Shared Flashcard Set

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Developmental Psychology
A course on cognitive psychology, duh
389
Psychology
Undergraduate 3
03/14/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Rehearsal, this is only a test
Definition
This is still a test.  Do not be alarmed.
Term
Animal Essences
Definition

Western cultures are less defined

Native American = More defined--blood relations matter a great deal

Realize that a cow raised by a pig would act like a cow, unless it had pig blood transfusion

Term
Wher does animal knowledge come from?
Definition

Loving animals

Parents encourage it through reading and highlighting things in animals

Term
Incomplete view of animals
Definition

Preschools don't know about genes

Plants aren't thought of as living things, not until 7 or 8 years old

5 year olds can be convinced if they realize that plants have goals, moving toward sun or venus fly traps

Term
Naive Psychology
Definition

Informal beliefs about other people and their behavior

Infants understand this: understands intentionality towards goal, like finding crackers

Imitate intentions, not the actual actions.

Term
Theory of Mind
Definition

Naive understanding of the relationsh between mind and behavior

Phase One: age 2 -aware of desires and they cause behavior

Phase 2, age 3: distinguish mental from fliteral world; no difference between thinking and acting out the thoughts

Phase 3, age 4: understand that their own behavior is based on beliefs about events and situations, even when beliefs are wrong

Term
false-belief tasks
Definition

3.5 year olds think sally knows the marble is in the box, four year olds understand Sally's beliefs are incorrect

Cross cultural

 

Term
On reason for TOM: modular view
Definition

innnate, spcialized module that aut recognized behaviors associated with different mental states

Example: autistic kids have no TOM and cannot understand other people

Term
2nd view of TOM: changes in basic processes like language and executive functioning
Definition

language devlops when TOM emerges, maybe language contributes to TOM, vocabular includees verbs of mental states

language predicts false-belief tasks results

 

Term
Leg tied to the mobile
Definition

in a few minutes, babies learned that kicking made the mobile move

Weeks later: babies forgot, but aftera  reminder (she moved the mobile herself with the string), the babies remembered to kick the next day

1. an event from the past remembered

2. over time the event cannot be recalled

3. a cue can bring back a forgotten memory

all at 2-3 months of age

Term
Memory due to brain growth
Definition

Hippocampus and amygdala, at 6 months

Frontal cortex- which retrieves stored memory- comes in 2nd year

part of hippocampus takes 24 months too

Term
Memory strategies
Definition

techniques that improve remembering

used early

preschoolers look or touch objects they're supposed to remember

Term
rehearsal
Definition
7-8 year olds
Term
organization
Definition
structuring material to be remembered so that related information is placed together
Term
elaboration
Definition
embellish info to be remembered to make it more memorable
Term
metacognition
Definition

even high schoolers dont always use the best strategies

must decide if strategy is working

monitoring improves with age

elementary schoolers know what they don't know, but they can't focus on this material

Term
metamemory
Definition

child's informal understanding of memory

memory is fallible

some stuff easier to remember than others

Term
metacognitive knowledge
Definition

knowledge and awareness of cognitive understanding

perception, attn, intentions, knowl., and thinking

Term
cogn. self-regulation
Definition

skill at iding goals, selecting effective strategies and monitoring accurately, a dcharacteristic of a successful students

sometimes not learned spontaneously, but can be taught

Term
script
Definition

memory structure used to describe the sequence in whic events occur

the list of events in walking a dog is a script

fewer entries and weaker links in younger children

so you remember the script instead of the individual components

if specific experience doesnt match a child's script, the experience is sometimes forgotten or distorted

Term
autombiographical memoery
Definition

memory of sign. events and experiences of their own lives

construct personal history

relate experiences to others

begins in preschool years, as people gain component skills and language skills

from parents, who talk about the weekend--children learn how to organize

elaborative story telling is less prominent in asia, so children remember less about their childhood there

Term
emerging sense of self influences autobiographical memory, too
Definition
coherence and continuity to experience
Term
infantile amnesia
Definition

can't remember early life

reliance on language to remember

no sense of self

Term
eyewitness testimony
Definition

children describe things that never happened: sexual assault

children retell stories as if they were actually there all the time, especially preschoolers, due to limited source-monitoring skills--can't remember who said what, and when confused, they assume they did it

 

Term
leading questions
Definition
store info into memory, but without a source--apply it to themselves
Term
improving reliability of children eyewitnesses
Definition

warn children that the inverviewers try to trick or suggest

ensure the questions evaluate alternate explanations for what happened and who was involved

do not question repeatedly

Term
encoding processes
Definition

transofrm the info in a problem into a mental representation

quite often, representaitons of problem are incorrect--fail to encode features, like the positions of pegs on a scale

Term
Don't plan ahead
Definition

why most children don't solve problems

believe they can:

solve by boldly forging ahead, without an explicit plans, like not reading directions

planning is hard, so if you fail, why waste the effort

children expect parents to solve it for them

Term
but four years olds can plan
Definition

if they're told to and the problems aren't too complex

but many problems are too difficult or pointless for them to plan

Term
meands-ends analysis
Definition

begins with problem-specific knowledge

determine diff. between curren and desired situations, then reduces the difference

used by preschoolers--move animal to its favorite food

 

Term
strategies chang ewith age
Definition
older children - try out many ways then learn the easiest, most effective strategy and spam it.
Term
heuristics
Definition

rules of theumb do not gauarntee a solution but are useful in solving a range of problems

fast and require little effort

vs. analytic solutions

Term

Collaboration

Definition

sometimes productive

a bit of a mystery

but among young preschoolers it fails, because they lack social and linguistic skills needed to be a part of a team

among olders, it's unproductive if no one knows what to do in the situation, works when you share responbiilty

Term
collaboration doesn't come easy to the west
Definition

teacher asks a question with an answer, and the students response is evaluated--emphasizedd indivual participation

in Mexico and Japan--students support their classmates, build their ideas and see classmates as resources

Term
children and Ads often make experiments in which variables are confounded
Definition

combined instead of evaluated independently, so the results are ambiguous

in adulthood, they use dependent and independent variables

Term
children often reach conclusions prematurely without evidence
Definition
jump to conclusions
Term
children and ads often have difficulty integrating theory and data
Definition
if results don't fit, they discount the data, not the theory
Term
ads and children have limited scientific skills
Definition
Term
9 and 10 year olds can be trained to learn scientifically
Definition

avoid confounding

straightforward instruction

Term
word recognition
Definition
IDing a unique pattern of letters
Term
comprehension, extract meaning from sequence of words
Definition

you can have word recognition without comprehension

snore secretary green plastic sleep trucks

Term
foundations of reading
Definition

improve from preschool onward

4 yeawr olds know about half the letters

learn when in literacy-related activieis

Term
phonological awareness
Definition

hear the distinctive sounds of letters is a skill known as phological awareness

do these words rhyme?  What's the first sound in 'cat'?

related to success in learning

 

