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Exam 2
Lecture
212
Physiology
Undergraduate 3
09/24/2008

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Term
The nervous system is organized into the:
Definition
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Term
The CNS is made up of and the PNS is made up of
Definition
Brain and Spinal Cord; Everything else
Term
Why is rapid communication in the nervous system important?
Definition
homeostatic balance
Term
The nervous system has ________ of intelligence and emotion.
Definition
emergent properties
Term
come from sensory/stimulus receptors and inform CNS of the stimuli. What is their nickname?
Definition
Afferent Neurons; sensory
Term
Come from CNS to muscles and glands. What is their nickname?
Definition
Efferent; Motor
Term
The types of neurons that make up the peripheral nervous system:
Definition
Afferent and Efferent
Term
neurons to skeletal muscles
Definition
Somatic motor division
Term
neurons to smooth and cardiac muscle, exocrine and some endocrine glands
Definition
Autonomic division
Term
Two parts to the PNS:
Definition
Autonomic and somatic
Term
Two parts to the autonomic Division of PNS:
Definition
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Term
The branch of ANS that is primarily excitatory. What is the nickname.
Definition
Sympathetic; fright or flight
Term
The branch of the ANS that primarily relaxes; what is the nickname
Definition
Parasympathetic; rest and digest
Term
Most organs are innervated by both divisions of the PNS by
Definition
an antagonistic relationship to maintain homeostasis (push/pull)
Term
Flow in a typical neuron:
Definition
Dendrites to cell body to axon to terminal to adjacent tissue (neuron, muscle, gland)
Term
Cell body is known as
Definition
Soma
Term
The terminal of a neuron is known as
Definition
synapse
Term
"upstream" of a cell body
Definition
Dendrite
Term
"upstream" of a cell body
Definition
Dendrite
Term
What is the function of a dendrite?
Definition
receive incoming signals and increase surface are of a neuron
Term
What is the purpoose of the increased surface area of a dendrite?
Definition
so it can communicate with multiple other neurons (possibly thousands!)
Term
A dendrite is composed of:
Definition
many branched receptors
Term
Contains the nucleus and other organelles associated with most cells
Definition
Soma (cell body)
Term
Densely packed RER
Definition
Nissl Bodies
Term
"Downstream" of the cell body
Definition
Axon
Term
What is the function of the axon?
Definition
Carry outgoing signals
Term
How many axons do most neurons have? What is an exception?
Definition
A single axon; interneurons of the CNS
Term
How long is a typical axon?
Definition
micrometers to meters in length
Term
Axon leaves the cell body at the:
Definition
axonal hillock
Term
the action potential initiation zone
Definition
axonal hillock
Term
a bundle of axons; many running together from ____
Definition
nerve; cns
Term
What holds together nerves?
Definition
connective tissue
Term
Neurons are _______ because they
Definition
Vasularized; have same needs as other cell types
Term
At _____, the _______ signal results in the message being translated into a _______ signal, as a ________ signal
Definition
axon terminal, upstream, chemical, neruroendocrine (neurotransmitter)
Term
The cell body is the site of
Definition
energy generation and synthesis
Term
In addition to exceptionally rapid movement of electrical signals down axons, _____________________.
Definition
other materials are transported
Term
Axonal transport can be _________.
Definition
slow or fast
Term
Slow axonal transport is: and it moves:
Definition
0.2-.25 mm/day; enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins
Term
Some neurons can be up to 1 m in length. They would use __________ when materials need to move fast.
Definition
Fast axonal transport.
Term
Fast axonal transport moves ______ /day
Definition
400 mm/day
Term
Fast axonal transport: _____ "walk" down ________ using foot-like protein motors called ________ and ______.
Definition
Vesicles, microtubules, kinesins, ATP
Term
_________ "walk" up __________ (_________-toward cell body) using __________.
Definition
Vesicles, microtubule, retrograde movement, microtubule associated ATPase.
