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MGMT 363 Chapter 6
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39
Management
Undergraduate 3
03/04/2009

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Term
motivation
Definition
set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction intensity, and persistence
Term
expectancy theory
Definition
the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses
Term
expectancy
Definition
the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task
Term
self-efficacy
Definition
the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success
Term
past accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, emotional cues
Definition
these lead to self-efficacy
Term
instrumentality
Definition
represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes
Term
valence
Definition
reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
Term
needs
Definition
defined as cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences
Term
extrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance
Term
intrinsic motivation
Definition
motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward
Term
goal setting theory
Definition
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort
Term
specific and difficult goals
Definition
They stretch an employee to perform at his maximum level while still playing in the boundary of his ability. These result in higher levels of performance.
Term
self-set goals
Definition
internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress
Term
task strategies
Definition
learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance
Term
feedback
Definition
consists of updates on employee progress toward goal attainment
Term
task complexity
Definition
reflects how complicated the information and actions involved in a task are, as well as how much the task changes
Term
goal commitment
Definition
defined as the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it
Term
equity theory
Definition
acknowledges that motivation doesn't just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people
Term
comparison other
Definition
some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity
Term
cognitive calculus. your ratio of outcomes to inputs is less than your comparison other's ratio.
Definition
1. Inputs and outputs are balanced - feel sense of equity & you keep working hard

2. ratio of outputs to inputs < comparison to others'
Term
psychological empowerment
Definition
reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose. Form of intrinsic motivation.
Term
meaningfulness
Definition
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions. When a task is relevant to a meaningful purpose, it's easier to concentrate and be excited about it.
Term
self-determination
Definition
reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks
Term
competence
Definition
the capability to perform work tasks successfully
Term
impact
Definition
reflects the sense that person's actions "make a difference"--that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose
Term
piece-rate pay
Definition
rate paid per unit produced, sold, or service provided
Term
merit pay
Definition
an increase in base pay is made based on performance evaluation
Term
Strong
Definition
corr. b/w motivation and job perf.(task perf.)
Term
Moderate
Definition
corr. b/w motivation and o.c. (affect. and norm.)
Term
cognitive distortion
Definition
allows you to restore balance mentally, without altering your behavior in any way
Term
past accomplishments
Definition
the degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past
Term
vicarious experiences
Definition
taking into account through observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks
Term
verbal persuasion
Definition
friends, coworkers, and leaders can persuade employees that they can get the job done
Term
emotional cues
Definition
feelings of fear or anxiety can create doubts about task accomplihsment. whereas pride and enthusiasm can bolster confidence levels.

Positive or negative feelings that can help or hinder task accomplishment.
Term
meaning of money
Definition
degree to which they view money as having symbolic, not just economic value
Term
SMART goals
Definition
specific, measurable, achievable, results-based, time-sensitive
Term
equity distress
Definition
an internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios (ratio of inputs to outcomes, related to comparative other)
Term
internal comparisons
Definition
comparisons using someone in the same company
Term
external comparisons
Definition
comparisons made using someone in a different company
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