Term
learning english is challenging
Definition

inconsistent in the way letters are pronounced and how sounds are spelled

other languages are more consistent and map sounds to letters

Term
promoting phonological awareness
Definition

reading outloud and for fun and teaching letter names and sounds lwhile reading

help with early reading skills--and extends to elementary-school years

Term
decoding
Definition

1st step in actual reading--IDing individual words

"sounding out"

older kids do it with uncommon words

Term
reading is down-up and top-down
Definition

readers use context, easier to recognize the t in cast than in asct

sentence context: sentence puts limits on what the word could be

ex: the dog chased the cat or the last word is cat

first is easier to recognize

Term
strategy for reading: try retrieval first, and if that doesn't work, sound it out (or ask a skilled reader for help)
Definition
Term
learning through phonics is tedious: alternative methods
Definition

whole words on sight

repeated over and over

Term
whole-language method
Definition

popular the last 20 years

learn to read is thought as natural through immersion

so teacher reads aloud or wrie their own stories, inventing new spellings

Term
phonics instruction is most essential
Definition
need to be taught it explicitlymap letters to sounds
Term
propositions
Definition

derive meanings by combining words to form ideas and then combine propositions

Tall Boy rode his BIKE

Term
WM improves comprehension
Definition
they can link words together effortlessly
Term
WM
Definition
more capacity, store more of the sentence as they try to identify the propositions
Term
children acquire more general knowledge of physical social and psych words, allowing them to understand more of what they read
Definition
Term
with experience, children can monitor comprehension
Definition
Term
children use appropriate reading strats with experience
Definition
casual reading vs. textbook comprehensive reading to fit fit the material being rea
Term
greater knowledge of topic leads to greater writing
Definition
popoularity contest vs. politics in a mayoral election
Term
knowledge-telling strategy
Definition

young writers write as they retrieve it from memory

- no structure, completely independent topics

Term
knowledge0transforming strategy
Definition

deciding what information to include and best how to organize it for the point they wish to convey to the reader

what's the point of the writing?

and the information needed for this purpose

humor vs. persuasion

Term
mechanical requirements of writing
Definition

mechanics

grammar

capitlizatino

much slower than oral, when we don't have to pay attention to it

children spend so much time mastering print that they forget about other aspects of writing

spelling and good sentence structure are hard for younger writers

Term
revising
Definition

first draft = final draft for most young writers

and if they do make changes, they often don't make changes for the better

easier to find flaws in other writing than own

btter at revising when they recognize the topic and are familiar with it

Term
teaching the building blocks of writing
Definition

planning, drafting and revising

the POW TREE

Term
numbers in infants
Definition

habituate to numbers, even as objects change

when they see a picture with three objects, after seeing three with two objects, they stare at it a long time. 

5 month old can distinguish 2 from 3, but not 3 from 4

Term
infants can't "count" the way we count
Definition

probably perceptual

perceptive to shapes and color

maybe infants are senstive to quantity, and small numbers are fairly obvious to infants

Term
infants can perform simple subtraction
Definition
Term
infants understand ratios
Definition
2 blue circles for every yellow circle, infants look longer at a ratio of four blue circles to every yellow circle
Term
learning to count
Definition
one-to-one principle--only one number name for each object that is counted
Term
stable order principle
Definition

number names must be counted in the same order

1,2,4,5 shows this

Term
cardinality principle
Definition

last number name differs from the prvious one by denoting the number of objects

typically repeat the last number counted, 1, 2, 4, 8...EIGHT

Term
knowing these three principles does not guarantee correct counting
Definition
Term
must master conventional sequence of number names and the NUMBer principles to count properly
Definition

exposure to numbers

plural nouns--America, but not Japan

 

Term
counting beyond 10
Definition

harder in English, eleven and twelve are irregular

decade names are vaguely similar to two, three, four\Chinese and Korean numbers match up perfectly

Asians count more accurately

Term
arithmetic in elementary school
Definition

some grasp of it, 2+4=4+2

but not good at placing digits on a number line (5 year olds)

Term

1. count on finges from both hands

2. count both hands simultaenously

3. arithmetic instruction in first grade - counting mentally

4th and 5th grade-memorized single-digit integer addition tables--for easier problems

Definition
Term
US compared to other countries
Definition

Singapore is higest

US in the middle

Term
why are japanese and taiwanese better at math
Definition

give teachers more time to prepare lessons and correct work

improve teacher training and allow them to work with more experienced teachers

organize instruction around sound principles of learning--multiple examples of concepts and giving adequate opportunities to learn skills

set high standards for children

Term

More time in school (50% more than US) instruction is better organized and more challenging

more time on homework

parents have higher standards

parents believe that effort, not native ability, is the key to school success

Definition
Term
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Definition
not based on test scores, but on child development, studies of brain damage, and studies of exceptionally talented people
Term
Linguistic, logical-math, and spatial are included in psychometric theories of IQ, the other six (musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpsonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential are unique to Gardner)
Definition
Term
All of Gardner's IQs devlop at different rates
Definition
linguistic comes earlier than the other 8
Term
gardner's IQs are from different parts of the brain
Definition
example: spatial IQ comes from the right hemisphere
Term
Savants
Definition
individuals with mental retardation who actually show musical intelligence, or intelligence in one domain
Term
emotional intelligence
Definition

prompted by Gardner's

ability to use one's own and other's emotions effectively for solving probs and living happily

perceiving emotions, understanding emotions, and regulating emotions

more satisfying relationships, higher s-e, and more effective in workplace

most of the research done with adults

Term
gardner and schools
Definition

schools should foster all IQs, rather than traditional linguistic and logical-math IQs

teachers must capitalize on the strongest IQs of individual children, without pigeonholing them

expose them to as many as possible

schools have embraced Gardner's idea

Term
sternberg's theory of successful IQ
Definition

successful IQ comes from a people's pursuit of goals

goals vary from one person to the next and across cultures, ethinicities and races

Term
analytic ability
Definition

analyzing problems and generating different solutions

different problems and different solutions

Term
creative ability
Definition
involves dealing adaptively with novel situations and problems
Term
practical ability
Definition
knowing what solution or plan will actually work
Term
sternberg's IQs correlate somewhat
Definition

not unrelated, but somewhat related, not perfectly

so tests don't measure general intelligence only

Term
MA or Mental Age
Definition

difficulty of the problems that they could solve correctly

Binet and Simon disgtinguished between bright and dull children

the first standardized test of Intelligence in 1904

Term
intelligence quotient  or IQ
Definition

simply the ration of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100

IQ=MA/CA x 100

Term
how IQs are computed now
Definition
determined by comparing children's performance to others their same age
Term
educators embraced IQ tests
Definition

efficient and objective

it's still popular 80 years later

can be administered from 2 to adulthood, depends on age

preschoolers are asked to name pictures of familiar objects, string beads, fold paper into shapes

Older will define vocab, solve problems, decipher unfamiliar codes

Term
Five factors of IQ
Definition
Fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing and working memory
Term
Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, or WISC-IV
Definition

subtests for verbal and performance skills

like standford-binet, administered to one person at a time

Term
Bayle Scale of Infant Devlopment
Definition

For infants

five scales, cogn, lang, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior

ex: motor meaasures coordination, ability to manip.