Term
Axons and dendrites fuse during development to create one long process
Definition
pseudonunipolar neurons
Term
axon and dendrite w/ cell body dividing two poles
Definition
bipolar neuron
Term
1 axon and many dendrites
Definition
multipolar
Term
The interneurons of the CNS are
Definition
multipolar
Term
Name the types of neurons as classified by structure
Definition
pseudounipolar, bipolar, multipolar
Term
Name the neurons as classified by function
Definition
sensory, interneurons, efferent neurons
Term
The classification of neurons that is most useful to physiologists
Definition
by function
Term
Sensory (______) neurons: __________ to ________. Their function
Definition
Afferent, sensory recptors, cns; carry info (light, temperature, touch, smell, etc.
Term
_______(___): lie within the _____. _______allows complex interations and processing and allows the appropriate response.
Definition
interneurons; interconnecting neurons; CNS; branching
Term
Transmit signals from CNS to effector cells. Nickname is...
Definition
Efferent neurons; motor and autonomic neurons
Term
Glial cells are part of the _____. Name the six types of glial cells.
Definition
PNS; schwann, satellite, ependymal, oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes
Term
closely associate with and serve neuronal cells, thier nickname is.....and their function is.....
Definition
glial, glue, support
Term
Name the glial cells that are part of the PNS...name the glial cells that are part of the CNS.
Definition
Schwann, satellite; ependymal, oligodendrocdytes, microglia, astrocytes
Term
support and insulate anxons by creating myelin
Definition
schwann cells
Term
myeline is made up of ____
Definition
mulitiple layers of phospholipid membrane
Term
specialized immune cells that when activated attack and remove foreign invaders and damaged cells (______)
Definition
Microglia; scavengers
Term
similar in function to schwann cells in that they form myelin.....purpose of myelin.
Definition
oligodendrocytes; insulation and support
Term
epithelial cells that create a selectively permeable barrier between different sections or compartments of the brain
Definition
Ependymal cells
Term
epithelial cells that create a selectively permeable barrier between different sections or compartments of the brain
Definition
Ependymal cells
Term
What type of cells make up ependymal cells? What do that create? Where are they found? What are they a source of?
Definition
epithelial; selectively permeable barrier; brain; neural stem cells
Term
non-myelating Schwann cells that form supportive capsules around nerve cell bodies located in ganglia
Definition
Satellite Cells
Term
neuron cluster
Definition
ganglia
Term
Where are satellite cells located?
Definition
nerve cell bodies in ganglia
Term
Glial cells make up:
Definition
90% of the brain
Term
Highly branched cells that contact neurons and blood vessels, serve to transfer nutrients between the two; take up K+ that's released during a nervous impulse. Also, take-up neurotransmitters from extracellular fluid.
Definition
Astrocytes
Term
Astrocytes: (____) highly_____ cells that contact____ and ______, serve to transfer_______between the two. Take up ______ to replace the ____that's realeased during a ______. Also, take-up _______from _______.
Definition
star cell; branched; neurons; blood vessels; nutrients; K+; K+; nervous impulse; neurotransmitters; extracellular fluid
Term
Most numerous cell type in the brain and makes up approximately ______ of ______.
Definition
Astrocytes; 90%; CNS tissue
Term
It's hypothesized that ________ are a specific adaptation fresulting from the brain being protected from some materials in the blood stream. This is known as the :
Definition
astrocytes; blood brain barrier
Term
Brain capillaries are _________ as cappillaries found in other areas. ______ facilitate transport across______.
Definition
not as porous; astrocytes; bbb
Term
_____cells are found in ______ and _______. The ______ contains and the ______ and ______. contains_____, _____, _____,_____.
Definition
glial, PNS, CNS, PNS, satellite cells, schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
Term
Satellite cells:
Schwann cells secrete: and form:
Oligodendrocytes form:
Astrocytes: form: help form: secrte: and take up:
microglia are modified: and act as:
Ependymal cells create and are a source of:
Definition
support cell bodies; neurotrophic factors; myelin sheaths; myelin sheaths; support for CNS; BBB; neurotrophic factors, K+ neurotransmitters; immune cells; scavengers; barriers between compartments; neural stem cells
Term
The _______ is key in a nerve's ability to conduct signals at high speeds.
