Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Crash course
General
405
Cosmetology
Professional
08/12/2013

Additional Cosmetology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

001) Type of nail enamel used to avoid staining of the nail plate:

A) Nail Whitener

B) Top Coat

C) Primer

D) Base Coat

Definition
BASE COAT
Term

002) Designed primarily for oily / acneac skin, this pinch and roll movement that keeps the sebum moving forward and out of the follicle:

A) Dr. Jacquenett

B) Dr. Murad Movement

C) Dr. 90210 Movement

D) Dr. Jacquet Movement

Definition

DR. JACQUET MOVEMENT 

This massage technique was developed by French dermatologist Dr. Jacquet (1860–1914). That is where its name comes from. This technique is basically the intensive influence onto tissues, which stabilizes the blood circulation process. The main difference of Jacquet massage technique is the character of its kneading movements. These are very intense and rhythmical light pinching, which is alternated with vibrations and stroking. With these movements, there is a deep influence exerted both on the skin's superficial layer, and on derma and subcutaneous fat, normalizing oil secretion. The massage is performed with a thumb and an index finger. The skin is grasped with the pulp of the fingers through all its depth, and then short and fast movements press it in all directions, passing all the surface in this manner. As the massage is performed very intensely, it is possibly painful.

Term

003) Alopecia refers to: 

A) Bad Breath

B) Excessive Sweating

C) Under-active Sebaceous Gland

D) Hair Loss or Balding

Definition

ALOPECIA 

 Abnormal hair loss is called alopecia (al-oh-PEE-shah). The three most common types of abnormal hair loss are androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, and postpartum alopecia.

 

 

 

Term

004) Hair loss that may occur from the wearing of braids, cornrows, and extensions:

A) Alopecia

B) Postpartum Alopecia

C) Alopecia Androgenica

D) Traction Alopecia

Definition

TRACTION ALOPECIA

 Traction alopecia (al-oh-PEE-shah).....This condition is particularly prevalent among African-American women and children. It begins with scalp irritation and excessive flakiness, and eventually leads to hair loss, particularly around the hairline. Wearing excessively tight braids (tight enough to pull the hair or impede circulation to the scalp) over a prolonged period of time can lead to permanent hair loss. Keep in mind that while braids are beautiful, they must be without excessive tension to avoid long-term follicle damage.

 

 

  

Term

005) Type of hair loss mostly associated with men.

A) Postpartum Alopecia

B) Alopecia areata

C) Alopecia Senilis

D) Androgenic Alopecia

Definition

[image]

ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA

Androgenic alopecia (an-druh-JEN-ik _ al-oh-PEE-shah), also known as androgenetic alopecia (an-druh-je-NETik _ al-oh-PEE-shah), is hair loss that is characterized by miniaturization of terminal hair that is converted into vellus hair. It is usually the result of genetics, age, or hormonal changes that cause terminal hair to miniaturize Androgenic alopecia can begin as early as the teens and is frequently seen by the age of 40. By age 35, almost 40 percent of both men and women show some degree of hair loss. an·dro·gen (ndr-jn) n. A steroid hormone, such as testosterone or androsterone, that controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. Also called androgenic hormone

 

 

 

Term

006) Type of nail enamel used to avoid chipping of nail polish:

A) Nail Pearlizer

B) Top Coat

C) Keratolytic Agents

D) Base coat

Definition
TOP COAT
Term

007) Type of "base" shape best suited for a roller / Wet set:

A) Parallel

B) Round

C) Rectangular

D) Square

Definition

[image]

RECTANGULAR

The base is the panel of hair on which the roller is placed. The base should be the same length and width as the roller. The type of base  affects the volume.

Term

008) A Sudoriferous Gland disorder, resulting in excessive sweat:

A) Hydrosis

B) BromHydrosis

C) Anhidrosis

D) Hyperhidrosis

Definition

HYPERHIDROSIS

Hyperhidrosis (hy-per-hy-DROH-sis) is excessive sweating, caused by heat or general body weakness. Requires medical referral.

EXCRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands. 

Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus _ GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree _ KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit).The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain drugs. The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

 

 

Term

009) A Sudoriferous gland disorder, resulting in foul smelling sweat: 

A) Hydrosis

B) BromHydrosis

C) Anhidrosis

D) Hyperhidrosis

Definition

BROMHYDROSIS


BromHydrosis (broh-mih-DROH-sis) is foul-smelling perspiration, usually noticeable in the armpits or on the feet, that is caused by bacteria. Severe cases require medical referral.

EXCRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

 

Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus _ GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree _ KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit).The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain drugs. The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

 

 

Term

011) A "whitish" half-moon area of the nail plate: 

A) Lanugo

B) Lunula

C) Matrix

D) Nail Pterygium

Definition

[image]

LUNULA

Visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin; it is the whitish, half-moon shape at the base of the nail. 

Term

012) Name given the bone connecting all the bones in the cranium:

A) Sphenoid

B) Lacrimal

C) Occipital

D) Ethmoid

Definition

[image]

SPHENOID BONE

THE Sphenoid bone (/ˈsfiːnɔɪd/; from Greek sphenoeides, "wedgelike") is an unpaired cranial bone situated at the front middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended. Bone that joins all of the bones of the cranium together.

Term

013) Facial bone/s not affected by a facial massage: 

A) Palatine, Turbinal, Nasal

 B) Ethmoid, Sphenoid

 C) Palatine, Turbinal, Vomer, Ethmoid, Sphenoid

 D) Palatine, Turbinal, Vomer, Lacrimal, Sphenoid

Definition

[image]

PALATINE-TURBINAL-VOMER-ETHMOID-SPHENOID

• Ethmoid bone (ETH-moyd BOHN). light sppongy bone between the eye sockets; forms part of the nasal cavities.

• Sphenoid bone (SFEEN-oyd BOHN). Bone that joins all of the bones of the cranium together.

The ethmoid and sphenoid bones are not affected when performing services or giving a massage.

Term

014) The study of muscles is known as:

A) Myology

B) Histology

C) Osteology

D) Trichology

Definition

Myology

Myology (my-AHL-uh-jee) is the study of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles. The human body has over 630 muscles, which are responsible for approximately 40 percent of the body’s weight. Muscles are fibrous tissues that have the ability to stretch and contract according to demands of the body’s movements. 

There are three types of muscle tissse.

 Striated muscles (STRy-ayt-ed MuS-uls), also known as skeletal muscles. Muscles that are attached to the bones and are voluntary or are consciously controlled. Striated muscles assist in maintaining the body’s posture and protect some internal organs 

•  Nonstriated muscles (nahn-STRy-ayt-ed MuS-uls), also known as smooth muscles. Muscles that are involuntary and function automtically, without conscious will. These muscles are found in the internal organs of the body, such as the digestive or respiratory systems 

•  Cardiac muscle. Involuntary muscle that is the heart. This type of muscle is not found in and other part of the body

A muscle has three parts:

•  Origin. The part of the muscle that does not move and is attached closest to the skeleton.

  Belly. The middle part of the muscle.

•  Insertion. The part of the muscle that moves and is farthest from the skeleton. 

 

 

Term

015) The study of bones is known as:

A) Myology

B) Histology

C) Osteology

D) Trichology

Definition

OSTEOLOGY

Osteology (ahs-tee-AHl-oh-jee) is the study of the anatomy, structure, and function of the bones. Os (AHS) means bone. It is used as a prefix in many medical terms, such as osteoarthritis, a joint disease. Except for the tissue that forms the major part of the teeth, bone is the hardest tissue in the body. The skeletal system forms the physical foundation of the body and is composed of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints.

 

 

Term

016) The study of hair is known as:

A) Myology

B) Histology

C) Osteology

D) Trichology

Definition

Trichology

The scientific study of hair and scalp its diseases and care is called trichology (trih-KAHL-uh-jee), which comes from the Greek words trichos (hair) and ology (the study of)

 

 

Term

017) The study of structures that cannot be seen with the naked eye, often referred to as "microscopic anatomy" is know as: 

A) Myology

B) Histology

C) Osteology

D) Trichology

Definition

HISTOLOGY

Histology (his-TAHL-uh-jee), also known as microscopic anatomy (mi-kroh-SKAHp-ik _ ah-NAT-ah-mee), is the study of tiny structures found in living tissues.

 

 

Term

018) Soft fine, downy un-pigmented hair; often referred to as "peach fuzz": 

A) Terminal

B) Barba

C) Lanugo

D) Vellus

Definition


VELLUS

Vellus hair (VEL-us HAYR), also known as lanugo hair (luh-NOO-goh _ HAYR), is short, fine, unpigmented, and downy hair that appears on the body. Vellus hair almost never has a medulla. It is commonly found on infants and can be present on children until puberty. On adults, vellus hair is usually found in places that are normally considered hairless (forehead, eyelids, and bald scalp), as well as nearly all other areas of the body, except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Women normally retain 55 percent more vellus hair than men. Vellus hair helps with the evaporation of perspiration.