6 mo. can turn head

12 can imiate examiner

16 should build a tower from 3 blocks

Term
stability of IQ
Definition

not from baby to adult scores

only correlates at 18-24 mos to adulthood

infant tests measure different abilities than tests gien to children and adolescents, emphasize senosorimotor skills and less on cognitive processes

Baley can at least show developmental problems in the future

Term
habituation predicts later IQ scores
Definition
rapidly perceive wold
Term

IQ tests somewhat predict school grades and achievement effects

.5-.7

Definition

occupational success

more high-paying

regardless of education, within disciplines

Term
dynamic testing
Definition

improve precictions

measures child's learning potential by having them learn something new in the presence of the examiner and with the xaminer's help

based on Vygotsky's ideas of zone of proximal development and scaffolding

potential to acquire skill vs. static (current) skill

combine with classic IQ tests

Term
Heredity is greater than raising when it comes to IQ
Definition

adoptive study

but heredity is not the sole factor

 

Term
environments and IQ
Definition

parent's behavior

organized home

plenty of play materials = higher intelligences

better-educated families

movies TV and computer with incredible wealth of experience

fewer low IQ scores--improvements in healthcare

Term
do ethnic groups have smart genes?
Definition

No. environment makes up these differences.

 

Term
experience with test contents
Definition
tests reflect cultural heritage of test creators, economically advantaged European Americans, biased against low Socioeconomic from other groups
Term
culture fair intelligence tests
Definition

include test items based on common experiences from many ultures

patterns

although, ethnic differences remain

familiarity with test-items is not the key factor responsible for differences

Term
stereotype threat
Definition

self-fulfilling prophecy

knowledge of stereotype leads to anxiety and reduced performance

self-affirmation reduces the effect

Term
test-taking skills
Definition

some cultures emphasize collaboration

wary of questions from unfamiliar adults, more likely to say "I don't know"

but if they get to know test-giver, they are more at ease and les "I don't know"s

Term
regardless of group, child with high test score has the intellectual skillsneeded for academic work based on middle-class values
Definition
Term
gifted
Definition

130 and up

traditionally academic skill, but now braoder, including art, music, creative writing and dance

child loves the subject and overwhelming desire to master it

instruction to devlop child's special talent begins at early age

parents committed to promoting their child's talent

it must be nurtured

like-minded peers

 

Term
are the gifted emotionally troubled?
Definition

No.

More mature than their peers

fewer emotional problems

as adults, highly satisfied with careers, relationships and life in general

Term
convergent thinking
Definition
using info provided to determine a standard correct answer
Term
divergent thinking
Definition

creativity

aim for not a single correct answer (b/c there often isn't one) but a novel and unusuall lines of thought

in children, measured by asking them to respond with many ideas to specific stimulus

name different uses for a common object or fill in the circles with drawings

Term
mental retardation
Definition

substantially below average intelligence and problems adapting to an environment emerge before 18 years

70 or lower on Binet-Stanford

from interviews with parent or caregiver

Term
organic mental retardation
Definition

25%

traced to biological or physical problem

like down syndrome

Term
familial mental retardation
Definition

represents the lower end of the distribution of intelligence

not biological damage

less pronounced than organic

Term

10% profound, severe and moderate retards

90% educatabley mentally retarded or milded

 

Definition

can work

some marry

comprehensive training programs

clearly menta

Term
mental retardation is a catch-all term
Definition
Term
learning disability
Definition

difficulty mastering subject

normal intelligence

not suffering from any other explanatory conditions, like sensory impairment or inadequate instruction

5% in the US 9 or 3 million youngsters

language, reading and arithmaetic

Reading is the most common learning disability

problems with phonological awareness

Term
reading disability
Definition

need to hear more of the word to recognize it

benefit from explicit, extensive instruction on the connections between letters and their sounds

however, scientists haven't ID's the perfect way to teach letter-sound correspondence

some people emphasize articulatory awareness, both methods work

Term
language
Definition
system that relates sounds (or gestures) to meanings
Term
phonology
Definition

refrs to the sounds of a language

english has about 45

Term
semantics
Definition

study of words and their meaning

average english speaker has 150,000 words

Term
grammar
Definition

refers to the rule of a language structure

most improtantly, syntax are rules that specify how words are combined to form sentences

Term
pragmatics
Definition
study of how people use language to communicate effectively
Term
speech perception and phonemes
Definition

building blocks of language, unique sounds that can be joined to create words

infants can distinguish them at about 1 month of age

sucking habituation

Term
impact of language exposure
Definition

distinctions in one language may not be distinction in another

can tell all distinctions at 6-8 months, but at 10-12 months, cannot

Term
infants and words stress
Definition

how they tell words apart from each other

7-8 month old pay more attn to a word they've heard repeatedly

6 months, infants pay more attn to nouns, verbs, than function words, articles prpositions

know mommy and daddy

Term
infants also learn words better when they're at the beginning and end of sentences, b/c of the pause
Definition
Term

d follows s in new words only

 

Definition

9 months old know these rules

more likely to id novel word if the final sound of the preceding word occurs infrequently with first sound of novel word

Term
infant-directed speech
Definition

motherese

exagerrated changes in pitch, loudness, slowly

expressive emotionally

more language clues

good examples of vowells

better babies at distinguishing speech

Term

step 1 2 months

cooing

Definition
all vowel-like sounds
Term

step 2, 6 months

babbling

Definition

dah

bah

single syllable of consonant and vowels

becomes more elaborate in coming months

precursor to real speech, not mindless, fundamentally linguistic, b/c opens slightly wider on the right side, due to the left hemisphere's control of language

Term
intonation
Definition

babies in english display delcarative and questioning patterns in babbling

different intonations in different languages

babbling precursor to speech

Term

producing dog

first dod

then gog

then dog

Definition
Term
understanding words as symbols for objects
Definition

true in areas outside of language, like gestures before 1 years old

smack lips for hunger

wave for bye bye

Term
name explosion
Definition

18 months, children learn more words and object names than before

15 months, just 2 or three new ones a week

now 10 a week

Term
fast mapping
Definition

children's ability to connect new words to their meanings so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meanings for the new words

so how do children only consider on interp?