Definition
membrane potential difference
Term
Nerves vary in ______. Not all nerves are ______. Speed depends on _______ type.
Definition
speed; equal; neuron
Term
Pain is _____ compared to musles positioning.
Definition
fast
Term
sensory receptor found in muscles important for positioning
Definition
proprioceptors
Term
Although nerve conduction is fast, they're still a ______ times slower than___________.
Definition
million; true electrical impulse
Term
Neurons have four major types of selective ion channels that play a role in ________ of signals. What are they?
Definition
propagation; Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-
Term
Upon stimulus, gated channels open and ions ____________ across the _________.
Definition
down thier concentration gradient; neural membrane
Term
While all of these ions have roles, ___ and ___are most important.
Definition
K+ and Na+
Term
Upon stimulation (from upstream of the neuron), gated ____ channels ____ and __ moves_______ and becomes ______.
Definition
Na+, open, Na+, down electrochemical gradient, depolarized (very locally)
Term
What are the types of gated channels and the stimulation that affects them? Give an example.
Definition
Chemical: adjacent neuron (olfaction, vision)
Mechanical: respond to physical forces (touch and hearing)
Voltage: as depolarization moves down a neuron changes in polarity move across membrane and cause the gate to open
Term
All of the gated channels are important in neural function but _______are key players in ________.
Definition
voltage gated channels, signal propagation
Term
The _____that occurs in response to the _______ stimulus from influx of __ ions cause adjacent ____gated channels to _____ and this causes the neuronal signal to move _____ the neuron and ____ the signal.
Definition
depolarization, depolarization, na+, voltage, open, down, propagate
Term
membrane potential of a given ion if it were the only ion. Determined with:
Definition
Equilibrium potential of an ion; nernst equation
Term
Nernst Equation:
Definition
Eion=(61/z)log([ionout]/[ionin])
Term
Resting membrane potential = and is dependent upon
Definition
total Eion, ion concentration in and outside of cell and membrane permeablity to a given ion
Term
Know GHK equation
Definition
Term
Depolarization that are largely restricted to the dendrite and maybe the cell body and upper part of the axon are known as
Definition
Graded potentials
Term
Graded potentials are restricted to
Definition
the dendrite and maybe the cell body and upper part of the axon
Term
If the stimulus is strong enough it will result in ____
Definition
action potential
Term
An action potential moves
Definition
down the axon
Term
size is directly related to the intensity of the stimulus
Definition
Graded potential
Term
Graded potentials: so called because their _______ is ______ related to the _____ of the stimulus.
Definition
amplitude, directly,intensity
Term
A strong stimulus produces a _____ and a weak stimulus produces a _____
Definition
strong graded potential, weak graded potential
Term
graded potentials_________as they move __dendrite or cell body.
Definition
degrade, down
Term
graded potentials degrade as they move down _____ or _____.
Definition
dendrite; cell body
Term
Graded potentials spread from point of _______(_______) as they move ___.
Definition
original simulus, dendrite, down neuron
Term
Graded potentials-The ________decreases as it gets further from _________. The signal______.
Definition
degree of depolarization, origin, weakens
Term
The stronger the initial stimulus, the more likely it is to be strong enough at the ________ of the ________ to initiate a/an________.
Definition
trigger zone, axonal hillock, action potential
Term
A graded potential starts ______ at its initiation point, but ____ in strength as it travels through ______. At the _______ it is ______threshold and therefore does not initiate ______.
Definition
above threshold, decreases, cell body, trigger zone, below, action potential
Term
small graded potentials will ____ before they make it to the ______ but larger ones may proceed down the ______ and through the ______to the ______.
Definition
die out, axon, dendrite, cell body, axonal hillock
Term
If the degree of depolarization is large enough or above the _______ level of depolarization at the ______ in the ________ it will trigger an _______.
