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Exam 2 Study Material
Ch.6, 7,8,9,10
138
Anatomy
Undergraduate 2
11/11/2010

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Term
Name the 5 primary functions of the skeletal system.
Definition
1. support
2. storage of minerals and lipids
3. blood cell production
4. protection (ribs protect internal organs)
5. leverage
Term
sutural bones are also called
Definition
wormian bones, they are small, flat, irregularly shaped bones between the flat bones of the skull (think: jigsaw puzzle)
Term
elevations and projections of bones are associated with which anatomical terms?
Definition
process, ramus
Term
process formed where tendons or ligaments attach are associated with which anatomical terms?
Definition
trochanter, tuberosity, tubercle, crest, line, spine.
Term
depressions in bones are associated with which anatomical terms?
Definition
fossa, sulcus
Term
openings in bones are associated with which anatomical terms?
Definition
foramen, canal (or meatus), fissure, sinus (or antrum)
Term
what are the 6 main categories of bone shapes?
Definition
long bones, flat bones, sutural bones, irregular bones, short bones and sesamoid bones.
Term
the diaphysis is connected to each epiphysis at a narrow zone known as the:
Definition
metaphysis
Term
the matrix contains bone cells, or osteocytes, within pockets called:
Definition
lacunae
Term
_______ are narrow passageways through the matrix, extending between the lacunae and nearby blood vessels, forming a branching network for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases.
Definition
canaliculi
Term
true or false, except at joints, the outer surfaces of bones are covered by a periosteum?
Definition
true.
Term
what happens when a bone lacks collagen?
Definition
it becomes easily shattered.
Term
what happens when a bone lacks hydroxyapatite?
Definition
it becomes very soft and flexible (Rickets).
Term
Why would a defect in collagen cause Amanda's bones to break easily?
Definition
not having enough collagen would cause her bones to become brittle and easily broken (hence her disease is called brittle bone disease).
Term
low calcium (often due to low vitamin D) causes ______ in children and _______ in adults.
Definition
rickets, osteomalacia
Term
signs of rickets:
Definition
soft spot on baby's head is slow to close, bony necklace, curved bones, big, lumpy joints, bowed legs
Term
true or false, collagen fibers are stronger than steel.
Definition
true.
Term
_____ account for the majority of the cell population in bones.
Definition
osteocytes.
Term
how would the compressive strength of a bone be affected if the ratio of collagen to hydroxyapatite increased?
Definition
the bone would become less strong and more flexible.
Term
what is the name of the bone-resorbing cell?
Definition
an osteoclast because it breaks down bone and sends the minerals out to be absorbed by other areas of the body.
Term
the basic functional unit of mature compact bone is the ______.
Definition
osteon.
Term
in an osteon, the osteocytes are arranged in concentric layers around a __________.
Definition
central canal.
Term
true or false, perforating canals run parallel to the bone.
Definition
false, they extend perpendicular to the surface.
Term
interstitial lamellae are what?
Definition
remnants of osteons whose matrix components have been almost completely recycled by osteoclasts.
Term
this incomplete cellular layer lines the medullary cavity.
Definition
the endosteum
Term
collagen fibers incorporated into bone tissue from tendons and ligaments, as well as from the superficial periosteum are called:
Definition
perforating fibers (sharpey fibers). this method of attachment bonds the tendons and ligaments into the general structure of the bone, providing a much stronger attachment than would otherwise be possible.
Term
an extremely powerful pull on a tendon or ligament will usually result in _________ rather than snapped collagen fibers.
Definition
a broken bone
Term
red bone marrow
Definition
responsible for blood cell formation
Term
yellow bone marrow
Definition
adipose tissue important as an energy reserve.
Term
osteons include:
Definition
concentric lamellae, canaliculi, central canals
Term
_______ is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.
Definition
red marrow
Term
osteomyelitis is:
Definition
an infection in bone
Term
what are the main types of bone cells?
Definition
osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast, osteoprogenitor cell
Term
true or false, osteogenic cells divide and develop into osteoblasts.