Term
joint attn
Definition

follow parents lead

where parents look

not required though, children can learn words from conversaition

if they don't know the person, might not learn word, as if the person doesn't know what he's talking about

Term
constraints on word names
Definition

new word refers to the object that doesn't have a name yet

name refers to the hwole object, and to all objects of its type

if the object already has a name, that means novel name is a subobject

consistently to one word is a proper noun

Term
sentence cues
Definition

infer that the verb refers to the action of the subject

if you know man and bats, you can figure out what juggling is, ing refers to ongoing actinons

can tell the difference between adjectives (they come before nouns), cateogries, and proper names

Term
cognitive factors
Definition

rapid growth coincides with language growth

language can express goals

Term
devlopmental change in word learning
Definition

more as you go along

first pay attn to attentional cues, move on to language and social clues

Term

underextension

overextension

Definition

too narrow definitions

car only rfers to family car

 

overextension

too broadly

dogs refer to all four legged animals

more commonfast-mapping rule: if you can't remember the name of an object, say the name of a related object

Term
phonological memory
Definition

more important than heredity in accounting for vocab size

find it hard to remember unfamiliar words

Term
language environment
Definition

most imoprtant factor in developing vocab

the more they hear, the better

and when parents respond promptly to children's talk

Term
referential style
Definition

name objects, persons or actions in vocabulary

language is an intellectual tool

Term
expressive style
Definition

some names but many social phrases that are used liek a single word, like "go away," and I want it

about enhancing interactions with others

Term
how to increase vocabulary if you're a parent
Definition

describe pictures carefully

view television, like Sesame Street, not cartoons

helpful interactions

reading rich things

children are more likely to understand new words when in activies that force them to understand the meaning of new words and use them

Term

other symbols

the model room

Definition

young hilcren don't understand the relationship between scale models and the objects they represent

3 year old finds hidden toy but 2.5 year old does not

they can't think about the interesting object and its relation to something else--they think the model as a real object

shrinking experiment

Term
maps
Definition

4 years olds can't understand 2D rep. of the world

but they can use simple maps to find objects, regardless of culture or upbringing, actually

Term
telegraphic speech
Definition

like telegrams

only words relvant to meaning

1.5 year old, combine two words to make a simple sentence

agent + action or possesor + possession

Term

agent and action

possessor and posession

action object

agent object

action location

entity location

attribute and entity

demonstrative entity

 

Definition
true accross culture
Term
beyond two word sentences
Definition

grammatical morphemes, words or ending of words (ing, ed, s) that make a sentence grammatical

2.5 year old

how do they learn?

they learn the general rule, learning different tenses of individual verbs would take a long time

Wug and Wugs - novel words

Term
overregularization
Definition

applying rules to words that are exceptions

mans

foots

easier rules are mastered earlier

discover the wh- words, but don't use them correctly, without changing the rest of the sentence

Term
beh. reason for grammar
Definition

imitation

skinner

critics: sentences are novel

and when they imitate, they don't use correct adult grammar

Term
linguists expain grammar acquisition
Definition

chomsky

mechanisms born into them

semantic bootstrapping theory--born knowing that nouns refer to objects and verbs are actions

1. specific brain regions areinvolved in language processing (left hemisphere)

broca's area--combining words into meaningful sentences

2. only humans learn grammar regularly--master grammar rules, only with massive effort that is unlike a preschools' learning for grammar, couldn't product long non-repetitive sentences

3. critical period of learning devellopment 1-12 years

4. devloping grammar tied to devlopmning vocabulary

you learn words, its meaning, and how to use it in sentence

in bilingual children, the growth of grammar and vocab stays within language

adoption studies show that size of vocabulary, not their age, predicts the complexity of grammar

Term
cognitive explain grammar
Definition

learned thru powerful cognitive skills, that detect patterns in speech, not specialized mechanisms

a huge excel spreadsheet and look for patterns int he mind

create rules after initial confusion

infants can infer underlying rules from a surprisingly young age

Term
social-interaction answer to grammar
Definition

most eclectic

frombehaviorist, it takes environment

from linguistic--language learning is distinct

from cog--children have powerful cog skills to master language

grammar and from social interactions

both parties, adults and children, wnat to improve communication

Term
taking turns
Definition

conversations with cooing baies

parents can also carry on both sides of the conversation

non-western cultures don't do this

spontaneous turn talking is common at age 2

at age 3, children progress that if listener fails to reply, children will repeat himself

Term
speek effectively
Definition

10 months

infants touch or point at object while looking at another person to get adult to do something

primitive, but it works

1st birthday - first talk about themselves, then talk about objects and abstractions

Term
not all toddlers are perfect speakers
Definition

have to match their messages to listener and context - do this by preschool years

to an adult, talk more and use longer sentences

simpler grammar when talking to 2 year old and more attn-getting words

Term
preschoolers give mroe elaborate mesages to listeners who lack critical information
Definition
Term
speak politely to adults and more demanding to peers
Definition
Term
african american english
Definition

he be tired = he usually is tired

many AAs learn both, and they switch back and forth depending on the situation

Term
listening well
Definition

toddlers are not good at it

unrelated replies

better at 3 yeras old

Term
listener doesn't understand
Definition

toddlers don't realize that messages are ambiguous

find the red toy, and there ll sorts of red toys but toddler will assume he or she knows what the person is asking for

only once they defy comprehension--like to quiet or too ambiguous or conflicting info - - do toddlers detect a problem

so preschoolers often miscommunicate

Term
conflicting information
Definition

if a cat runs away, and the preschooler expects it to be inside, that's hard to understand and is confusing

trust parents more than peers

Term
skeptical listeners
Definition

7-8 years old

b/c people have vested interests when they speak

trust third parties that are independent

Term
metaphors
Definition

devloping nonliteral meaning takes time

5 year old, can understand easy metahpor refering to the topic--"you're a fish"

children need content knowledge to understand metaphors

Term
sarcasm
Definition

mocking or overly enthusiastic tones help children understand meaning

however, if it is only on context, only adolescents and adults understand the true meaning of the words

Term
function of emotions
Definition
eating, sex, holding children, completing difficult tasks-->these are necessary to human devlopment and species going on, and they're pleasent
Term
fear
Definition

helps us adapt to environment

walking alone-->become more attentive to sounds that might signal a threat

avoid danger

Term
happiness improves interpersonal relationship
Definition
Term
disgust gets us away from stuff that might make us ill
Definition
Term
basic emotions
Definition

experienced by people worldwide, and come with three elements:

1. subjective

2.physiological change

3. overt behavior

 

 

Term
measuring behavior in infants
Definition

over emotional expressions

scowling, anger, happiness

but it's only one component, it doesn't mean they're actually feeling it.

physilogically, it follows adults too

when babies smile, the left frotnal cortex has more activiity, like in adults

Term

worldwide, babies present similar emotions

 

Definition
wide-eyed fear
Term
babies emotions respond to events
Definition
follow the parents' lead
Term
babies smile genuinely (lifting their cheeks) around Mom.
Definition
Term
Pleasure and Distress
Definition
the two emotions infants feel intiially
Term

2-3 months Joy

social smiling

Definition

social smiles--infants smile when they see another human face

possible comes with cooing

Term

anger

(4-6 months)

Definition

food or toy is taken away

goal is frustrated

Term
6 months stranger wariness
Definition

begins to fuss

depends on numbe of factors

1)whether environment is familiar and fearful

2. stranger's behavior--rush into it, or talk to parents and hand the baby a toy is better

adaptive, b/c it comes around just when babies can crawl

Term
self-conscious emotions
Definition

guilt

embarrassment

failure

success when meeting expectations

18-24 months

b/c the self devlops around 15-18 months

Term
regret and relief
Definition

comparing results with the alternatives

age 7 (regret, but less relief)