Definition
threshold, trigger zone, axonal hillock, action potential
Term
Graded potentials can be ______. Two waves come together and the height is increased. The degree of ______ is increased. This would be an _______.
Definition
summed, depolarization, excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP)
Term
There can also be _______________ in which there is a subtraction of signal. IPSP's cause ________ thus making depolarization less likely.
Definition
inhibitory post-synaptic potential, hyperpolarization
Term
IPSP's make ______ less likely because they cause __________.
Definition
depolarization, hyperpolarization
Term
if the membrane potential difference becomes more negative it will take a ____ to reach _______.
Definition
greater stimuls, threshold
Term
Two types of neuromodulation:
Definition
postsynaptic inhibition and presynaptic inhibition
Term
A modulatory neuron synapses and one collateral of the neuron and selectively inhibits one targe.
Definition
Presynaptic inhibition
Term
all targets are inhibited equally
Definition
postsynaptic inhibition
Term
If the graded potential is strong enough, then depolarization at the ______ of the _______ is greate enough (above _______) then a ________ will be propagated.
Definition
trigger zone, axonal hillock, threshold, action potential
Term
Action potentials are: and they do not:
Definition
all or none events, do not lose strength like graded potentials
Term
An action potential from my CNS to my finger tip is __________.
Definition
equivalent the entire distance.
Term
Two types of signal to neuron. Which acts in long distances and which in short distances.
Definition
graded, action, action, graded
Term
Mechanism of Action Potential: ____gated ____ channels open and ____ move down thier concentration gradient across the cell membrane. Influx of _____. The is known as ______. Voltage gated __ channels open and ____ions begin to move down their concentration gradient ____ of ____ and the ____ channels ____. This is known as _______ or __________. Voltage gated _____ channels ______ and some Na+ leaks into cell down both concentration and electrical gradient and then comes back to ________.
Definition
Voltage, Na+, Na+, Na+, depolarization, K+, K+, efflux, K+, Na+, close, repolarization, hyperpolarization, K+, close, resting membrane potential
Term
The Na+ channels ____ spontaneously. The current model is a _______. ONe is for _____ and one is for _______.
Definition
close, two-gate channel, activation, inactivation.
Term
The _________ closes very shortly after the _______ gate opens. It remains open for short period of time . When it closes, the _____ gate ______ and the system is reset.
Definition
inactivation, activation, inactivation, opens
Term
The neuron is _________ to further stimulation, a subsequent action potential after an AP when a subsequent AP cannot occur.
Definition
absolutely refractory
Term
Following the absolute refractory, the neuron is __________. The undershoot has left the membrane potential difference ________ making a relatively large ________ necessary for AP propagation.
Definition
relatively refractory, hyperpolarized, graded potential
Term
The _______ plays a critical role in an AP having only ___________ of AP propagation. The refractory periods also:
Definition
relatively refractory, one possible direction, set the rate at which the membrane can fire action potentials
Term
Ap's do not greatly change the relative _____________.
Definition
ion concentration gradients across the membrane
Term
Action potentials occur
Definition
as bursts of AP's
Term
The number of AP's in a single event is dependent upon: example:
Definition
intensity of stimulus; stronger graded potential
Term
stronger stimulus causes ________ AP's and ____________
Definition
more; more release of neurotransmitters
Term
weak stimulus releases:
strong stimulus releases:
Definition
little neurotransmitter; more neurotransmitter
Term
A graded potential above threshold reaches:
Then, voltage gated Na+ channels open and Na+ enters ________. ______ flows into adjacent sections of the ______ by local current flow. Local current flow from the active region causes new sections of the membrane to _______. The ________ prevents backward ________. Loss of K+ from the cytoplasm ______ the membrane.
Definition
trigger zone, axon, positive, axon, depolarize. refractory period; conduction; repolarizes
Term
Movement of AP down_______. ______ proceeds from the _________ of _________ to synapse as the ________ causes adjacent voltage-gated Na+ channels to open in a sweeping fashion.