 

 

Term

019) Soft, Downy, pigmented hair is referred to as:

A) Terminal

B) Barba

C) Lanugo

D) Vellus

Definition

LANUGO

Lanugo (/la·nu·go/, from Latin lana “wool”) is very fine, soft, and usually unpigmented, downy hair on the body of a fetus or newborn baby. It is the first hair to be produced by the fetal hair follicles, and it usually appears on the fetus at about 5 months of gestation. It is normally shed before birth, around 7 or 8 months of gestation but is often present at birth and disappears on its own within a few days or weeks. Lanugo hair will invariably be shed by three to four months after birth. It is replaced by hair covering the same surfaces called vellus hair, but this hair is finer and more difficult to see. The more visible hair that continues into adulthood is called terminal hair. This forms in specific areas and is hormone dependant

 

 

Term

020) The proper order of massage movement is:

A) Insertion to origin

B) Origin to insertion

C) Both A and B

D) None of thde above

Definition

INSERTION TO ORIGIN

 Insertion. The part of the muscle that moves and is farthest from the skeleton,  pressure in massage is usually directed from the insertion to the origin. 

A muscle has three parts:

  Origin. The part of the muscle that does not move and is attached closest to the skeleton.

  Belly. The middle part of the muscle.

insertion. The part of the muscle that moves and is farthest from the skeleton.

 

 

Term

021) Common chemical found in ATG permanent wave neutralizers:

A) Sodium Hypochlorite

B) Ammonium Thioglycolate

C) H202

D) Aniline Derivative

Definition
H2O2
Term

022) Refers to the growth of an unusual amount of hair on parts of the body normally bearing only downy hair, such as the faces of women and backs of men: 

A) Hirsuties

B) Hypertrichosis

C) Hirutism

D) All of the above

Definition

HIRSUTIES-HIRSUTISM-HYPERTRICHOSIS

 

Hirsuties is the growth in a woman of coarse terminal hair in a male distribution

 

Hirsutism is the excessive hairiness on women in those parts of the body where terminal hair does not normally occur or is minimal - for example, a beard or chest hair. It refers to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair) and it is therefore primarily of cosmetic and psychological concern. Hirsutism is a medical sign rather than a disease and may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, especially if it develops well after puberty. The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score. 

 

Hypertrichosis (hi-pur-trih-KOH-sis), also known as hirsuties (hur-SOO-shee-eez), is a condition of abnormal  growth of hair. It is characterized by the growth of terminal hair in areas of the body that normally grow only vellus hair. Mustaches or light beards on women are examples of hypertrichosis.  Treatments for hypertrichosis include electrolysis, photoepilation, laser hair removal, shaving, tweezing, electronic tweezers, depilatories, epilators, threading, and sugaring

 

 

 

 

Term

023) Bromhidrosis, Hyperhidrosis, Anhidrosis, and Milaria Rubra are classified as:

A) Disorder of the Sebaceous Gland

B) Disorder of the Ductless Glands

C) Disorder of the Pulmonary System

D) Disorder of the Sudoriferous Glands

Definition

DISORDERS OF THE SUDORIFERIOUS GLAND

 

BOMHIDROSIS (broh-mih-DROH-sis) is foul-smelling perspiration, usually noticeable in the armpits or on the feet, that is caused by bacteria. Severe cases require medical referral.

 

Hyperhidrosis (hy-per-hy-DROH-sis) is excessive sweating, caused by heat or general body weakness. Requires medical referral.

Anhidrosis (an-hih-DROH-sis) is a deficiency in perspiration, often a result of fever or certain skin diseases. Requires medical referral.

Miliaria rubra (mil-ee-AIR-ee-ah ROOB-rah), also known as prickly heat, is an acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin. It is caused by exposure to excessive heat and usually clears in a short time without treatment.

EXCRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit).

The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain drugs. The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

024) An acute, inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itchy skin; it is caused by exposer to excessive heat and usually clears in short time without treatment:

A) Milaria Rubra

B) Heat Rash

C) Prickly Heat

D) A,B,C are Correct

Definition

Milaria Rubra,Heat Rash,Prickly Heat


Miliaria rubra (mil-ee-AIR-ee-ah _ ROOB-rah), also known as prickly heat, is an acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin. It is caused by exposure to excessive heat and usually clears in a short time without treatment.

 

 

Term

025) Which is not classified as a disorder of the Sudoriferous gland: 

A) Milaria Rubra

B) Bromhydrosis

C) Milia

D) Hyperhydrosis

Definition

MILIA

Milia (MIL-ee-uh) are benign, keratin-filled cysts that appear just under the epidermis and have no visible opening. They resemble small sesame seeds and are almost always perfectly round. They are commonly associated with newborn babies but can appear on the skin of people of all ages. They are usually found around the eyes, cheeks, and forehead and they appear as small, whitish masses. Depending on the state, Milia can be treated in the salon or spa.

 

 

 

 

Term

026) Process involving the Sudoriferous Glands where water (perspiration) is lost through the skin taking salt and other chemicals with it; along with blood, this process is involved in heat regulation: 

A) Secretion

B) Absorption

C) Excretion

D) Protection

Definition

EXCRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands

The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin. The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands. 

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus _ GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree _ KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit). The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

 Sebaceous glands (sih-BAY-shus _ GLANZ), also known as oil glands, are connected to the hair follicles. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete sebum (SEE-bum), a fatty or oily substance that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair. With the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly in the face and scalp, where they are larger.

 

 

Term

027) The process involving the Sebaceous Glands where oil is produced to lubricate the skin, thus keeping it soft & pliable can increase the flow of sebum:

A) Secretion

B) Absorption

C) Excretion

D) Protection

Definition


SECRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands

Sebaceous glands (sih-BAY-shus _ GLANZ), also known as oil glands, are connected to the hair follicles. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete sebum (SEE-bum), a fatty or oily substance  that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair. With the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly in the face and scalp, where they are larger.

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus _ GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree _ KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit). The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain the excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin. The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

 

 

 

 

 

Term

028) Solidified oil impactions that have not been exposed to oxygen: 

A) Blackheads

B) Milia

C) Comedomes

D) Carbuncle

 

Definition

MILIA

Milia (MIL-ee-uh) are benign, keratin-filled cysts that appear just under the epidermis and have no visible opening. They resemble small sesame seeds and are almost always perfectly round. They are commonly associated with newborn babies but can appear on the skin of people of all ages. They are usually found around the eyes, cheeks, and forehead and they appear as small, whitish masses. Depending on the state, Milia can be treated in the salon or spa.

 

 

 

 

Term

029) Solidified oil impactions that have been exposed to oxygen: 

A) Blackheads

B) Milia

C) Comedones

D) A and C

Definition

Blackheads

An open comedo, also known as a blackhead, is a hair follicle filled with keratin and sebum. Comedones appear most frequently on the face, especially in the T-zone, the center of the face. When the sebum of the comedo is exposed to the environment, it oxidizes and turns black. When the follicle is closed and not exposed to the environment, the sebum remains a white or cream color and is a closed comedo, also known as whitehead, and appears as a small bump just under the skin surface

 

 

Term

030) The largest and strongest bone of the facial skeleton is known as the:

 

A) Maxillea

B) Mandible

C) Hyoid

D) Zygomatic

Definition

[image]

MANDIBLE

man•di•ble-the mandible, the largest and strongest bone of the face, serves for the reception of the lower teeth. It consists of a curved, horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles

 

 

 

Term

031) The lower jawbone is know as the:

A) Maxillae

B) Mandible

C) Hyoid

D) Zygomatic

Definition

[image]

MANDIBLE

man•di•ble-the mandible, the largest and strongest bone of the face, serves for the reception of the lower teeth. It consists of a curved, horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles

Term

032) The upper jawbone is know as:

A) Maxillae

B) Mandible

C) Hyoid

D) Zygomatic

Definition

[image] 

MAXILLAE

 Maxillae (mak-SIL-ee) (singular: maxilla, mak-SIL-uh). Bones of the upper jaw. There are two maxillae. 

Term

033) Another name for the Malar bone is:

A) Maxillae

B) Mandible

C) Hyoid

D) Zygomatic

Definition

[image]

ZYGOMATIC BONE

Zygomatic bones (zy-goh-MAT-ik BOHNS), also known as malar bones or cheekbones. Bones that form the prominence of the cheeks. There are two zygomatic bones.

 

zygomatic bone- (malar bone) In the human skull, the zygomatic bone (cheekbone, malar bone) is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. It is situated at the upper and lateral part of the face and forms the prominence of the cheek, part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit, and parts of the temporal and infratemporal fossa. It presents a malar and a temporal surface; three processes, the frontosphenoidal, orbital, maxillary, and temporal; and four borders

 

 

Term

034) The cheekbone is also know as the:

A) Maxillae

B) Mandible

C) Hyoid

D) Zygomatic

 

 

Definition

[image]

ZYGOMATIC BONE

Zygomatic bones (zy-goh-MAT-ik BOHNS), also known as malar bones or cheekbones. Bones that form the prominence of the cheeks. There are two zygomatic bones.

 

zygomatic bone- (malar bone) In the human skull, the zygomatic bone (cheekbone, malar bone) is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. It is situated at the upper and lateral part of the face and forms the prominence of the cheek, part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit, and parts of the temporal and infratemporal fossa. It presents a malar and a temporal surface; three processes, the frontosphenoidal, orbital, maxillary, and temporal; and four borders

 

 

Term

035) The voice box, or "Adam's apple" is referred to as:

 

A) Maxillae

B) Mandible

C) Hyoid

D) Zygomatic

Definition

[image]

HYOID

Hyoid bone (Hy-oyd _ BOHN). u-shaded bone at the base of the  tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles. The larynx (lar-inks), commonly called the "voice box," is a tube shaped structure comprised of a complex system of muscle, cartilage, and connective tissue. The larynx is suspended from the hyoid bone, which is significant in that it is the only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone. The framework of the larynx is composed of three unpaired and three paired cartilages. The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the unpaired cartilages, and resembles a shield in shape. The most anterior portion of this cartilage is very prominent in some men, and is commonly referred to as an "Adam's apple."