Term
emotions develop as children grow
Definition

gradschoolers experience regret and relief more often

fear--preschool children are afraid of the dark and imaginary children

school children have cogn. growth and understand appearance vs. reality, replaced with concerns about health, school, and personal harm

Term
cultural diffs in emotions
Definition

outward expressions are discouraged in Asia, so babies cry and smile more and anger in interpersonal

prid in one culture=shame in another, like coming in first place and showing it off

Term
x-culture anger
Definition
US get angry, Chinese that practice Buddhism rarely respond with anger, and instead remain quiet and are shamed that they left the drawing in a bad position
Term
school phobia
Definition
fear of going to school and resisitn the change of schol
Term
systematic desnsitization
Definition
associate deep relaxation with progressively more anxiety-provoking situations
Term
when can infants recognize emotinos
Definition

distinguish happy and sad at 4-6 mos.

seen in brain

also notice hwen an angry face makes happy voice

but do they actually realize it?

yes, it seems so, babies match their mothers' vibe

Term
social referencing
Definition

infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment lookk to parents as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation

less likely to play with scary object if parent looks upset, but more likely if they're happy

infants can use expressions , facial or vocal, alone to decide

it's precise,

by 14 months, they remember, by 18 months gets more precise

 

Term
understanding emotions
Definition

kindergarten know that unpleasent events make people angry or sad

remembering sad event can make you sad again

worry that it will recur

 

Term
kindergaretner mixed feelings
Definition

some situations make people happy and sad at the same time

concrete operational stage

Term
display rules
Definition

cultural standards for approrpaite expressions in particular settings

preschoolers get it

what experiences contribute to this::

hearing parents talk about their feelings

positive, rewarding relationship with parents, so there is a range of emotions giving the mmore opportunity to learn

Term
attn and emotion regulation
Definition

divert fear by looking at less emotional stimuli, thoughts or feelings

strategies to reappraise the meaning of an event so that it provokes less emotion

begins at 4-6 years old, when confused or frightened infants look away, like how older people will close their eyes

24 months, distressed toddler look sad to attract mom's attention

Term
trouble controlling emtoins
Definition

leads to difficulty resolving conflicts that inevitably surface in peer relatinoships

harder to compromise when people get too angry

Term
temperanment
Definition

behavioral styles which are stable across situations and are biologically based

shy vs. outgoing

Term
"easy" babies
Definition

happy and cheerful,

regular reutines for eating, sleeping and ppoooping

Term
difficult'
Definition

unhappy

irregular schedules

intesnely to unfamiliar situations

Term
slow to warm up
Definition

less common, like difficult babies

unhappy, not upset by unfamiliar situations

Term
temperements and cultures
Definition
biologically rooted and should be evident regardless of specific environment and cultures the child develops in
Term
temperament reflects heredity
Definition

more corr. in ID twins

depends on temperamental dimension and the child age

negative affect is more heredity in childhood than it is in infancy

Term
temperament reflects environment
Definition

positive emotionality reflects influences

less emotional when parents are responsive

intense, difficult temperaments when parents are abrupt in dealing with them and lack confidence

Term
temperament makes child succeptible to certain influences
Definition

fearful are more likely to cheat when parents discipline emphasizes asserting power, "Do this now and don't argue!"

yet these children were the least likely to cheat when parents nurture and supportive

Term
Chrosome 11 drd4
Definition

one allele more likely to oppose aggress with others

but if parents had program disenged to improve discipline by making parents more sensitive to child's needs, allele were less likely to oppositional

so thehy are particularly suceptible to influences

it's not a temperament gene

Term
does temperament remain stable
Definition

fearful preschooler swere unhibited adolescents

moderately stable throughout infancy

more likely, but it is not a sure thing

some infants are naturally disposed, and others can act in these ways,but only if it's nurtured by parents

Term
temperament and personality
Definition

resemble each othershare many dimensions in adulthood as temperament has in infants

 

Term
extroversion
Definition

blend of positive affect and activity level

inhibited children more likely to be introverted

but temperament can be poorly related with adult personality

Term
temperaments and beh. problems
Definition
diff. temperament --> beh. problems, more than easy temperaments
Term
great effort control have higher WM and less likely ADHD
Definition
Term
shy more likely to follow parents' orders, even when they're not there.
Definition
Term
European War babies
Definition

no parents

were fed

slow mental development withdrawn and listless

no close social-emotional bond with adults

same with monkeys

Term
evolutionary psychology and 'social nature'
Definition

offers protection and food

longer living

 

Term
why parenting feels natural
Definition
b/c you need to take care of child so it can be sexually active and that the parents genes can pass on too grandchildren
Term
attachment
Definition
according to Bowlby, enduring socialemotional relationships make you more likely to survive
Term
stage 1: preattachment
Definition

6-8 weeks

prenatal devlopment can recognize mom

infants behaviros elicit caregiving from adults

Term
stage 2: attachment in the making 8 weeks to 8 months
Definition

prefer main caregiver

can be consoled by parents

depend on him or her

Term
true attachment 8 mos.-18 mos
Definition

singled out the attachment figure as a special individual

seek reassurance

mental representaitno of mother that she will be there when she needs her

Term
4th stage: reciprocal relationships (18 mos. and on)
Definition

cog and language skills and experience with primary caregiver

take intiiative, read me another story

undertsand parents goals to guide their behavior

can better cope with detachment

Term
role of fathers
Definition

less than moms

how they interact--more time playing, while moms take care of them, read them stories, talk to them, show them toys

when distressed, infants go to mom

when wanting to play, infants go to dad

Term
secure attachment
Definition

baby may or may not cry when mom leaves but when returns, baby wants her and if the baby was crying, it stops

60-65%

Term
insecure: avoidant attachment
Definition

baby is not visibly upset when mom leaves, and when she returns, may look away

20%

Term
insecure: resistant attachment
Definition
upset when she leaves and remains upset when mom returns, difficult to console 10-15%
Term
insecure attachment: disorganized (disoriented)
Definition
confusedwhen mom leaves, and upon return, seems not to really understand what's happening 5-10%
Term
Strange Situation paradaigm
Definition

good for studying attachment, but criticized for emphasis on separation and reunion as the primary means for assessing quality of attachment

appropriate response to spearation may not be the same in all cultures

now we use !-set cratings

Term
consistency of attachment
Definition

predicts future parent-child relationships

but consistency is far from perfect

stressful life events are associated with insecure attachment in adolescenece, even if you were secure before

Term
consequences of attachment
Definition

1st ex: of social relationships, basis for all later relationships

secure attachments have higher-qual friends and fewer conflicts

less beh. probs.

secure attachment promotes trust and confidence in humans, leading to more skilled scoial interactions

 