Definition
true.
Term
osteoporosis is caused by over-activity of what?
Definition
osteoclasts
Term
Paget's disease is caused by over-activity of the?
Definition
osteoblasts
Term
true or false, cartilage can do both interstitial and apositional growth
Definition
true
Term
what is interstitial growth?
Definition
growth from within. bone can only grow interstitially.
Term
what is appositional growth?
Definition
growth by the addition of new layers on top of those already formed.
Term
most bones originate as _____ cartilage
Definition
hyaline
Term
intramembranous ossification
Definition
bone develops directly from mesenchyme or fibrous connective tissue
Term
endochondral ossification
Definition
cartilage model becomes bone. for example: in an embryo, major "bones" are present but made of hyaline cartilage. this cartilage model continues to grow by expansion of the cartilage matrix (interstitial growth) and the production of new cartilage at the outer surface (appositional growth).
Term
steps of endochondral ossification:
Definition
1. chondrocytes near the center expand and calcify
2. blood vessels grow into the perichondrium, perichondrium becomes periosteum
3. blood supply to periosteum increases, cartilage matrix becomes spongy bone, primary ossification center develops
4. osteoclasts form medullary cavity
5. centers of the epiphyses form secondary ossification centers
6. articular cartilage stays to cushion bone to bone contact, epiphyseal cartilage (plate) separates epiphysis from diaphysis
Term
intramembranous ossification
Definition
1. mesenchymal cells cluster together and secrete matrix. then, an ossification center is formed and bone grows outward in struts called spicules.
2. blood vessels begin to grow into the area.
3. at first only spongy bone, osteons develop around blood vessels, periosteum develops.
Term
which hormones stimulate bone growth?
Definition
growth hormone, thyroxine, estrogens (females), androgens (males), calcitonin and parathyroid hormones are important in homeostatic control of calcium and phosphate in the body.
Term
factors that increase blood calcium levels:
Definition
rate of intestinal absorption increases, osteoclasts stimulated to release stored calcium, kidneys retain calcium ions
Term
factors that decrease blood calcium levels:
Definition
rate of intestinal absorption decreases, osteoclasts inhibited while osteoblasts continue to lock in calcium ions, kidneys allow for calcium loss
Term
inadequate ossification is to osteopenia as compromised function due to loss of bone mass is to...?
Definition
osteoporosis
Term
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
Definition
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Term
Identify 6 major functions of skeletal muscle:
Definition
movement, posture, support, guard entrances and exits, body temp maintenance, storage of nutrient reserves
Term
the entire muscle is surrounded by the:
Definition
epimysium
Term
the epimysium is a dense layer of _____ fibers.
Definition
collagen
Term
the connective tissue fibers of the _________ divide the skeletal muscle into a series of compartments, each containing a bundle of muscle fibers called a fascicle.
Definition
perimysium
Term
a bundle of muscle fibers is called a:
Definition
fascicle
Term
muscle fibers are also known as:
Definition
muscle cells
Term
describe the endomysium:
Definition
delicate connective tissue within a fascicle, it surrounds the individual skeletal muscle cells, or muscle fibers and loosely interconnects adjacent muscle fibers.
Term
the endomysium contains 3 things:
Definition
capillary networks, myosatellite cells (they help repair damaged muscle tissue), and nerve fibers that control the muscle
Term
at each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together to form either a bundle known as a __________ or a broad sheet called an aponeurosis.
Definition
tendon
Term
tendons and aponeuroses usually do what?
Definition
attach muscle to bone
Term
how would severing the tendon attached to a muscle affect the muscle's ability to move a body part?
Definition
it would not be able to pull on the bone.
Term
myoblasts grow up to be what kind of cells?
Definition
skeletal muscle fibers (they originate from embryonic cells known as myoblasts)
Term
the sarcolemma is akin to what in the standard model of a cell?
Definition
the plasma membrane
Term
the sarcoplasm is akin to what in a standard model of a cell?