Definition
axon; conduction; trigger zone, axonal hillock; depolarization
Term
Action potentials cause a number of
Definition
sequential depolarizations
Term
The region of the neuron where local current flow is taking place; the region that's behind that; the region that's in front of that
Definition
active region, refractory region, inactive rgeion
Term
There are two factors that influence the speed of action potential progagation:
Definition
Axon diameter and myelination
Term
Axon diameter: larger axons conduct _________ __________ efficiently and therefore propagate the action potential ____________.
Definition
current, more, more quickly (less surface are:volume for drag to occur)
Term
minimizes movement of ions across axon membrane and maintains current flow
Definition
myelination
Term
What cell types produce myelin?
Definition
schwann cells and oligodendrocytes
Term
In myelinated axons, volgate-gated Na+ channels are limited to ___________.
Definition
nodal regions
Term
The depolarizing current generated when an action potential occurs at one node can conduct for a very long distance within the axon, because of:
Definition
overlying myelin insulation
Term
When the current spreads to the next node, ______ membrane in that region; in this way the action potential leaps from node-to-node a process called __________.
Definition
depolarizes; saltatory conduction
Term
Where are neurotransmitters produced? What kind of communication is it?
Definition
either in cell body or at axon terminal, single cell to single cell
Term
A substance other than a neurotransmitter, released by a neuron that conveys information to multiple adjacent neurons, either enhancing or damping their activities
Definition
neuromodulator.
Term
Neuromodulators can also act as:
Definition
neurotransmitters
Term
Examples of neuromodulators:
Definition
serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Term
Three types of neurocrines:
Definition
Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neurohormones
Term
a hormone produced by neuronal cells that usually has its effects upon distant target cells
Definition
neurohormones
Term
Mechanism of Neurotransmitter release: When the AP reaches the __________ the depolarization triggers voltage-gated ________ channels to __________. ____ enters and binds with ___________. ________ of NT containing synaptic vesicles with the membrane. Release of neurotransmitter into the _________. NT diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to _______ in the post-synaptic cell. These channels open, ion influx across the membrane, post-synaptic cell membrane potential changes.
Definition
axon terminal, ca2+, open; ca2+; regulatory proteins; exocytosis ; synaptic cleft; chemically-gated channels
Term
Synaptic transmission ends when:
Definition
concentration of NT in the synaptic cleft is lowered by actively transporting the transmitter back into the presynaptic cell (where it can be repackaged for later use) or enzymatically
Term
Recall that most NT's are small _____-based compiounds and as such they have a short______ in circulation due to _______.
Definition
protein, half-life, non-specific proteolytic enzymes
Term
More sodium in produces a : more K+ out or CL in produces a :
Definition
EPSP depolarization; IPSP hyperpolarization
Term
Often times we can have splitting of axon to affect multiple neurons downstream_________ or the opposite______.
Definition
divergence, convergence
Term
a neuron can have many axonal contacts with different neurons or muscle fibers
Definition
Divergence
Term
A post-synaptic neuron can have as many as 10,000 pre-synaptic neuronal contacts
Definition
convergence
Term
An example of convergence
Definition
olfactory system
Term
What causes multiple sclerosis. What is the outcome of ms?
Definition
demyelination; severely compromised neural function
Term
what causes parkinson's disease? what is the outcome? How is it treated?
Definition
lack of dopamine (a critical brain neurotransmitter); severe shaking; l-dopa (dopamine precursor)
Term
Does neural repair occur?
Definition
the default wisdom is no, but new research is showing that this may be hopeful.
Term
Endocrine pathways are also known as:
They usually involve which two hormones ? How many hormones must be included?
Definition
endocrine cascades; trophic- and releasing-hormones; two or more
Term
Complex endocrine pathways begin with the reasease of a ____ from the _______ to the ________.