Term
what determines secure attachments?
Definition

parents respond predictably and appropriately

 and satisfactory

Term
internal working model
Definition
infants develop a set of expectations about parent availability and responsiveness in times of stress
Term
video of mother baby attachment
Definition
secure attached look longer at unresponsive moms, while insecure attach looked at moms who returned longer--?b/c they violated their expectations
Term

less likely to devleop secure attachments when they slept with other chidlren, inconsistent attn when they became upset overnight

more likely to have secure when mom has 3 months of responsiveness training

infants can attach to caregivers who are emotionally involved and responsive

Definition
Term
secure adults
Definition

describe childhood exps objectively and value impact of parent-child relationship

likely to provide the sensitive caregiving that promotes seucre attachment

sensitive caregiving

grow up from attached relationships

Term
dismissive and preoccupied adults
Definition

insecure adults

dismissive: deny value of childhood and unable to recall experiences exactly

idolize parents

proccupied: describe childhood emotionally and often express anger or confusion regarding relationships with parents

Term
difficult temperaments and attachment
Definition

fussy bbies are difficult to console and more prone to insecure

espeically when mother is rigid and traditional, who do not adjust well to erratic baby demands

but rigid moms can learn

Term
Piaget-Epistemologist
Definition

father of cog. research

methodology

observe

classifcation

hhow do humans acquire knowledge

clinical interview skills

looked at errors

Term
Piaget's stage theory
Definition

qualitiative diffs

broad

brief transitions

invariant sequence

no skipping

Term

children's scheme:

they are scientists

Definition
have mental reps. of the world that change at each stage
Term
intellectual adaptation
Definition

how knowledge develops

assimilation and accomodoations

Term
assimilation
Definition
new exp. can be readily incorporated into existing scheme
Term
accomodation
Definition

new exp. can't be incorp easily, so scheme must be modified

occurs with disequilibrum and radical change to get bak to equilibrium

and get a brand new scheme

Term
disequilibrium marks the new stage
Definition
Term

Sensorimotor

0-2 years

Definition

schemes based on sensorimotor processes

a lot of development

lots of substages

 

Term
substage 1 (0-1 mos)
Definition

reflexes

very few have purpose

become a little msoother and refined and coordinated

building blocks for cog. development, a little more goal oriented near the end

Term
substage 2 (1-4 mos.)
Definition

larger behaviors are coordinated

build up from smaller components action by accidents, then repeat it because it's pleasing (primary circular reaction) aka thumb sucking

Term
substage 3 (4-8 mos.)
Definition

secondary circular reactions--novel actions tryed out objects, NOT ACCIDENTAL

purposeful

object permanence, they lack it!

don't come until 8-1 year

Term
SS 4 (8-12 mos.)
Definition

teritary circular reactions

old behs. are tried with new objects (dropping diff. food from high chair)

A-not-B error

put toy in A-hole, then put toy in B hold, babies still look for it in A, so they dont have a ocmplete sense of obj. permanence yet

Term
SS 5 (12-18 mos.)
Definition

experimentation

purposeful still

right at locomotion and walking and motor skills

affords cog. opportunities

Term
SS 6 (18-24 mos.)
Definition

transition to new schemes with onset of language

old sensorimotor schemes aren't necessary anymore

beginning of symbolic representation

deferred imitation--can store mental represtnations for later

Term
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
Definition

use symbols

imagination

egocentrism

Term
egocentrism
Definition

inability to see something from other perspective

3 Mountain Task

 

Term
centration
Definition

focus on one perceptual feature of salient thing at the expense of other aspects

tall-fat glass scenario

pegs ona  scale

Term
converservation
Definition

young don't have it-->part of centration, don't realize that physical characteristics of object don't change if appearance does

broad applicability to numbers, area, mass, liquids

Term
classification abilities
Definition

dogs and cats

are there more dogs or animals

b/c that's easier to focus on than all the animals

Term
4 year olds can't tell appearance from reality
Definition

picture of girl with rattle who is sad, but smiling not to hurt her uncle's feelings

7 year old gets it

Term
shrinking room study 2.5 year olds
Definition

understanding models

control: small scale room--where's Terry? No idea, don't realize it's a model

Experimental--shrinking machine.  Shrink Terry and shrink the rooom-->they find him

when they think it's the same room they find him

They don't understand the symbolism in the model, that is represents something else

Term
concrete operations
Definition

identity A=A

reversability A--> A' and A'--->

Compensating

Term
3. Concrete Operational (7-11/12)
Definition

logic and mental ops

reversabiliity 2+4=6 and 6-2=4

operational schemas tied to real world

thinking isn't as egocentric

difficulty abstract thinking

Term

4. formal op

adolescent onward

Definition

abstract

hypothetical

deductive reasoning

Term

tasks looking at transition from 3 to 4

Syllogism

Definition

1. factual and counterfactual

young concrete operational can't speculatie, but formal operational can

Tools dance

Hammer is a tool

Can a hammer dance/

Term
pendulum problem
Definition

which string and weight will swing the fastest

concrete investigate randomly

formal op. approach it systematically

Term
Piaget's Nature
Definition
preset schemes
Term
Piaget's Nurture
Definition
exps. w/ physical world change these schemes
Term

connected domains

active child

discontinous

Definition
Term
piaget pros
Definition

founded field of cogn. development

empircially based

observe

emphasize errors

stimulated research

"active child, in contrast to Bism and influence of parents n educators

Term
Piaget Cons
Definition

underestimate infants and preop children when it comes to object permancence

overestimate ads. and adults

overemphasized 'consistency in thinking'

underemphasized training

vague

de-emphasized role of soc. and cultural environment

Term

"consistency" of thinking

aka broad applicability

Siegler

Definition

7 years shown probes

breaks down probe solving into different strategies (1= simple, 4 complex)

Weight shadows, probability

results show that rules are all over the place with each task, no consistency in strategies

Term
object permanence in infants revisted
Definition

impssible situation that flattens a box

infants watch this more, demonstrating obj.permanence

Term
training in 5 year olds
Definition

typical conservation tasks or with training

training produces results from 0% to 90%, and it transfered to other categories, like Mass and liquid, somehwat

Term

Boche

Egocentrism in Preop

Definition

with different objects that discriminantly different from each other

4.5 year olds are better than 3.5 year olds, but not by much

b/c situation is easier to discriminate, they are not as egocentric

Term

class inclusion in preop-Tatarsky

5 year olds

Definition

how many red and black blocks, there's a typical result due to centration

but if you only have one side colored, you've created an other salient feature (woodenness) which overrides the color feature

Term

deduction in preo-op

hawkins

Definition

factual, counterfactual and Fantasy

4.5 year olds

ABC to ACB

Counter from 5 to 35 percent

Fantasy from 75 to 90 percent

Term
alternatives to Piaget
Definition

Neo-piagetians

qualitiy stages in cog. development

not pbraod applicability

diff areas of cog develop at different rates

WM capacity of efficiency

more specific that Piaget

Term
Core Knowledge Theorists
Definition

'active child

emphasizes sophistication of thinking that have important evolutionary history

different from Piaget

innate knowledge systems that are specialized and help deal with world

 