 

 

Term

036) A healthy nail plate is __________ in color: 

A) Pink

                           B) Whitish pink / pinkish white

C) White

D) Beige

Definition

Whitish pink/pink white

A normal, healthy nail is firm but flexible. The surface is shiny, smooth, and unspotted with no wavy ridges, pits, or splits. A healthy nail also is whitish and translucent in appearance, with the pinkish color of the nail bed showing through. In some races, the nail bed may have more yellow tones. The water content of the nail varies according to the relative humidity of the surrounding environment; in a humid environment, nails contain more water. A healthy nail may look dry and hard, but its water content is actually between 15 and 25 percent. The water content directly affects the nail’s flexibility. The lower the water content, the more rigid the nail becomes. Coating the plate with an oil-based nail conditioner or nail polish improves flexibility by reducing water loss. These products also prevent excessive water absorption.



Term

037) On the pH scale, water or H2O is:

A) 7/acid

B) 7/base

    C) 7/Alkaline

   D) 7/neutral

Definition

[image] 

7/neutral

Although pH, the abbreviation used for potential hydrogen,

A pH scale is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance. It has a range of 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is a neutral solution, a pH below 7 indicates an acidic solution, and a pH above 7 indicates an alkaline solution

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

038) How many more times Alkaline (Base) is a PH of 9 than that of 7:

A) 10

B) 20

C) 100

D) 1,000

Definition

[image] 

100

The term logarithm (LOG-ah-rhythm) means multiples of 10. Since the pH scale is a logarithmic scale, a change of one whole number represents a tenfold change in pH. This means, for example, that a pH of 8 is 10 times more alkaline than a pH of 7. A change of two whole numbers represents a change of 10 times 10, or a 100-fold change. So a pH of 9 is 100 times more alkaline than a pH of 7. Even a small change on the pH scale represents a large change in the pH.

 

 

Term

039) Emulsions containing particles large enough to be seen are called:

A) Keloids

B) Coloids

C) Suspensions

D) Rhytads

Definition

Colloids

Emulsion* A blend of two liquid where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other. It is not strictly a mixture, because the two liquids do not actually mix. The technical term for combinations of this kind is a colloid*. 

  An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. An example of an emulsion is hand lotion.

Term

040) Binders or gums are used to: 

A) Hold emulsions together

B) Hold solutions together

C) Hold suspentions together

D) All of the above

Definition

Hold Emulsions together

An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. An example of an emulsion is hand lotion.

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (a complex form of sugar). It is added to certain foods, such as salad dressings, to make them thicker. It is also added to cosmetics to keep the ingredients from separating. To make xanthan gum, workers deliberately add a kind of bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, to glucose or sucrose. They let the mixture ferment for a while, and then add isopropyl alcohol to separate the polysaccharide from the mixture. They dry the polysaccharide, grind it into a powder, and then add it to a liquid. The xanthan gum is then ready to use Gum arabic's mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins gives it the properties of a glue and binder which is edible by humans. Other substances have replaced it in situations where their toxicity is not an issue, as the proportions of the various chemicals in gum arabic vary widely and make it unpredictable. Still, it remains an important ingredient in soft drink syrups, "hard" gummy candies such as gumdrops, marshmallows, M&M's chocolate candies, and edible glitter, a very popular, modern cake-decorating staple. For artists, it is the traditional binder used in watercolor paint, in photography for gum printing, and it is used as a binder in pyrotechnic compositions. Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics also use the gum as a binder, emulsifying agent and a suspending or viscosity increasing agent.[1] Gum arabic has been used in the past as a wine fining agent

 

 

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

 

 

 

 

Term

041) How much blood is in the average, adult, human body:

A) 8-10 pints

B) 10-12 quarts

C) 6-8 quarts

D) 8-10 Quarts

Definition
8 to 10 pints
Term

042) Usually considered the most relaxing massage movement: 

A) Petrissage

B) Effleurage

C) Tapotement

D) Rofling

Definition

[image]

EFFLEURAGE

Effleurage (EF-loo-rahzh) is a light, continuous stroking movement applied in a slow, rhythmic manner with the fingers (digital effleurage) or the palms (palmar effleurage). No pressure is used. The palms work the large surfaces, and the cushions of the fingertips work the small surfaces, such as those around the eyes . Effleurage is frequently used on the forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulder, neck, chest, arms, and hands for its soothing and relaxing effects. Every massage should  begin and end with effleurage.When performing effleurage, hold your whole hand loosely, and keep your wrist and fingers flexible. Curve your fingers slightly to conform to the shape of the area being massaged, with just the cushions of the fingertips touching the skin. Do not use the ends of the fingertips. They are pointier than the cushions, and will cause the effleurage to be less smooth. Also, the free edges  of your fingernails may scratch the client’s skin.

 

 

Term

043) Usually considered the most stimulating massage movement:

A) Petrissage

B) Effleurage

C) Tapotement

D) Vibration

Definition

[image]

TAPOTEMENT

Tapotement (tah-POH-te-ment), also known as percussion (pur-KUSH-un), consists of short quick tapping, slapping, and hacking movements. This form of massage is the most stimulating and should be applied with care and discretion. Tapotement movements tone the muscles and impart a healthy glow to the area being massaged. In facial massage, use only light digital tapping. Bring the fingertips own against the skin in rapid succession. Your fingers must be flexible enough  to create an even force over the area being massaged. In slapping movements, keeping your wrists flexible allows your palms to come in contact with the skin in light, firm, and rapid slapping movements. One hand follows the other. With each slapping stroke, lift the flesh slightly.

 

 

Term

044) A "kneading" or "pinching" massage movement:

A) Petrissage

B) Effleurage

C) Tapotement

D) Rolfing

Definition

[image]

Pétrissage

(PEH-treh-sahj) is a kneading movement performed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing the tissue with a light, firm pressure. Pétrissage offers deeper stimulation to the muscles, nerves, and skin glands, and improves circulation. These kneading movements are usually limited to the back, shoulders, and arms. Although typically used on larger surface areas such as the arms and shoulders, digital kneading can also be used on the cheeks with light pinching movements. The pressure should be light but firm. When grasping and releasing the fleshy parts, the movements must be rhythmic and never jerky.

 

 

Term

045) Light, stoking movement, often used at the beginning of a massage:

A) Petrissage

B) Effleurage

C) Tapotement

D) Rolfing

Definition

[image]

EFFLEURAGE

Effleurage (EF-loo-rahzh) is a light, continuous stroking movement applied in a slow, rhythmic manner with the fingers (digital effleurage) or the palms (palmar effleurage). No pressure is used. The palms work the large surfaces, and the cushions of the fingertips work the small surfaces, such as those around the eyes . Effleurage is frequently used on the forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulder, neck, chest, arms, and hands for its soothing and relaxing effects. Every massage should begin and end with effleurage. When performing effleurage, hold your whole hand loosely, and keep your wrist and fingers flexible. Curve your fingers slightly to conform to the shape of the area being massaged, with just the cushions of the fingertips touching the skin. Do not use the ends of the fingertips. They are pointier than the cushions, and will cause the effleurage to be less smooth. Also, the free edges of your fingernails may scratch the client’s skin.

 

 

Term

046) Muscles that allow you to turn your palm inwards & downwards:

A) Supinators

B)  Pronators

C) Deltoids

D) Sternocleidomastoideus

Definition

 [image]

Pronator 

  Pronator (proh-NAy-tohr)pro·na·tor Muscle in the forearm that turns the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.

 

 

 

Term

047) Muscles that rotates the radius outwards and turns the palm upwards:

A) Supinators

B) Pronators

C) Deltoids

D) Sternocleidomastoideus

Definition

[image]

SUPINATOR

 Supinator (SOO-puh-nayt-ur). Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.

Term

048) The Pronator and Supinator are located:

A) In the wrist

B) In the palm of the hand

C) In the forearm

D) In the elbow

Definition

[image]

IN THE FOREARM

Term

049) Used after the decolorizing process to achieve pale/delicate colors:

 A) Semi-permanent hair-

B) Demi-permanent hair-colors

C) Toners

D) Monochromaric hair-colors

Definition

TONERS

Toners are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale, delicate colors. They require a double-process application. The first process is the application of the lightener; the second process is the application of the toner. No-lift demipermanent haircolors are often used as toners.

 

 

Term

050) Used on pre-lightened hair to achieve pale/delicate colors:

A) Semi-permanent hair-

B) Demi-permanent hair-colors

C) Toners

D) Monochromaric hair-colors

Definition

TONERS

Toners are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale, delicate colors. They require a double-process application. The first process is the application of the lightener; the second process is the application of the toner. No-lift demipermanent haircolors are often used as toners.

Term

051) Light / pastel colors applied to pre-lightened hair to deposit color and neutralize unwanted pigment remaining in the hair after pre-lightening:

A) Semi-permanent hair-

B) Demi-permanent hair-colors

C) Toners

D) Monochromaric hair-colors

Definition

TONERS

Toners are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale, delicate colors. They require a double-process application. The first process is the application of the lightener; the second process is the application of the toner. No-lift demipermanent haircolors are often used as toners.