Definition
neurotransmitter; hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
Term
Complex endocrine pathways can be _______ or _________ and often lead to:
Definition
stimulatory or inhibitory; negative feedback loops
Term
Endocrine cells release their hormones:
Definition
into the second set of capillaries for distribution to the rest of the body
Term
Hypothalamic neurohormones are delivered by the _________ via a dedicated blood portal system known as the ___________to ________.
Definition
anterior pituitary, hypotalamo-hypophyseal portal system, anterior pituitary cells.
Term
The direct delivery assures that relatively minute amounts of hormone will not be diluted and the message lost as might happen if released into circulation. Lets a little bit do the job. Most of these neurohormones or releasing hormones are very small. (a few amino acids) There a number of these releasing factors that are the 1st step of the _______.
Definition
complex endocrine pathway.
Term
Major hypothalamic neurohormones:
Definition
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Corticotropin-releasing hormone
Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone
Growth Hormone-inhibiting Hormone
Prolactin-releasing Hormone
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone
Term
Prolactin Inhibiting hormone is:
Definition
dopamine
Term
Each of the major hypothalamic neurohormones come from the ___ and go to specific target cells (_____ cells) within the _________.
Definition
hypothalamus, trophic, anterior pituitary
Term
Many hormones released from the ______ in response to the hypothaamic signal have another _____________ as their target.
Definition
pituitary, endocrine
Term
Endocrine glands throughout the body are key to systems _________ and ________.
Definition
integration and homeostasis
Term
_____ is produced in response to ______ and causes increase in __ and _. This increase causes a decrease in ___ and ___ because of ____.
Definition
TSH ; TRH; T3 and T4; TSH and TRH; negative feedback
Term
Thyroid hormones are:
Definition
T3 and T4 (thyroxine)
Term
Thyroid hormones readily cross the cell membrane and bind to ___________ receptors in nuclues to regulate __________. Give an example. Primary function is ______.
Definition
intracellular; gene expression; enzymes involved in glycolysis and atp production; metabolic
Term
T3 and T4 are released in response to ______. _____ is released when T3/T4 levels are low or when ___________.
Definition
TSH; TSH; body temperature drops
Term
As well as nuclear receptors, T3 and T4 bind receptors on surface of _____ to increase rate of ____________ _______ production. This has increased __________ and the rate of _______.
Definition
mitochondria, mitochondrial ATP, metabolic activity, 02 consumpti8n
Term
What is another effect of the increased metabolic rate? This results in...
Definition
increase the level of Na+/K+ ATPase synthesis and cellular by-product ; heat
Term
T4 is produced more or less than T3?
Definition
far more T4
Term
T3 and T4 is essential in children for
Definition
normal skeletal, neural, and muscular development
Term
Which is the active form? T3 or T4.
Definition
T3
Term
T4 is converted to T3 at target cells . T4 is a _____. It is steroid-like (_______) and transports ______.
Definition
prohormone; lipophilic; proteins
Term
Hypothyroidism causes _ and _______. Hyperthyroidism causes _____.
Definition
cretinism;myxedema; grave's disease
Term
A condition noted by retarded neural and muscle development
Definition
Cretinism
Term
Characterized by low metabolism, inability to adjust to cold, lost off hair, loss of vigor and thickening of the skin
Definition
Myxedema
Term
Autoimmune condition in which antibodies mimic TSH and causes an increased production of T3 and T4; it is characterized by nervousness and increased heart and metabolic rate and fatigue
Definition
grave's disease
Term
Name two glucocoritcoids:
Definition
adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol
Term
glucocorticoid released from adrenal cortex
Definition
adrenocorticotropin
Term
____aka hydrocrotisone and ______ are produced by cells of the adrenal cortex. Released in response to ACTH; these hormones have many effects.
Definition
cortisol and corticosterone
Term
Glucocorticoids are --------- hormones.
Definition
stres
Term
Actions of glucocorticoid: These effects generally mediate a long-term response to stress.
