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Management Test Chapter 1
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Archaeology
Undergraduate 4
03/09/2011

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Term
Organizational behavior
Definition
A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.
Term
Human resource management
Definition
Takes the theories and principles studies in OB and explores the "nuts-and-bolts" applications of those principles in organizations.
Term
Strategic management
Definition
Focuses on the product choices and industry characteristics taht affect an organization's profitability. For example, a strategic management study might examine the relationship between firm diversification and firm profitability.
Term
Resource-based view of organizations
Definition
Describes what exactly makes resources valuable--what makes them capable of creating long-term profits for the firm. Resources include financial (revenue, equity, etc.), physical (buildings, machines, technology), and also organizational behavior resources such as decision making, ability, and wisdom of the workforce--as well as the image, culture, and goodwill of the organization.
Term
inimitable
Definition
A resource that cannot be imitated.
Term
History
Definition
A collective pool of experience, wisdom, and knowledge that benefits the organization.
Term
Numerous small decisions
Definition
People may make many small decisions day in and day out, week in and week out. Big decisions can be copied (TVs in planes), small decisions can't (whimsical style of flight crew).
Term
Socially complex resources
Definition
Culture, teamwork, trust, and reputation. These resources are termed "socially complex" because it is not always clear how they came to develop, though it is clear which organizations do and do not posssess them.
Term
Rule of one-eighth
Definition
Rule that states that at best, 12 percent of organizations will actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first.
Term
Method of experience
Definition
People hold firmly to some belief because it is consistent with their own experience and observations.
Term
Method of intuition
Definition
People hold firmly to some belief because it "just stands to reason"--it seems obvious or self-evident.
Term
Method of authority
Definition
People hold firmly to some belief because some respected official, agency, or source has said it is so.
Term
Method of science
Definition
People accept some belief because scientific studies have tended to replicate that result using a series of samples, settings, and methods.
Term
Method of Science
Definition
People accept some belief because scientific studies have tended to replicate that result using a series of samples, settings, and methods.
Term
Theory
Definition
A collection of assertions--both verbal and symbolic--that specify how and why variables are related, as well as the conditions in which they should (and should not be) related.
Term
Hypotheses
Definition
Written predictions that specify relationships between variables.
Term
Correlation
Definition
A correlation describes the statistical relationship between two variables.
Term
Meta-analysis
Definition
Takes all the correlations found in studies of a particular relationship and calculates a weighted average such that the correlations based on studies with large samples are weighted more than correlations based on studies with small samples.
Term
Team
Definition
consists of two or more people who work independently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.
Term
Work teams
Definition
Designed to be relatively permanent. Purpose is to produce goods or provide services, and they generally require a full-time commitment from their members.
Term
Management teams
Definition
Similiar to work teasm in that they are designed to be realtively permanent. Responsible for coordinating the activities of the organization's subunits.
Term
Parallel teams
Definition
Composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues that run "parallel" to the organization's production process. Require only part-time commitments.
Term
Project teams
Definition
Formed to take "one-time" tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of training and expertise. Can be part-time or full-time, last as long as it takes to complete project.
Term
Action teams
Definition
Perform tasks that are normally limited in duration. These tasks are quite complex and take place in contexts that are either highly visible to an audience or are highly challenging. Short or long duration.
Term
Virtual teams
Definition
teams in which members are geographically dispersed, and interdependent activity occurs through electronic communications--primarily email, instant messaging, and Web conferencing. Although communications and group networking software is far from perfect, tech has improved to the point where teams are able to function virtually.
Term
Team progession stages: Forming
Definition
Members orient themselves by trying to understand the boundaries in the team. Members try to get a feel for what is expected of them, what types of behaviors are out of bounds, and who's in charge.
Term
Team progression stages: storming
Definition
Memmbers reamin committed to ideas they bring with them to the team. This initial unwillingness to accommodate other ideas leads to a hampering of team progess and negatively affects relatinoships.
Term
Team progression stages: Norming
Definition
Members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals, and consequently, they begin to cooperate with one another.
Term
Team progression stages: Performing
Definition
Members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress toward goals.