Term

052) Which of the following does not require a P.D. (PREDISPOSITION TEST) Test: 

A) Analine Derivative

B) Toners

C) Temporary Colors / Certified colors

D) Demi-permanent Colors

Definition

Temporary Colors/Certified Colors



P.D. TEST PREDISPOSITION TEST also known as a patch test is given to a client 24 to 48 hours prior to any aniline derivative haircolor service. The patch test is given to determine whether or not your client has any allergies or sensitivity's to the color mixture that you will be using for the same hair-coloring service. It is recommended that the test be given either behind the ear or on the inside of your client's elbow. A negative skin test will show no sign's of inflammation and will indicate that the color may be safely applied to the client's hair. A positive result will show redness with a slight rash and itchiness. A client with these symptoms is allergic and should not receive the haircolor service that has been tested. Never use anilinederivative haircolor on your client's eyelashes or eyebrows, for this could cause serious problems or even blindness.

 

 

Term

053) To remove a yellow shade from the hair, use a/an _____________Toner:

A) Blue

B) Violet

C) Green

D) Orange

Definition

[image]

VIOLET

Complementary colors are Primary and secondary colors positioned directly opposite each other on the color wheel. Complementary colors include blue and orange, red and green, and yellow and violet. Complementary colors neutralize each other. When formulating haircolor, you will find that it is often your goal to emphasize or distract from skin tones or eye color. You may also want to neutralize or refine unwanted tones in the hair. Understanding complementary colors will help choose the correct tone to accomplish these goals. Here is an easy reference guide for color correction:

• When hair is green…use red to balance.

• When hair is red…use green to balance.

• When hair is blue…use orange to balance.

• When hair is orange…use blue to balance.

• When hair is yellow…use violet to balance.

• When hair is violet…use yellow to balance.

 

 

Term

054) To remove an orange shade from the hair, use a/an _________Toner:

A) Blue

B) Violet

C) Green

D) Lavender

Definition

[image]

BLUE

Complementary colors are Primary and secondary colors positioned directly opposite each other on the color wheel. Complementary colors include blue and orange, red and green, and yellow and violet. Complementary colors neutralize each other. When formulating haircolor, you will find that it is often your goal to emphasize or distract from skin tones or eye color. You may also want to neutralize or refine unwanted tones in the hair. Understanding complementary colors will help choose the correct tone to accomplish these goals. Here is an easy reference guide for color correction:

• When hair is green…use red to balance.

• When hair is red…use green to balance.

• When hair is blue…use orange to balance.

• When hair is orange…use blue to balance.

• When hair is yellow…use violet to balance.

• When hair is violet…use yellow to balance.

 

 

Term

055) If a client comes to a stylist with two inches of Canities regrowth, approximately how long has it been since her last hair-color service:

A) 1 month

B) 2 month

C) 3 month

D) 4 month

 

Definition

4 Months

CANTITIES: The technical term for gray hair

 

 

Term

056) To accurately predict hair-color results, preform a/an ____________test:

A) Elasticity test

B) Strand test

C) Match test

D) Porosity test

Definition

STRAND TEST

Preliminary Strand Test …...Once you have created a color formula for your client, try it out first on a small strand of hair. This preliminary strand test determines how the hair will react to the color formula and how long the formula should be left on the hair. The strand test is performed after the client is prepared for the coloring service

 

 

Term

057) Used to equalize the porosity of hair & deposits a base color in 1 application:

A) Toners

B) Drabbers

C) Intensifiers

D) Fillers

Definition

      FILLERS

Fillers are used to equalize porosity. Some fillers are ready to use as thee come from the manufacturer. Others are a mixture of haircolor  and conditioner that your instructor can help you prepare. There are two types of fillers: conditioner fillers and color fillers.

Conditioner fillers are used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair and equalize porosity so that the hair accepts the color evenly from strand to strand and from scalp to ends. They can be applied in a separate procedure or immediately prior to the color application.

Color fillers equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair. Color fillers are used on over porous, prelightened hair to equalize porosity and provide a uniform contributing pigment that complements the desired finished color. Demipermanent haircolor products are commonly used as color fillers. Color fillers accomplish the following goals:

• Deposit color to faded ends and hair shaft.

• Help repair hair to hold a final color by replacing missing building blocks.

• prevent streaking and dull appearance.

• prevent off-color results.

• produce more uniform, natural-looking color. 

• Produce uniform color when coloring prelightened hair back to its natural color.

 

 

Term

058) Used to fill in porous ends, avoids streaking and uneven color deposit:

A) Fillers

B) Toners

C) Intensifiers

D) Drabbers

Definition

      FILLERS

Fillers are used to equalize porosity. Some fillers are ready to use as thee come from the manufacturer. Others are a mixture of haircolor  and conditioner that your instructor can help you prepare. There are two types of fillers: conditioner fillers and color fillers.

Conditioner fillers are used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair and equalize porosity so that the hair accepts the color evenly from strand to strand and from scalp to ends. They can be applied in a separate procedure or immediately prior to the color application.

Color fillers equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair. Color fillers are used on over porous, prelightened hair to equalize porosity and provide a uniform contributing pigment that complements the desired finished color. Demipermanent haircolor products are commonly used as color fillers. Color fillers accomplish the following goals:

• Deposit color to faded ends and hair shaft.

• Help repair hair to hold a final color by replacing missing building blocks.

• prevent streaking and dull appearance.

• prevent off-color results.

• produce more uniform, natural-looking color. 

• Produce uniform color when coloring prelightened hair back to its natural color.

 

 

Term

059) Used in "tint-back" to prevent off color results and a dull appearance: 

A) Fillers

B) Toners

C) Intensifiers

D) Drabbers

Definition

      FILLERS

Fillers are used to equalize porosity. Some fillers are ready to use as thee come from the manufacturer. Others are a mixture of haircolor  and conditioner that your instructor can help you prepare. There are two types of fillers: conditioner fillers and color fillers.

Conditioner fillers are used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair and equalize porosity so that the hair accepts the color evenly from strand to strand and from scalp to ends. They can be applied in a separate procedure or immediately prior to the color application.

Color fillers equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair. Color fillers are used on over porous, prelightened hair to equalize porosity and provide a uniform contributing pigment that complements the desired finished color. Demipermanent haircolor products are commonly used as color fillers. Color fillers accomplish the following goals:

• Deposit color to faded ends and hair shaft.

• Help repair hair to hold a final color by replacing missing building blocks.

• prevent streaking and dull appearance.

• prevent off-color results.

• produce more uniform, natural-looking color. 

• Produce uniform color when coloring prelightened hair back to its natural color.

 

 

Term

060) When coloring predominantly gray hair, the resultant color will be:

A) The same shade as the shade applied

B) One shade lighter than shade applied

C) One shade darker than the shade applied

D) Usually slightly warmer than expected

Definition

[image]

ONE SHADE LIGHTER THAN THE SHADE APPLIED

Gray hair accepts the level of the color applied. However, level 8 or lighter colors may not give complete coverage because of the low concentration of dye found in these lighter colors. Formulations from level 7 and darker will provide better coverage, and can be used to create pastel and blond tones if desired. For those clients who are 80 to 100 percent gray, a haircolor within the blond range is generally more flattering than a darker shade. This lighter level of artificial color may be selected to give a warm or cool finished color, depending on the client’s skin tone, eye color, and personal preference. One factor to consider when coloring low percentages of gray or salt-and-pepper hair to a darker level is that color on color will always make a darker color. The addition of dark artificial pigment to the natural pigment percentage assumes that the gray hair is equally distributed throughout the entire head. If, for instance, the majority of gray hair is located in the front section of the head, that section would be considered to have more gray hair, with the back portion containing less gray hair. In that instance, you would have to determine what formulation would best suit the client. The gray hair around the face is what the client sees, so it may be wise to formulate based on the percentage of gray hair the client actually sees. The section of hair that surrounds the face is what influences the client’s self-image.

Milady 2012 pg 656-7 and table 21-5

 

 

Term

061) A clients hair is 80% gray and wants it returned to it's original medium brown color; the stylist should choose a color shade: 

A) One shade lighter than original color

B) The same shade as original color

C) Two shades darker than original color

D) One shade darker than the shade applied

 

 

Definition

[image]

ONE SHADE DARKER THAN ORIGIONAL COLOR

   Gray hair accepts the level of the color applied. However, level 8 or lighter colors may not give complete coverage because of the low concentration of dye found in these lighter colors. Formulations from level 7 and darker will provide better coverage, and can be used to create pastel and blond tones if desired. For those clients who are 80 to 100 percent gray, a haircolor within the blond range is generally more flattering than a darker shade. This lighter level of artificial color may be selected to give a warm or cool finished color, depending on the client’s skin tone, eye color, and personal preference. One factor to consider when coloring low percentages of gray or salt-and-pepper hair to a darker level is that color on color will always make a darker color. The addition of dark artificial pigment to the natural pigment percentage assumes that the gray hair is equally distributed throughout the entire head. If, for instance, the majority of gray hair is located in the front section of the head, that section would be considered to have more gray hair, with the back portion containing less gray hair. In that instance, you would have to determine what formulation would best suit the client. The gray hair around the face is what the client sees, so it may be wise to formulate based on the percentage of gray hair the client actually sees. The section of hair that surrounds the face is what influences the client’s self-image.