Definition
anti-inflamatory, accelerate rates of glucose synthesis adn glycogen formation; causes adipose tissue to release fatty acids; protein catabolism;
Term
Anti-inflammoatory actions _________. Example.
Definition
inhibit white blood cells (the immune system) local injection for tendonitis
Term
acceleration of glucose synthesis;
Causes adipose tissue to release fatty acids
Definition
gluconeogenesis; glucose sparing effect
Term
HPG axis and hormones produced at each level.
Definition
Hypothalamus (GnRH) - Pituitary (FSH and LH) - Gonadal (testosterone and estrogen)
Term
Pathologies: can't use lipid reserves; use glucose too fast; caused by. It can be __ or _____. It causes destruction of the _________.
Definition
Addison's Disease, low cort, primary, secondary, adrenal cortex
Term
Pituitary adenoma (high cort and high ACTH); glucose metabolism is suppressed at expense of lipid and protein; muscles break down; lip[ids break down and are deposited in face and around midsection while legs and arms thin - moon face
Definition
Cushing's disease
Term
ACTH stands for
Definition
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Term
Name the two gonadotropins. They are released in response to _______ and are secreted from the _______. The targets are _______.
Definition
FSH and LH; GnRH; hypothalamus; male and female gonads
Term
Ovaries promote _________ and _____ and ____ release
Definition
follicle development; estradiol and progesterone
Term
promote sperm development and maturation as well as ______ production and release
Definition
Testes, testosterone
Term
PRH promotes ________ release and stimulates: with the help of _____.
Definition
prolactin; mammary gland development and milk production and secretion; estrogen
Term
What inhibits prolactin release?
Definition
PIH-Dopamine
Term
Name the two anterior pituitary hormones that acts directly:
Definition
PRL and GH
Term
Growth hormone is a ___________. (body and growth)
Definition
somatotropin
Term
GH is released from _______ and stimulated by ______ and prohibited by _______. They are both secreted from:
Definition
pituitary; GHRH; GHIH; hypothalamus
Term
GH can have direct actions on:
Definition
multiple target tissues
Term
GH causes:
Definition
Cell division and grownth, stumulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis; causes lipid breakdown and release from adipose tissue - slows glucose usage
Term
GH also promotes _____ production of hormones and acts on multiple tissues to cause growth.
Definition
liver
Term
Too much GH causes: and too little GH causes:
Definition
Acromegaly; dwarfism
Term
GH at liver induces production of ____ also known as: and promotes growth functions at many cell types
Definition
somatomedins ; IGFS -insulin like growth factor
Term
Different hormones interact to get an enhanced response.
Definition
Synergy
Term
multiple stimuli more than additive; total is greater than the sum of the parts - does not have to act on same target tissue.
Definition
synergism
Term
Hormones involved in glucose release: Together they produce a :
Definition
cortisol, glucagon, and epinepherine; synergistic effect
Term
A condition in which a hormone requires the action of another hormone in order to exert its effects; give an example
Definition
permissiveness;reproductive hormones require T3/T4 for the proper development of the reproductive system. It takes thyroid and reproductive hormones for proper development.
Term
Pathologies of endocrine system can be primary or secondary. A primary level affects the: A secondary level effects the:
Definition
target gland; hypothalamus, pituitary, target tissue
Term
Protein/peptide and amide hormones are ____________. (aquaphilic=________) They interact with _____ at target tissues. (some steroid hormones do too)
Definition
plasma soluable; lipophobic; tmembrane receptors.
Term
surface receptors transduce signals across cell membrane and activate second messengers to cell endproduct:
Definition
protein/enzyme
Term
Steroid and some amine hormones are ________, can pass into cell, bind cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors, and interact with hormone response elements. Transcribe DNA message (___) for protein synthesis. Some interact with membrane-bound receptors for fast action via 2nd messenger mechanism.
Definition
lipophilic, mRNA,
Term
Hypothalamus and pituitary trophic hormone pathways coordinate _______ regulation via communication with downstream targets. THis is an example of a _____pathway.
Definition
endocrine, complex
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