Term
innate knowledge systems
Definition

1)physical knowledge

child is a physicist

naiive physics

show infants possible v. impossible events and measure looking time

look longer at box without support

Term
2. biological knowledge
Definition

understanding of living and non-living

hopping frog v. hopping car

cars can't self-locomote

cut heals itself

3 year old can't say whether plan is living or not

Term
psych. knowledge TOM
Definition

False belief task

hard to understand that people's actions are goal oriented

and that people can have false beliefs

understanding others' thoughts and intents

Term
TOM and the marble in the box
Definition

3 y-o doesn't have TOM

4 dos, realize that Sally has a false belief

Term
TOM toy on the sehfl
Definition
2 y-o freq. of naming toy, location and gestures are very different if parent was absent or present when the toy was put on the shelf
Term
18 months and golfish
Definition

adult does like goldfish

infants will give the broccoli when they "ask for some"

at 14 mos. they give them golfish

Term
false photo task
Definition

time 1: toy in bowl photo

time 2: toy in purse

doesn't involve other people's perceptions, unlike Ann and Sally

autistic people have No TOM,suck at marble study but are good at the false photo task

Term
How TOM helps development
Definition

Brain mechanism, the TOM module

social interactions--why autistic kids have probs

processing skills--develops with other cogn. skills

 

Term
vygotsky's sociocultural perspective
Definition

continuous development

children are social beings, Piaget didn't talk about this

social exchange leads to cogn. development

culture defines what cogn. tools you need

Term

zone of proximal development

r

Definition

range of abilities child has bottom alone to top, with someone's help

changes over time and development

Term
scaffolding
Definition

type of help children get

parents should provide the strcuture

puzzle: lot of support for color for youngsters

point, then windraw for older

provide theme tasks at high end of zone to enhance cog. devlopment, while providing support

scaffolding varies across culture

Term

Private speech

 

Definition

relation betwen language and thought

internal speech mediates thought, as pposed to language, which is a soc. exchange

private speech guides beh.

outloud at first, internalized in adulthood, representing a huge cogn. development

except when things get difficult, and you think out loud

Term
info-processing
Definition

computer hardware and software

input->sensory mem->WM(-> Response)-><-LTM

only and all components interact and change with age

1) general processing speed/automaticity

2) WM capacity

3) executive and inhibitor

Term
gnrl. processing speedh
Definition

is there such a thing?

same name, different physical

banana and peeled banana

rotating letters

seems to be general, some curve

can be used to underly cogn. processing

quantitative, so not Piagetian, but there is broad applicability

 

Term
brain development-->myelination of neurons
Definition
increased processing speed allows for higher cognitions
Term
Baddeley's WM
Definition

what's in consciousness

cnetral exec. coordinates verbal slave and visuo-spatial slave

limited capacity

spacial and verbal both increase at relative linear rate

Term
WM Capacity predicts higher order thinking
Definition
fluid IQ, reading comprehension, executive functioning
Term
what does rehearsal have to do with WM?
Definition

Hitch and Halladay (5 and 10 year olds) shown pics

Phon. and Vis. Different

Phon. Diffe, Vis. Similar- 5 years are better

Phon. Similar, Vis. Diff-10 y-os are better

 

different strategies

Term

inhibitory control

children are terrible at this

 

Definition

7 and 13 year olds

remember location of rel. toy and irrel. toy

13 are better at finding rel. toy, 7 years are better at irrelevant toy b/c they attend to all sorts of things

Term
growth of work strategies - cogn
Definition

grade 3 - simple memory tests

rehearse it outloud

repat each word after it's given, only most recent

grade 8 - rehearse all items, recent and oold

Term

semantic memory in children

dinosaurs

5 y-os have domain specific

sort by similarity

can be organized if interesting

Definition
Term
1st and 5th grade memory tests random objects
Definition

5th gradrs categorized for recall

mem. test 2: recall classmates names

1st = 5th grade ,b/c both groups organized the rooms with different strategies, like seating arrangement

Term
1st graders don't semantic categorize b/ they dont have meta-cognitive awareness of strategies
Definition
Term
child chess experts and digit recall
Definition
children worse at digits, better at chess recall b/c they have knowledge structure to support cogn. performance
Term
children eyewitness accounts
Definition
dvlop false memories from leading Qs and bad interviewing techniques
Term

1. control

2. stereotypes

3. suggestions

4. stereotypes and suggestions

Definition

progress to report more false memories about clumsy Sam

for 3, 4 and 5 year olds, although 5 year olds less so

Term
how to prep children for interviews
Definition

tell them they might be tricked

only tell children what actually happened

Term

do infants have numericy?

Wynn 1+1=2

Definition

mickey mouse behind screen, then another

2 dolls or 1 doll after screen drops

spends more time looking at 1, violates assumption

don't understand 1 and 2, but they understand more and less

effect is sseen for subtraction

over 3 to 4 items, it's harder for them to make the distinction

Term
counting principles
Definition

1. numerating, one to one mapping on objects

2. stable order (one two three four, skipping numbers is done consistently)

3. order irrelevance

left to right, even if you mix up order of pics

4. item indifference

4 penguins and a candle is 5 items

5. cardinality rpinciple

last number represents the total.

Term

comparing 1 to four is easy, but harder to compare 3 and four

less perceptually discriminat

2.5-3.5 years old

Definition
Term

counting doesn't mean they fully grasp numerosity

 

Definition

given the puppet 2 toys is easy

give him 4 is harder

Term

counting strategy progression

3+5

Definition

1. fingers

2. count fingers w/o counting slowly

3. short cut sum

 (1....8)

4. sum from first (3...8)

5. Min (5...8_

6. Retrieval

Term
counting strategies overlap
Definition

against piagetian broad applicability

change over time during a problem

vary from kid to kid

Term
cultural diffs in counting
Definition

china and US

same counting to 9, harder afterward, b/c they're new words in english

Term
int'l math perfomance
Definition

asians are top, US near bottom

why?

attitudes are different

in textbooks

asians spend more time in school, doing HW

empahszie speed and rote reptition

US emphasizes application

ASZn better at computational and problem solving

Term
developing reading
Definition

1. knowledge of letter sand features (graphing)

2) phonological awareness

3. word recognition

 

1st. sound out

then top down

then direct retrieval

Term
reaidng comprehension depends on WM, general knowledge, and strategies for reading
Definition
Term
General IQ
Definition
cogn, lang, reasoning
Term
fluid IQ
Definition
sequential reasoning, induction, quantitative reasoning
Term
Crystalized intelligence
Definition
print, comprehension languag, vocab
Term
3. general memory and learning
Definition
Term
gardner's thry of multiple Intelligences
Definition

b/c we think of intell. too broadly

1. linguistic

2. logical math

3. spatial

4. musical.