 

 

Milady 2012 pg 656-7 and table 21-5

Term

062) The chemical name for common household bleach:

A) Sodium Hydroxide

B) Sodium Bromate

C) Sodium Hypochlorite

D) Aniline Derivative

Definition

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Household bleach, 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (SOH-dee-um hy-puh-KLOR-ite), is an effective disinfectant and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in the salon. Using too much bleach can damage some metals and plastics, so be sure to read the label for safe use. Bleach can be corrosive to metals and plastics and can cause skin irritation and eye damage. To mix a bleach solution, always follow the manufacturer’s directions. Store the bleach solution away from heat and light. A fresh bleach solution should be mixed every twenty-four hours or when the solution has been contaminated. After mixing the bleach solution, date the container to ensure that the solution is not saved from one day to the next. Bleach can be irritating to the lungs, so be careful about inhaling the fumes. 

 

 

Term

063) FDA Defines Cosmetics as:

A) Articles intended for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease

 

B) "Articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body...for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance"

 

C) Articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body...for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance or for cure, treatment or prevention of disease.

D) Articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body...for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or  preventing of disease.

 

 

Definition

"articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body...for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance" [FD&C Act, sec. 201(i)].

Among the products included in this definition are skin moisturizers, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, cleansing shampoos, permanent waves, hair colors, and deodorants, as well as any substance intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product

Term

064) Agency mandating allergy tests prior to most hair-color services:

A) EPA

B) OSHA

C) FDA

D) A and B

Definition
FDA
Term

065) The strongest level of decontamination is:

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

 C) Disinfection 

D) Sterlization

Definition

                           STERILIZATION         

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:            STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

066) The level of decontamination required in the

salon / spa is:

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

 C) disinfection 

D) Sterlization

Definition

                           DISINFECTION        

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:            STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

067) Which Federal agency requires efficacy labels and registration numbers:

A) EPA

B) FDA

C) CDC

D) OSHA 

The term efficacy means "ability to produce results" or "effectiveness." so the efficacy labels on disinfectant products is to inform the user about what the product is "effective in fighting against."

Definition
EPA: The Environmental Protection Agency
Term

068) Which Federal agency regulates allergy tests:

A) EPA

B) FDA

C) CDC

D) OSHA

Definition
FDA
Term

069) Which Federal Agency requires an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and Universal Precautions:

A) EPA

B) FDA

C) CDC

D) OSHA

Definition

OSHA

Over 30 million American workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals in their workplaces. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is intended to ensure that these workers and their employers are informed of the identities of these hazardous chemicals, associated health and safety hazards, and appropriate protective measures. The HCS covers some 650,000 hazardous chemical products found in over three million establishments.

Term

070) Droplets of oil emulsified in water are referred to as: 

A) Water in oil emulsions

B) Oil in water suspensions

C) Oil in water emulsions

D) None of the above

Definition

[image]

oil in water emulsions

In an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, oil droplets are emulsified in water. The droplets of oil are surrounded by surfactant molecules with their lipophilic tails pointing in and their hydrophilic heads pointing out. Tiny oil droplets form the internal portion of each O/W emulsion because the oil is completely surrounded by water. Oil-in-water emulsions do not feel as greasy as water-in-oil emulsions because the oil is hidden and water forms the external portion of the emulsion.

 

 

Term

071) Droplets of water emulsified in oil are referred to as:

A) Water in oil emulsions

B) Oil in water suspensions

C) Oil in water emulsions

D) None of the above

 

Definition

[image]

water in oil emulsions

In a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, water droplets are emulsified in oil. The droplets of water are surrounded by surfactants with their hydrophilic heads pointing in and their lipophilic tails pointing out. Tiny droplets of water form the internal portion of a W/O emulsion because the water is completely surrounded by oil. Water-in-oil emulsions feel greasier than oil-in-water emulsions because the water is hidden and oil forms the external portion of the emulsion. Styling creams, cold creams, and foot balms are examples

 

 

Term

072) Showing no signs or symptoms of infection: 

A) Septic

B) Aseptic

C) Symptomatic

D) Asymtomatic

Definition

Asymptomatic

means that they show no symptoms or signs of infection. Bloodborne pathogens are more difficult to kill than germs that live outside the body.

Term

073) Showing signs or symptoms of infection:

A) Septic

B) Aseptic

C) Symptomatic

D) Asymtomatic

Definition

symptomatic

Showing signs or symptoms of infection

Term

074) Tools that are cleaned, disinfected, and stored in a sanitary manner are:

A) Septic

B) Aseptic

C) Symtomatic

D) Asymtomatic

Definition
Aseptic
Term

075) Unclean tools, not disinfected, and stored in a sanitary manner, are:

A) Septic

B) Aseptic

C) Symtomatic

D) Asymtomatic

Definition
Septic
Term

076) Conditions, results, or outcomes that can be seen (obvious) are said to be:

 A) Objectionable

B) Subjective

C) Non-quantifiable

D) Objective

Definition
objective
Term

077) Conditions, results, or outcomes that cannot be seen are said to be: 

 A) Objectionable

B) Subjective

C) Non-quantifiable

D) Objective

Definition
Subjective
Term

078) Tesla / High Frequency / Violet Ray Current is

contra-indicated for use on:

A) Acneac skin

B) Alopecia

C) Pregnant women

D) Thinning hair]

Definition

[image]

PREGNANT WOMAN

The Tesla high-frequency current

(TES-luh _ Hy-FREE-kwen-see _ KuR-ent), also known as violet ray, is a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments. Tesla current does not produce muscle contractions, and the effects can be either stimulating or soothing, depending on the method of application. The electrodes are made from either glass or metal, and only one electrode is used to perform a service The benefits of the Tesla high-frequency current are:

• Stimulates blood circulation

            • Increases elimination and absorption

• Increases skin metabolism

• Improves germicidal action

• Relieves skin congestion

As you learn more about facials and treatments, you will become familiar with the term contraindication, a condition that requires avoiding certain treatments, procedures, or products to prevent undesirable side effects.

 

 

Term

079) How many bones are located in the Metacarpus: 

A) 5

B) 8

c) 14

D) 26

Definition

[image]

 

5 

met·a·car·pus (mt-kärps) n. pl. met·a·car·pi (-p) 1. The part of the human hand that includes the five bones between the fingers and the wrist

Term

080) How many bones are in the carpus: 

A) 5

B) 8

C) 14

D) 26

Definition

[image] 

8 

car•pus (kär p s) n. pl. car•pi (-p ) 1. The group of eight bones forming the joint between the forearm and the hand. Also called wrist.

Term

081) Metacarpus is also known as the: 

A) Palm of the hand

B) Wrist

C) Knuckles

D) Fingers

Definition

[image] 

Palm of the hand 

met·a·car·pus (mt-kärps) n. pl. met·a·car·pi (-p) 1. The part of the human hand that includes the five bones between the fingers and the wrist

Term

082) The carpus is also known as the: 

A) Palm of the hand

B) Wrist

C) Knuckles

D) Fingers

Definition

[image] 

Wrist 

car·pus (kärps) n. pl. car·pi (-p) The group of eight bones forming the joint between the forearm and the hand. Also called wrist.

Term

083) In The language of hair cutting, the term

"Fringe" refers to:

A) The Bang

B) The hair between the Occipital bone and the nape

C) The Apex

D) The portion above the Parietal Ridge

Definition

[image]

The Bangs

Term

084) Which Federal Agency regulates cosmetics:

A) FDA

B) Environmental Protection Agency

C) Center for Disease Control

D) OSHA

Definition
FDA
Term

085) What is the Quats mixing ratio and the suggested immersion time: 

A) 1:1,0000 and 5 minutes

B) 1:1,5000 and 10 minutes

C) 1:1,0000 and over the weekend

D) 1:1,0000 and 10 minutes

Definition


1:1000 and 10 minutes 

Quaternary ammonium compounds

(KWAT-ur-nayr-ree uh-MOH-neeum KAHM-powndz), also known as quats (KWATZ), are disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon. The most advanced type of these formulations is called multiple quats. Multiple quats contain sophisticated blends of quats that work together to dramatically increase the effectiveness of these disinfectants. Quat solutions usually disinfect implements in ten minutes. These formulas may contain anti-rust ingredients, so leaving tools in the solution for prolonged periods can cause dulling or damage. They should be removed from the solution after the specified period, rinsed (if required), dried, and stored  in a clean, covered container.

 

 

Term

086) What are the stages of hair growth from beginning to end?

A) Anagen, Catagen, Halogen

B) telagen, Catagen, Anagen

C) Catagen, Anagen, Telegen

D) Anagen, Catagen, Telagen

 

Definition

[image]

 

Anagen,Catagen, Telagen

Hair growth occurs in cycles. Each complete cycle has three phases that are repeated over and over again throughout life. The three phases are anagen, catagen, and telogen

 During the anagen phase (AN-uh-jen _ FAYZ), also known as growth phase, new hair is produced. New cells are actively manufactured in the hair follicle. During this phase, hair cells are produced faster than any other normal cell in the human body. The average growth of healthy scalp hair is about ½ (0.5) inch (1.25 centimeters) per month. The rate of growth varies on different parts of the body, between sexes, and with age. Scalp hair grows faster on women than on men. Scalp hair grows rapidly between the ages of 15 and 30, but slows down sharply after the age of 50. About 90 percent of scalp hair is growing in the Anagen phase at any time. The anagen phase generally lasts from three to five years, but in some cases, it can last as long as 10 years. The longer the anagen cycle is, the longer the hair is able to grow. This is why some people can only grow their hair down to their shoulders, while others can grow it down to the floor!