Definition
cytoplasm. sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of the muscle fiber.
Term
transverse tubules or T tubules are:
Definition
narrow tubes that are continuous with the sarcolemma and extend into the sarcoplasm. The signal that tells a muscle to contract is directed through the T tubule.
Term
___________ are the triggers for muscle fiber contraction
Definition
action potentials
Term
inside the muscle fiber, branches of transverse tubules encircle cylindrical structures called:
Definition
myofibrils
Term
myofibrils consist of bundles of protein filaments called:
Definition
myofilaments
Term
the 2 main types of myofilament in muscle fibers are:
Definition
thin and thick filaments
Term
thin filaments are composed primarily of:
Definition
actin
Term
thick filaments are composed primarily of:
Definition
myosin
Term
the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is:
Definition
a membrane complex related to smooth endoplasmic reticulum of other cells. THE SR is associated with the T tubule, terminal cisternae and together are termed a triad.
Term
the pareital bones are located where?
Definition
on top of the skull in right and left portions.
Term
where is the frontal bone?
Definition
the front of the face, it is lined horizontally by the coronal suture.
Term
where is the coronal suture?
Definition
located horizontally between the frontal bone and the parietal bones.
Term
the lambdoid suture is located where?
Definition
on the posterior of the skull touching the occipital bone and the parietal bones.
Term
the squamous suture is located between which bones of the skull?
Definition
temporal and parietal
Term
the protruding bump behind (posterior to) the external acoustic meatus is the?
Definition
mastoid process
Term
you find a skull that has the following characteristics: small vault, large face, pronounced muscle markings, sagittal crest, posterior foramen magnum and a V shaped mandible. Is this a human skull?
Definition
no, this skull does not have bone characteristics common with that of a human. it may be a great ape or common ancestor but not a human.
Term
you find a skull with the following characteristics: large vault, inferior foramen magnum, chin, U shaped mandible. is this specimen human?
Definition
the characteristics associated with this skull are common with those of a human.
Term
lacrimal, nasal, zygomatic, vomer, maxilla and mandible are all bones associated with:
Definition
the face
Term
occipital, parietal, frontal, temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid bones are all associated with:
Definition
the cranium
Term
this bone has a butterfly appearance:
Definition
the sphenoid which is part of the floor of the cranium.
Term
the olfactory foramina, cribiform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, superior, middle nasal concha are all components of the what bone?
Definition
ethmoid
Term
the mastoid process is _______ to the styloid process
Definition
posterior
Term
what are the landmarks of the pelvis?
Definition
iliac crest, ishium, pubis, sacrum, coccyx
Term
you find a pelvis that includes these features: enlarged pelvic outlet, broad pubic angle ( >100 degrees), low curvature of the sacrum and coccyx, circular pelvic inlet, ilia that are quite broad. this pelvis is most likely what?
Definition
having belonged to a female
Term
the radius is the ________ bone of the forearm
Definition
lateral
Term
the ______ notch on the medial surface of the distal end of the radius marks the site of articulation with the head of the ulna.
Definition
ulnar
Term
the ________ process on the lateral surface of the radius helps stabilize the joint between the radius and the head of the ulna.
Definition
styloid
Term
totally immovable joints are either:
Definition
fibrous or cartilaginous
Term
gliding is an example of:
Definition
linear motion
Term
flexion and extension are categorized as ____ movement.
Definition
angular
Term
flexion is:
Definition
movement of a body part anterior to the coronal plane.
Term
extension is:
Definition
movement of a body part posterior to the coronal plane.
Term
sacks lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid is the:
Definition
bursa. this reduces tension and acts as shock absorption.
Term
name the types of circular movement:
Definition
rotation, pronation/supination, circumduction
Term
standing on the toes is what type of movement?
Definition
plantar flexion
Term
standing on the heels is called what?
Definition
dorsiflexion
Term
movement away from the median plane is:
Definition
adduction
Term
movement toward the median plane is:
Definition
abduction
Term
which type of movement occurs when you spread your fingers?