Term
Punctuated equilibrium
Definition
At the initial team meeting, members make assumptions and establish a pattern of behavior that lasts for the first half of its life. The pattern of behavior continues to dominate the team's behavior as it settles into a sort of intertia. At midway point--members realize that they have to change their task paradigm fundamentally to complete it one time.
Term
Task interdependence
Definition
Refers to the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
Term
Pooled interdependence
Definition
Requires lowest degree of coordination. Group members complete their work assignments independently, and then this work is simply "piled up" to represent the group's output.
Term
Sequential interdependence:
Definition
Different tasks are done in a prescribed order, and the group is structured such that the members specialize in these tasks. Interaction only occurs between members whose tasks are next to each other in sequence.
Term
Reciprocal interdependence
Definition
Members are specialized to perform specific tasks. Members interact with a subset of other members to complete a team's work.
Term
Comprehensive interdependence
Definition
Requires the highest level of interaction and coordination among members. Each member has a great deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the collaboration involved in accomplishing the team's work.
Term
Goal interdependence
Definition
Exists when team members have a shared vision of the team's goal and align their individual goals with that vision as a result.
Term
Outcome interdependence
Definition
Team members share in the rewards that the team earns, with reward examples including pay, bonus, formal feedback, recognition, etc.
Term
Team processes
Definition
A term that reflects the different types of activities and interactions that occur within teams that contribute to their ultimate end goals. Has a strong impact on team effectiveness.
Term
Process gain
Definition
Getting more from the team than you would expect according to the capabilities of its individual members.
Term
Process loss
Definition
Getting less from the team than you would expect based on the capabilities of the individual members.
Term
Coordination loss
Definition
The act of members having to work to not only accomplish their own tasks but also coordinate their activities with the activities of their teammates. Necessary aspect of teamwork--but consumes time and energy.
Term
Production blocking
Definition
Occurs when members have to wait on one another before they can do their part of the team task.
Term
Motivational loss
Definition
The loss in team productivity that occurs when team members do not work as hard as they could.
Term
Social loafing
Definition
Feelings of reduced acountability that cause members to exert less effort when working on team tasks than they would have if they worked alone on the same task.
Term
Brainstorming
Definition
Involves a face-to-face meeting of team members in which each offers as many ideas as possible about some focal problem or issue.
1. Express all ideas that come to mind
2. Quantity instead of quality
3. Don't criticize
4. Build on others ideas
Term
taskwork process
Definition
The acitivities of team members that relate directly directly to the accomplishment of team tasks.
Term
NOminal group technique
Definition
Addresses social loafing associated with brainstorming by making members write down ideas.
Term
Decision informity
Definition
reflects whether members possess adequate info about their own task responsibilities.
Term
Staff validity
Definition
The degree to which members make good recommendations to the leader.
Term
Hierarchical sensitivity
Definition
Reflects the degree to which the leader effectively weighs the recommendations of the members.
Term
Boundary spanning
Definition
involves activities with individuals and groups other than those who are considered part of the team.
Term
Ambassador activities
Definition
Refers to communications that are intended to protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain important resources for the team. Members who engage in this typically meet with those higher up in an organizatoin.
Term
task coordinator activities
Definition
involves communications that are intended to coordinate task-related issues with people or groups in other functional areas.
Term
Scout activities
Definition
Refer to things team members do to obtain information about technology, competitors, or the broader marketplace.
Term
Teamwork processes
Definition
refer to the interpersonal activities that focus on preparation for future work.
Term
action processes
Definition
involves monitoring progress toward goals (systems monitoring) and synchronizing team members activities in a way that makes them mesh effectively and seamlessly. Important as taskwork is being accomplished.
Term
interpersonal processes
Definition
The process in this category are important before, during, or in between periods of taskwork, and each relates to the manner in which team members manage their relationships.
Term
relationship conflict
Definition
Refers to disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with respect to personal values or preferences.
Term
task conflict
Definition
refers to disagreements among members about the team's task.
Term
Team states
Definition
refers to specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together.
Term
cohesion
Definition
Members of teams can develop strong emotional bonds to other members of their team and to the team itself. Boosts motivation and commitment.
Term
Groupthink
Definition
Drive toward conformity at the expense of other individuals. Thought to be associated with feelings of overconfidence about the team's abilities.
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