The catagen phase (KAT-uh-jen _ FAYZ) is the brief transition period between the growth and resting phases of a hair follicle. It signals the end of the anagen phase. During the catagen phase, the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla. The hair bulb disappears and the shrunken root end forms a rounded club. Less than one percent of scalp hair is in the catagen phase at any time. The catagen phase is very short, lasting from one to two weeks.

  The telogen phase (TEL-uh-jen _ FAYZ), also known as resting phase, is the final phase in the hair cycle and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed. The hair is either shed during the telogen phase or remains in place until the next anagen phase, when the new hair growing in pushes it out. About 10 percent of scalp hair is in the telogen phase at any one time. The telogen phase lasts for approximately three to six months. As soon as the telogen phase ends, the hair returns to the anagen phase and begins the entire cycle again. On average, the entire growth cycle repeats itself once every four to five years

 

 

Term

087) A scale to measure the skin type's ability to tolerate sun exposer: 

A) Wood's Scale

B) Logarithmic Scale

C) Fitzpatrick Scale

D) Richter Scale

Definition

FITZPATRICK SCALE

The Fitzpatrick Skin Type is a skin classification system first developed in 1975 by Thomas Fitzpatrick, MD, of Harvard Medical School. His skin classification system and its adaptations are familiar to dermatologists. In order to determine your Fitzpatrick Skin Type, our quiz measures two components (genetic disposition and reaction to sun exposure). Types range from the very fair (Type I) to the very dark (Type VI

Term

088) What should you do if a blood spill occurs: 

A) Stop service

B) Continue service

C) Decide whose fault it is

D) Look for someone to blame

Definition
Stop service
Term

089) A black light that enables the practitioner using it to observe problems not visible to the naked eye, including dry patches, oily areas, pigmentation problems, and bacteria-among others:

A) Black Light

B) Wood's Lamp

C) HalogenLamp

D) Fitzpatrick Lamp

Definition

WOOD'S LAMP

The Woods Lamp exposes conditions that are not visible to the naked eye!

Term

090) Pediculosis is the medical term for this problem: 

A) Sabies

B) Itch Mite

C) Lice

D) Ringworm

Definition

[image]

LICE

Pediculosis capitis (puh-dik-yuh-LOH-sis _ KAP-ih-tis) is the infestation of the hair and scalp with head lice. As these parasites feed on the scalp, it begins to itch. If the scalp is scratched, it can cause an infection. Head lice are transmitted from one person to another by contact with infested hats, combs, brushes, and other personal articles. You can distinguish head lice from dandruff flakes by looking closely at the scalp with a magnifying glass.

 

 

 

Term

091) Tinea is the medical term for this problem:

A) Sabies

B) Itch Mite

C) Lice

D) Ringworm

Definition

RINGWORM

Tinea (TIN-ee-uh) is the technical term for ringworm. It is characterized by itching, scales, and, sometimes, painful circular lesions. Several patches may be present at one time. Tinea is caused by a fungal organism and not a parasite, as the old-fashioned term ringworm seems to suggest. All forms of tinea are contagious and can be easily transmitted from one person to another. Infected skin scales or hairs that contain the fungi are known to spread the disease. Bathtubs, swimming pools, and uncleaned personal articles are also sources of transmission. Practicing approved cleaning and disinfection procedures will help prevent the spread of this disease in the salon.

"Athletes Foot, Jock Itch and Ringworm". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2012-07-25. "Ringworm is a skin rash caused by a fungus; it is not caused by a worm. (Fungus is a plant-like structure.) Health care providers call ringworm "tinea." "Athlete's foot" (tinea pedis) and "jock itch" (tinea cruris) are types of ringworm."

 

 

Term

092) Tinea Capitis is the medical term for this problem: 

A) Ringworm

B) Athlete's Feet

C) Ringworm of the feet

D) Ringworm or the head

Definition

[image]

RINGWORD OF THE HEAD

Tinea capitis is another type of fungal infection characterized by red papules, or spots, at the opening of the hair follicles The patches spread, and the hair becomes brittle. Hair often breaks off, leaving only a stump, or the hair may be shed from the enlarged open follicle.

Term

093) Common disorder of the Sebaceous Glands resulting in extremely oily skin, often characterized by the excessive secretion of sebum, and may result in a red itchy rash with white flakes:

A) Rosacea

B) Sebacccous cyst

C) Psoriasis

D) Seborrhea/Seborrheic Dermatitus

Definition

SEBORRHEA/SEBORRHEIC DERMATITUS

Seborrheic dermatitis (seb-oh-REE-ick derm-ah-TIE-tus) is a skin condition caused by an inflammation of the sebaceous glands. It is often characterized by redness, dry or oily scaling, crusting, and/or itchiness  The red, flaky skin often appears in the eyebrows and beard, in the scalp and hairline, at the middle of the forehead, and along the sides of the nose. Mild flares of seborrheic dermatitis are sometimes treated with cortisone creams. Seborrheic dermatitis is a medical condition, but it can be helped in the salon with the application of non-fatty skin care products designed for sensitive skin. Severe cases should be referred to a dermatologist, who will often prescribe topical antifungal medications.

 

 

Term

094) The study of the "functions" of the human body is known as: 

A) Anatomy

B) Histology

C) Physiology

D) Pathology

Definition

PHYSIOLOGY

Physiology (fiz-ih-OL-oh-jee) is the study of the functions and activities performed by the body’s structures. The ending -ology means study of.

Physiology (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/; Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Physiology is closely related to anatomy; anatomy is the study of form, and physiology is the study of function. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.

 

 

Term

095) The study of the "structures" of human body that can be seen with the naked eye is known as:

A) Anatomy

B) Histology

C) Physiology

D) Pathology

Definition

ANATOMY

Anatomy (ah-NAT-ah-mee) is the study of the human body structures that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized; it is the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.

Anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of living things including their systems, organs, and tissues. It includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry which deals with the functions of those parts. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, size, position, structure, blood supply and enervation of an organ such as the liver while a physiologist will be interested in the production of bile and the role of the liver in nutrition and regulating body functions

 

 

Term

096) The study of structures of the human body, that can not be seen with the naked eye is known as: 

A) Anatomy

B) Histology

C) Physiology

D) Pathology

Definition

HISTOLOGY

Histology (his-TAHl-uh-jee), also known as microscopic anatomy (mi-kroh-SKAHp-ik ah-NAT-ah-mee), is the study of tiny structures found in living tissues. 

 

Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός "tissue", and -λογία -logia) is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

 

 

Term

097) Often referred to as "Microscopic Anatomy":

A) Anatomy

B) Histology

C) Physiology

D) Pathology

Definition

HISTOLOGY

Histology (his-TAHl-uh-jee), also known as microscopic anatomy (mi-kroh-SKAHp-ik ah-NAT-ah-mee), is the study of tiny structures found in living tissues. 

 

Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός "tissue", and -λογία -logia) is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

 

 

Term

098) Before tweezing the brows, apply a/an ___________to open the pores:

A) Mild Alkaline cleanser

B) Mild astringent

C) Mild Acid cleanser

D) None of the above

 

Definition
A MILD ALKALINE CLEANSER
Term

099) What is the purpose of applying a non-irritating antiseptic after tweezing: 

A) Kills Bacteria

B) Contracts the skin/pores

C) Helps prevent infection

D) B and C

Definition
CONTRACTS THE SKIN/PORES and HELPS PREVENT INFECTION
Term

100) Before tweezing the brows, you should apply: 

A) An acid product to open the pores

B) A mild alkaline product to close the pores

C) A Mild acid to close the pores

D) A Mild alkaline product to open the pores

Definition
A MILD ALKALINE PRODUCT TO OPEN THE PORES
Term

101) Immediately after tweezing the brows, alcohol is often applied because: 

A) It is acid and will close the pores

B) It is alkaline and will close the pores

C) It is acid and will open the pores

D) It is alkaline and will open the pores

Definition
THE ACID WILL CLOSE THE PORES
Term

102) What stage of hair growth is know as the "Growth Active Stage" 

A) Anagen

B) Halogen

C) Catagen

D)Telagen

Definition

Anagen

Anagen,Catagen, Telagen

Hair growth occurs in cycles. Each complete cycle has three phases that are repeated over and over again throughout life. The three phases are anagen, catagen, and telogen

 During the anagen phase (AN-uh-jen _ FAYZ), also known as growth phase, new hair is produced. New cells are actively manufactured in the hair follicle. During this phase, hair cells are produced faster than any other normal cell in the human body. The average growth of healthy scalp hair is about ½ (0.5) inch (1.25 centimeters) per month. The rate of growth varies on different parts of the body, between sexes, and with age. Scalp hair grows faster on women than on men. Scalp hair grows rapidly between the ages of 15 and 30, but slows down sharply after the age of 50. About 90 percent of scalp hair is growing in the Anagen phase at any time. The anagen phase generally lasts from three to five years, but in some cases, it can last as long as 10 years. The longer the anagen cycle is, the longer the hair is able to grow. This is why some people can only grow their hair down to their shoulders, while others can grow it down to the floor!

The catagen phase (KAT-uh-jen _ FAYZ) is the brief transition period between the growth and resting phases of a hair follicle. It signals the end of the anagen phase. During the catagen phase, the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla. The hair bulb disappears and the shrunken root end forms a rounded club. Less than one percent of scalp hair is in the catagen phase at any time. The catagen phase is very short, lasting from one to two weeks.