Definition
abduction
Term
turning of a structure on its long axis:
Definition
rotation
Term
this type of movement is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. The appendage involved describes a cone.
Definition
circumduction
Term
________ moves a structure superior and ________ moves a structure inferior. some examples might include shrugging the shoulders and opening and closing the mouth.
Definition
elevation, depression
Term
_________ describes a gliding motion anteriorly. for example, if you jutted your chin outward.
Definition
protraction
Term
________ moves structure back to anatomic position or even further posteriorly.
Definition
retraction
Term
moving the mouth side to side as if you are swishing mouth wash would include what kind of movement?
Definition
excursion
Term
movement of thumb and little finger toward each other is:
Definition
opposition
Term
movement of thumb and little finger toward eachother and then returned to anatomical position describes:
Definition
reposition
Term
turning the ankle so the plantar surface of the foot faces medially:
Definition
inversion
Term
turning the ankle so the plantar surface of the foot faces laterally is:
Definition
eversion
Term
fibrous joints are associated with:
Definition
synarthrosis which are not freely movable.
Term
cartilaginous joints are associated with:
Definition
the sternum where the ribs articulate out. they are not freely movable.
Term
_________ are those joints in which a fluid-filled cavity separates the two bones. This type of joint occurs at the ends of long bones, such as the limbs.
Definition
Synovial joints. Synovial joints are high maintenance joints because the trade off for their ability to perform a wide range of motions is a reduction in strength and stability.
Term
_________ make up the pelvic girdle joint and the joints between vertebrae. The limited movement of these joints provides a very stable point between two bones. Yet that point has some give, so that it does not break easily.
Definition
Amphiarthroses
Term
the hip is a ___________ joint, the knee is a ________ joint.
Definition
ball and socket, hinge
Term
osteogenesis imperfecta can be caused by abnormally formed what?
Definition
collagen
Term
which of the following events occurs last in intramembranous ossification?
Definition
cancellous bone is formed
Term
In Ashley's case, what was used to stimulate bone growth?
Definition
estrogen
Term
the proper sequence of events in bone repair is:
Definition
hematoma formation, callus formation, callus ossification, remodeling of bone
Term
synchondrosis, a type of cartilaginous joint contains ________ cartilage
Definition
hyaline
Term
at this joint connective tissue is formed between two bones such as at the distal ends of the radius and the ulna.
Definition
syndesmosis
Term
this type of semi movable joint is associated with the midline of the body.
Definition
symphisis
Term
give two examples of symphisis joints in the body:
Definition
the fibrocartilage between vertebrae and the fibrocartilage at the pubic symphasis
Term
water loss from the ___________ causes the vertebral discs to become less effective and also causes the decreased height associated with old age.
Definition
nucleus pulposes
Term
gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle and ball/socket joints are all categorized as:
Definition
synovial
Term
the inability to produce the fluid that keeps most joints moist indicates a disorder of the:
Definition
synovial membrane
Term
lack of acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft would result in:
Definition
continuous stimulation of the postsynaptic membrane
Term
t-tubules are invaginations of the:
Definition
sarcolemma
Term
the sarcolemma is equivalent to the:
Definition
cell membrane
Term
the route of what follows the sarcolemma, t-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum and then calcium ions?
Definition
excitation contraction
Term
G actin, calcium ions and tropomyiosin are all molecules that bind with what?
Definition
troponin
Term
Zee Intelligent Animal Has Muscle will help you remember what?
Definition
the sequence of dark and light bands on the sarcomere.
Term
what happens if you block acetylcholinesterase?
Definition
muscle spasms
Term
what happens if you block aCh receptors?
Definition
paralysis
Term
35% of bone is composed of _______.
Definition
collagen, proteoglycans
Term
65% of bone is composed of ____________.
Definition
hydroxyapatite.
Term
bone is formed by both intramembranous and __________ ossification, but bone growth is only through ____________.
Definition
endochondral, intramembranous
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