5. bodily kinesthetic

6. interpersonal

7. intrapersonal

8. naturalistic

9. existential

some more correlated with others

schools fdraw upon these IQs to develop curriculum

Term
sterneberg's triarchic theory:
Definition

emphasizes processes

concerned with cultures' influences on intelligence

Term
practical intelligence
Definition

contextual

adaptive

Term
creative
Definition

experimental novel situations

automatic performance

Term
typical intelligence
Definition

analytic sub theory

component

selecting and organizing basic cogns.

Term

how reliable is intelligence?

1 y-o

Definition

no correlation

@older age--> correlation grows, like .8 at 15 years old

b/c the way we measure intelligence changes with age

Term
validity or predictability of IQ tests
Definition
.5 with most everything
Term

nature or nurture with IQ?

 

Definition

both

Nature

biological and adoptive mom

grows stronger the older

Nurture

MZ twins correlate more when raised together, just like with siblings

Term

Carolina Abecardarian Project

 

Definition

intervene early w/ quality preschool cogn-enrichment prgoram

parents are 85 IQs and low incomes

from 4 mos. to 5 years

at 3 years, exp>control IQs

over time, treatment always outperformed, even after the experiment was done

although both groups were parallel and trended down

Term
early intervention
Definition

last change

but they both still fall

by age 15, fewer held back, fwer placed in special education.

Term
perceiving speech
Definition

comes before producing speech

phonemes

across all langs

elementary vowell and consonant sounds

groundwork for perceiving speech comes from picking up sounds

sucking rates measured-->infants suck more when they hear something novel

Term
'tuning' of speech perception
Definition

before--infants perceive categorically and nearly every distinction in speech

Core Knowledge Theoriests-infants come into the world with linguistic knowledge

post-tune

infants distinguish phonemes of own language only after 6-8 mos.

like pruning in human/monkey face exp.

Term
how do infants perceive streams of sounds that make up words?
Definition

sensitive to stresses

locate co-occuring patterns

Term

motherese

infant directed speech

Definition

sexagerrated, sing-sony, slower, high pitched make sounds high pitch

draw infants' attention

Term
speech production
Definition

stage 1 (2 mos and younger)

reflexive vocalization

type of communication

diffrent cries

pain gasps

hugnry

Term
stage 2 (2 mos.) cooing
Definition

elongated vowel sounds

parents talk back, and that's important, b/c it sets up the social function of language

Term
stage 3 (4-6 mos)
Definition

babbling

bah, dah

not necessarily saying mom and dad

add a consonant to a coo

Term
silent babbling in infants
Definition

deaf infants

babble, but not reinforced, so they actually sign silent babbling with their hands

Term

stage 4 (6-10 mos.)

reduplicated babbling

Definition

like practice

dadadadadadadadadada

Term

stage 5 (10-14 mos.)

non-reduplicated babbling

Definition

different syllables are combined

language-like in rhtyhm and sound

Term
first words
Definition

around first birthday

come out of babblings

contextual-->they're using the words

dada mama go

18 mos. - 15-20 words

2 years - few hundred

5 years - 10,000

Term
fast word mapping
Definition
an explosion
Term
joint attn
Definition

very sensitive to what parents' attn is on

parents have to look at object, infants pay attn to social/pragmatic  cues in language

pick up words and what parents think of them

Term

how infants learn words

1. words apply to whole object

2. sentence cues

 

Definition

ex: chromium

they pick it up quickly and remember it a week later

Term
naming errors (1 to 3 years old)
Definition

under and overextension

over is more common

self-explanatory

kids don't always know the word, so they say something similar

Term

speaking in sentences (18-24 months)

 

Definition

telegraphic speech -->b/c it's like a telegraph

agent + action

action + object

agent + object

Term
more complex sentences (2.5 years)
Definition

due to learning the rules

Wug and Wugs

it's a nonsense word, so you know you're not just imitating adults

-ed to denote the past tense on everything

Term
overgeneralizing rules (3 years)
Definition

irregular words

fish

foot

goed

before 3 years they might use correct form due to imitation, but not after they learn the rules

 

Term
do parents correct grammar?
Definition

nope

just the 'truth value'

correct false statements

Term
variability in language production at young ages
Definition

everyone explodes, but at different times

though they all end up in the same place

geniuses and dummies at birth don't dictate life

it could just be that kids don't have a lot to say

Term
skinner and language
Definition

behaviorist

through reinforcement and imitation, like all other behaviors

CLEARLY parents do reinforce behavior, and it helps

Term
problems with behavioristic approach to language development
Definition

ease and rapidity (4 years to master complex language)

staging is unviersal, cooing to babbling, across culutrues

diff. environments, right?

children produce novel sentences and novel words

not direct imitation of adult speech

Term
chomsky and linguists
Definition

people come with LADs (language acquisition devices)

specific areas in brain

broca's - production

vernicky's (difficulty comprehending)

Term
only humans regularly learn grammar
Definition

chimps

3-sign combos

4-sign combos = repetition

clearly not grammatical

Term
lenneberg
Definition

critical periods

likes birds who learn songs

birth to adolescence

exposure to lang. tied to hemispheric laterality in adolescence (this is probably not true)

 

Term
genie
Definition
typical sequencing, but never learned question words, syntx, transfromation rules, grammatical sequences
Term

reading wars

phonics vs. whole language

Definition
Term
phonics
Definition

phonological awareness

alphabet principle

decoding

Term
whole language
Definition

reading is natural extension of lang

explicit teaching of phoncis is unnececessary

memorizing whole words

Term
phonics is easier
Definition
Dr. Seuss constant reptition
Term
psychometric approach general intelligence
Definition
fluid (depends on CNS) and crystalized (language based and accumulated knowledge)
Term
specific intellectual abilities
Definition
processing speed, verbal comprehension, fluency, memory induction
Term
psychmoetrric approach
Definition
hierarchical intellectual abilities
Term
normal curve of IQ
Definition
allows us to make comparison among individuals with IQ
Term

Simon and Binet's

mental age

Definition

psychologists from France

test that would allow to predict school perforamcne

developed tasks for different ages

worked with Piaget

metnal age v. chronologiccal age

Term

terman: computation of IQ scores

MA/CA x 100

Definition
revised of SImon and Binet
Term
IQ in modern tests
Definition

Stanford Binet

Weschleser Intelligence Scale for children and adults

Raven's progressive matrices: start simple and become more difficult

Bayley scale for infants

Term
all tests of intelligence (besides Gardner, perhaps) are culturally biased
Definition
Term
D. Wescher's intelligence
Definition
global capacity of a person to act purpsefully to think rationally, to deal effectively with environemnt
Term
psych textbooks intelligence
Definition
general ability to perform cogn. tasks
Term
beh. defn' of intelligence
Definition
capacity to learn from experience or capacity to adapt to environment
Term
sternberg's version of intelligence
Definition
cogn. ability to learn from exp, reason well, remember impot. information and cope with demands of daily life
Term
apa task force defn' of intelligence
Definition
ability to understand complex, adapt, learn from exp., engage in various reasonings, to overcome activties taking thought
Term
To retrieve related info from LTm, we have to organize our memory
Definition
much of this organiziation is semantic, based on the meaning of the data
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