  The telogen phase (TEL-uh-jen _ FAYZ), also known as resting phase, is the final phase in the hair cycle and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed. The hair is either shed during the telogen phase or remains in place until the next anagen phase, when the new hair growing in pushes it out. About 10 percent of scalp hair is in the telogen phase at any one time. The telogen phase lasts for approximately three to six months. As soon as the telogen phase ends, the hair returns to the anagen phase and begins the entire cycle again. On average, the entire growth cycle repeats itself once every four to five years

 

Term

103) If two or more products can not be mixed together they are said to be: 

A) Miscible

B) Immiscible

C) Amphoteric

D) Nitrazenes

Definition

 Immiscible

Immiscible (im-IS-uh-bul) liquids are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions. Water and oil are examples of immiscible liquids. These substances can be mixed together, but they will separate when left sitting still. When immiscible liquids are combined, they form suspensions

Term

104) The stage of growth in which hair if falling out referred to as: 

A) Anagen/Growth

B) Catagen/Transitional

C) Telagen/Resting

D) All of the above

Definition

                                             ???

The hair is either shed during the telogen phase or remains in place until the next anagen phase, when the new hair 

The telogen phase (TEL-uh-jen FAYZ), also known as resting phase, is the final phase in the hair cycle and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed. The hair is either shed during the telogen phase or remains in place until the next anagen phase, when the new hair growing in pushes it out. About 10 percent of scalp hair is in the telogen phase at any one time. The telogen phase lasts for approximately three to six months. As soon as the telogen phase ends, the hair returns to the anagen phase and begins the entire cycle again. On average, the entire growth cycle repeats itself once every four to five years

 The catagen phase (KAT-uh-jen FAYZ) is the brief transition period between the growth and resting phases of a hair follicle. It signals the end of the anagen phase. During the catagen phase, the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla. The hair bulb disappears and the shrunken root end forms a rounded club. Less than one percent of scalp hair is in the catagen phase at any time. The catagen phase is very short, lasting from one to two weeks.

During the anagen phase (AN-uh-jen FAYZ), also known as growth phase, new hair is produced. New cells are actively manufactured in the hair follicle. During this phase, hair cells are produced faster than any other normal cell in the human body. The average growth of healthy scalp hair is about ½ (0.5) inch (1.25 centimeters) per month. The rate of growth varies on different parts of the body, between sexes, and with age. Scalp hair grows faster on women than on men. Scalp hair grows rapidly between the ages of 15 and 30, but slows down sharply after the age of 50.

 About 90 percent of scalp hair is growing in the anagen phase at any time. The anagen phase generally lasts from three to five years, but in some cases, it can last as long as 10 years. The longer the anagen cycle is, the longer the hair is able to grow. This is why some people can only grow their hair down to their shoulders, while others can grow it down to the floor

 

Milady 2012 pg. 227-228

 

Term

105) Noticeable thin, white nail plates, much more flexible than normal: 

A) Agnail

B) Beau's Lines

C) Leuconychia

D) Eggshell nails

Definition

[image]

EGGSHELL NAILS

hap•a•lo•nych•i•a (hap'ă-lō-nik'ē-ă), Thinning of nails resulting in bending and breaking of the free edge, with longitudinal fissures

Term

106) Visible depressions across the width of the nail, often the result of illness:

A) Agnail

B) Beau's Lines

C) Leuconychia

D) Eggshell nails

Definition

[image]

 BEAU'S LINES

Beau's line (bz) n. Transverse depressions on the fingernails occurring after trauma such as severe febrile disease, malnutrition, or coronary occlusion

Term

107) Condition where the skin around the nail bed splits, usually caused by dry skin: 

A) Agnail

B) Beau's Lines

C) Leuconychia

D) Eggshell nails

Definition

[image]

AGNAIL

ag•nail (gnl) n. 1. A hangnail. 2. A painful sore or swelling around a fingernail or toenail

Term

108) Agnail is best treated with:

A) Pumice powder

B) Weekly manicures

 C) Hot oil manicures

D) Visit to a physician

Definition

[image]

HOT OIL MANICURES

AGNAIL..........ag•nail (gnl) n. 1. A hangnail. 2. A painful sore or swelling around a fingernail or toenail

Term

109) White spots on the nail-usually the result of injury or trauma to the nail: 

A) Leucoderma

B) Beaus Lines  

C) Leuconychia

D) Psudomonas Aeroginosa

Definition

[image]

Leukonychia spots (loo-koh-NIK-ee-ah _ SPATS), also known as white spots, are whitish discolorations of the nails, usually caused by minor injury to the nail matrix. They are not a symptom of any vitamin or mineral deficiency. It is a myth that these result from calcium or zinc deficiency. They appear frequently in the nails but do not indicate disease. As the nail continues to grow, the white spots eventually disappear 

 

 

Term

110) Yellow / green spots on the nail-the result of a bacterial infection. 

A) Agnail

B) Beau's Lines

C) Leuconychia

D) Psudomonas Aeroginosa

Definition

[image]

PSUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA

In the past, discolorations of the nail plate (especially those between the plate and nail enhancements) were incorrectly referred to as molds. This term should not be used when referring to infections of the fingernails or toenails. The discoloration is usually a bacterial infection such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of several common bacteria that can cause a nail infection, or Staphylococcus aureus. These naturally occurring skin bacteria can grow rapidly to cause an infection if conditions are correct for growth

Term

111) Part of the nail assembly rich with blood vessels & nerve endings: 

A) Nail Plate

B) Nail Bed

C) Nail body

D) Free edge

Definition

[image]

NAIL BED

The nail bed is the portion of living skin that supports the nail plate as it grows toward the free edge. Because it is richly supplied with blood vessels, the nail bed has a pinkish appearance from the lunula to the area just before the free edge of the nail. The nail bed contains many nerves, and is attached to the nail plate by a thin layer of tissue called the bed epithelium (BED _  ep-ih-THEE-lee-um). The bed epithelium helps guide the nail plate along the nail bed as it grows

Term

112) Ringworm of the nail, usually indicated by either long yellow streaks within the nail plate itself, or whitish patches on the nail body:

A) Tinea

B) Tinea Pedis

C) Tinea Manus

D) Tinea Ungium

Definition

[image]

TINEA UNGIUM

Onychomycosis (also known as "dermatophytic onychomycosis," or "tinea unguium" means fungal infection of the nail. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about a half of all nail abnormalities. This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. The prevalence of onychomycosis is about 6–8% in the adult population.

Onychomycosis (ahn-ih-koh-my-KOH-sis) is a fungal infection of the natural nail plate. A common form is whitish patches that can be scraped off the surface of the nail. Another common form of this infection shows long whitish or pale yellowish streaks within the nail plate. A third common form causes the free edge of the nail to crumble and may even affect the entire plate. These types of infection often invade the free edge of the nail and spread toward the matrix.

 

 

Term

113) Congenital hypo-pigmentation, or absence of melanin pigment in the body; including the hair, skin, and eyes:

A) Vitiligo

B) Leukoderma

C) Lentigines

D) Albinism

Definition

ALBINISM

Albinism (AL-bi-niz-em) is congenital hypopigmentation, or absence of melanin pigment in the body, including the skin, hair, and eyes. Hair is silky white. The skin is pinkish white and will not tan. The eyes are pink, and the skin is sensitive to light and ages early.

Term

114) A hereditary condition that causes hypo-pigmented spots and blotches on the skin that may be related to thyroid conditions: 

A) Vitiligo

B) Leukoderma

C) Lentigines

D) Albinism

Definition

[image]

VITILIGO
Vitiligo (vi-til-EYE-goh) is a hereditary condition that causes hypopigmented spots and splotches on the skin that may be related to thyroid conditions. Skin with vitiligo must be protected from overexposure to the sun
Term

115) Type of bacteria that lives on dead matter and does not produce disease:

A) Parasites/Pathogenic Bacteria

B) Saprophytes/non-pathogenic

C) Fungi

D) MRSA/Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccus Aureus

Definition

SAPROPHYTES / NONPATHOGENIC

sap·ro·phyte (spr-ft) n. An organism, especially a fungus or bacterium that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter. 

Parasites: Parasites are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as a host), while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism. They must have a host to survive. Parasites can live on or inside of humans and animals. They also can be found in food, on plants and trees, and in water. Humans can acquire internal parasites by eating fish or meat that has not been properly cooked. External parasites that affect humans on or in the skin include ticks, fleas, and mites. Head lice are a type of parasite responsible for contagious diseases and conditions (Figure 5–9). One condition caused by an infestation of head lice is called pediculosis capitis (puh-dik-yuh-LOH-sis KAP-ih-tus). Scabies (SKAY-beez) is also a contagious skin disease and is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin contagious diseases, such as ringworm

There are thousands of different kinds of bacteria that fall into two primary types: 

pathogenic and nonpathogenic.

nonpathogenic (non-path-uh-JEN-ik); in other words, they are harmless organisms that may perform useful functions. They are safe to come in contact with since they do not cause disease or harm. For example, nonpathogenic bacteria are used to make yogurt, cheese, and some medicines. In the human body, nonpathogenic bacteria help the body break down food and protect against infection. They also stimulate the immune system.

Pathogenic (path-uh-JEN-ik) bacteria are harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body. Salons and schools must maintain strict standards for cleaning and disinfecting at all times to prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms.

