets to any organiation's culture
Term
observable artifacts
Definition
manifestations of an organization's culture that employees can easily see or talk about
Term
artifacts
Definition
supply the primary means of transmitting an organization's culture to its workforce
Term
symbols, physical structures, lanugae, stories, ritutals, ceremonies
Definition
six major types of artifacts
Term
language
Definition
reflects the jargon, slang, and slogans used within the walls of an organization
Term
stories
Definition
consist of anecdotes, accounts, legends, and myths that are passed down fro mcohort to cohort within an organization
Term
rituals
Definition
the daily or weeklyplanned routines that occur in an organizatoin
Term
ceremonies
Definition
formal events,generally performed in front of an audience of oganizational members
Term
espoused values
Definition
the beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company exlicitly states
Term
basic underlying assumptions
Definition
the taken for granted beliefs and philosophies that are so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given situation
Term
basic underlying assumptions
Definition
represent the deepest and least observable part of a culture and may not be consiously apparent
Term
solidarity
Definition
the degree to which group memeers think and act a like
Term
socialbility
Definition
represents how friendly employees are to one another
Term
fragmented culture
Definition
employees are distant and disconnectred from one another; low on socialibity and low on solidarity
Term
mercenary cultures
Definition
emploees think alike but aren't friendly to one another; high solidarity, low sociability
Term
mercenary
Definition
political cultures
Term
networked cultures
Definition
all employees are friendly to one another, but everyone think differently
Term
communial cultures
Definition
high solidarity, high sociability
Term
networked
Definition
larges companies move toward what type of culture
Term
customer service, safety, diversity, creativity
Definition
types of specific cultures (4)
Term
culture strenght
Definition
exiss when employees definiteively agree about the way things are supposed to happen within the organization (high consensus) and when their subsequent behaviors are consisent with those expectaions (high intensity)
Term
subcultures
Definition
unite a smaller subset of an organization's employees
Term
subcltures are more likely to exist in large organizations
Definition
Term
countercultures
Definition
when subcultures values don't match those of the larger organiation
Term
attraction selection attrituion; socializatoin
Definition
two processes that can conspire to help keep cultures strong
Term
ASA framework (atracktion-selection-attrition)
Definition
holds tht potential employees will be ttracted to organizations whose cultures match their own personality, meaning that some potential jobapplicatns won't apply due to a perceived lack of fit
Term
atrition
Definition
voluntary or involuntary turnover
Term
socialization
Definition
the primary process by which employees learn the social knowledge that enables them to understand and adapt to the organization's culture; begins before an employee starts work and doens'tend untill an employee leaves
Term
anticipatory stage, enounter stage, understanding/adapting
Definition
three distinct stages of socialization
Term
anticipatory stage
Definition
happens prior to an employee speding any time on the job;; information acqusition occurs during recruitment
Term
encounter stage
Definition
begis the day an employee starts work; compare information recvd before coming and what its like actually working there
Term
reality shock
Definition
mismatch of information
Term
understanding and adaptation
Definition
newcomes come to learn the content areas of socialization and internalize thenorms and expected behaviors of the organization
Term
chang
Definition
important part of the adaptation stage
Term
changes in leadership, m&a's
Definition
two methods to change a culture
Term
person organization fit
Definition
the degree to which a perosn's personality and values match the culture of an organization
Term
reslisitc job previews, orientation programs, mentoring
Definition
three major ways in which organizations routinely and efectively help speed up the socializtion process of newcomers
Term
realistic job previews
Definition
inexpensive and efeective way of reducing early turnover among new employees
Term
anticipatory stage (recruitment)
Definition
when to RJP's occur (realisit job previews)
Term
weak positive
Definition
relationship between person organiation and job performance
Term
strong positive -affective commitment
Definition
relationship between person organiation fit and organizal commitment
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