 

 

Term

116) Type of bacteria that lives on live matter and does produce disease: 

A) Parasites / Pathogenic Bacteria

B) Saprophytes / non-pathogenic

C) Fungi

D) MRSA/Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccus Aureus

Definition

PARASITES / PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

 

Parasites: Parasites are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as a host), while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism. They must have a host to survive. Parasites can live on or inside of humans and animals. They also can be found in food, on plants and trees, and in water. Humans can acquire internal parasites by eating fish or meat that has not been properly cooked. External parasites that affect humans on or in the skin include ticks, fleas, and mites. Head lice are a type of parasite responsible for contagious diseases and conditions (Figure 5–9). One condition caused by an infestation of head lice is called pediculosis capitis (puh-dik-yuh-LOH-sis KAP-ih-tus). Scabies (SKAY-beez) is also a contagious skin disease and is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin contagious diseases, such as ringworm

sap·ro·phyte (spr-ft) n. An organism, especially a fungus or bacterium that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter. 

There are thousands of different kinds of bacteria that fall into two primary types: 

pathogenic and nonpathogenic.

Pathogenic (path-uh-JEN-ik) bacteria are harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body. Salons and schools must maintain strict standards for cleaning and disinfecting at all times to prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms.

nonpathogenic (non-path-uh-JEN-ik); in other words, they are harmless organisms that may perform useful functions. They are safe to come in contact with since they do not cause disease or harm. For example, nonpathogenic bacteria are used to make yogurt, cheese, and some medicines. In the human body, nonpathogenic bacteria help the body break down food and protect against infection. They also stimulate the immune system.

 

 

 

Term

117) A type of infectious staph bacteria highly resistant to conventional treatments such as antibiotics: 

A) Parasites/Pathogenic Bacteria

B) Saprophytes/non-pathogenic

C) Fungi

D) MRSA/Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccus Aureus

Definition


MRSA/METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCCUS AUREUS

(MRSA) 

(METH-eh-sill-en _ ree-ZIST-ent _ staf-uh-loh-KOK-us _ OR-ee-us) is  type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics  called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections. Staph is responsible for food poisoning and a wide Range of diseases, including toxic shock syndrome. Some types of infectious staph bacteria are highly resistant to conventional treatments such as antibiotics. An example is the staph infection called methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (METH-eh-sill-en _ ree-ZIST-ent _ staf-uh-loh-KOK _ us OR-ee-us). Historically, MRSA occurred most frequently among persons with weakened immune systems or among people who had undergone medical procedures. Today, it has become more common in otherwise healthy people. Clients who appear completely healthy may bring this organism into the salon where it can infect others. Some people carry the bacteria and are not even aware of their infection, but the people they infect may show more obvious symptoms. MRSA initially appears as a skin infection, such as pimples, rashes, and boils that can be difficult to cure. Without proper treatment, the infection becomes systemic and can have devastating consequences that can result in death.

Term

118) Pus forming bacteria that causes abscesses, pustules, and boils they grow like clusters of grapes: 

A) Streptococci

B) Staphylococci

C) Bacilli

D) Diplococci

Definition

[image]

STAPHYLOCICCI

 Staphylococci (staf-uh-loh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils . Some types of staphylococci (or staph as many call it) may not cause infections in healthy humans.

Term

119) Emulsions are held together by the addition of: 

A) Binders

B) Gums

C) Emulsifiers

D) all of the above

Definition

Binders, Gums, Emulsifiers


Emulsion* A blend of two liquid where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other. It is not strictly a mixture, because the two liquids do not actually mix. The technical term for combinations of this kind is a colloid*. 

  An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. An example of an emulsion is hand lotion.

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

 

D. Chocolate Milk 

 

Hold Emulsions together

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (a complex form of sugar). It is added to certain foods, such as salad dressings, to make them thicker. It is also added to cosmetics to keep the ingredients from separating. To make xanthan gum, workers deliberately add a kind of bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, to glucose or sucrose. They let the mixture ferment for a while, and then add isopropyl alcohol to separate the polysaccharide from the mixture. They dry the polysaccharide, grind it into a powder, then add it to a liquid. The xanthan gum is then ready to use Gum arabic's mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins gives it the properties of a glue and binder which is edible by humans. Other substances have replaced it in situations where their toxicity is not an issue, as the proportions of the various chemicals in gum arabic vary widely and make it unpredictable. Still, it remains an important ingredient in soft drink syrups, "hard" gummy candies such as gumdrops, marshmallows, M&M's chocolate candies, and edible glitter, a very popular, modern cake-decorating staple. For artists, it is the traditional binder used in watercolor paint, in photography for gum printing, and it is used as a binder in pyrotechnic compositions. Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics also use the gum as a binder, emulsifying agent and a suspending or viscosity increasing agent.[1] Gum arabic has been used in the past as a wine fining agent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

120) What is the least common skin type: 

A) Normal

B) Dry

C) Oily

D) Combination

Definition
NORMAL
Term

121) What is the MOST common skin type:

A) Normal

B) Dry

C) Oily

D) Combination

Definition
COMBINATION
Term

122) What is the color of the Tesla Current that should be used on Acneac skin: 

A) Green

B) Orange

C) Violet

D) Blue

Definition

VIOLET

The Tesla high-frequency current (TES-luh _ Hy-FREE-kwen-see _ KuR-ent) also known as violet ray, is a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments. Tesla current does not produce muscle contractions, and the effects can be either stimulating or soothing, depending on the method of application. The electrodes are made from either glass or metal, and only one electrode is used to perform a service The benefits of the Tesla high-frequency current are:

• Stimulates blood circulation

 • increases elimination and absorption

• increases skin metabolism

• improves germicidal action

• Relieves skin congestion 

As you learn more about facials and treatments, you will become familiar with the term contraindication, a condition that requires avoiding certain treatments, procedures, or products to prevent undesirable side effects.

  

 

Term

123) Tesla Current is often referred to as: 

A) Actinic Ray

B) Blue Ray

C) Violet Ray

D) Cold Ray

Definition

Violet Ray 

The Tesla high-frequency current (TES-luh _ Hy-FREE-kwen-see _ kuR-ent) also known as violet ray, is a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments. Tesla current does not produce muscle contractions, and the effects can be either stimulating or soothing, depending on the method of application. The electrodes are made from either glass or metal, and only one electrode is used to perform a service. The benefits of the Tesla high-frequency current are:

• Stimulates blood circulation

• increases elimination and absorption

• Increases skin metabolism

• improves germicidal action

• Relieves skin congestion  

As you learn more about facials and treatments, you will become familiar with the term contraindication, a condition that requires avoiding certain treatments, procedures, or products to prevent undesirable side effects.

Term

124) The largest artery of the human body: 

A) Carotid

B) Jugular

C) Vagus

D) Aorta

Definition

AORTA

The largest artery in the body is the aorta (ay-ORT-h).

Arteries (AR-tuh-rees). Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the arterioles. 

Term

125) In a process known as____________, the Sebaceous Glands produce Sebum/oil to lubricate the skin; thus keeping it soft and pliable: 

A) Secretion

B) Excretion

C) protection

D) Absortion

Definition


SECRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. these are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands

Sebaceous glands (sih-BAY-shus GLANZ), also known as oil glands, are connected to the hair follicles. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete sebum (SEE-bum), a fatty or oily substance that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair. With the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly in the face and scalp, where they are larger.

 

 

Term

126) In the process known as _____________, the Sudoriferous Glands produce H2O; the water loss through perspiration takes salt and other chemicals with it and helps regulate body temperature:

 A) Absorption

B) Secretion

C) Excretion

D) Protection

Definition

EXCRETION

The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin. The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree _  KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit). The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

 

 

Term

127) The term "Alopecia" refers to: 

A) Athletes Feet

B) Excessive sweating

C) Lice

D) Baldness/hair-loss

Definition

BALDNESS/HAIR-LOSS

ALOPECIA  Abnormal hair loss is called alopecia (al-oh-PEE-shah). The three most common types of abnormal hair loss are androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, and postpartum alopecia.

Term

128) Alopecia resulting from constant tension on the hair (ex: extensions): 

A) Post-partum

B) Traction

C) Androgenic

D) Areata

Definition

TRACTION

Traction alopecia.....This condition is particularly prevalent among African-American women and children. It begins with scalp irritation and excessive flakiness, and eventually leads to hair loss, particularly around the hairline. Wearing excessively tight braids (tight enough to pull the hair or impede circulation to the scalp) over a prolonged period of time can lead to permanent hair loss. Keep in mind that while braids are beautiful, they must be without excessive tension to avoid long-term follicle damage.

 

 

Term

129) This type of Alopecia often occures after the completion of a pregnancy:

A) Post-partum

B) Traction

C) Androgenic

D) Areata

Definition

POST-PARTUM

Postpartum alopecia (POHST-pahr-tum al-oh-PEE-shah) is temporary hair loss experienced at the end of a pregnancy. For some women, pregnancy seems to disrupt the normal growth cycle of hair. There is very little normal hair loss during pregnancy, but then there is sudden and excessive shedding from three to nine months after delivery. Although this is usually very traumatic to the new mother, the growth cycle generally returns to normal within one year after the baby is delivered

Term

130) Genetic type of Alopecia most often occurring in men:

A) Post-partum

B) Traction

C) Androgenic

D) Senilis

Definition

ANDROGENIC

Androgenic alopecia (an-druh-JEN-ik _ al-oh-PEE-shah), also known as androgenetic alopecia (an-druh-je-NETik  _ al-oh-PEE-shah), is hair loss that is characterized by miniaturization of  terminal hair that is converted into vellus hair. It is usually the result of genetics, age, or hormonal changes that cause terminal hair to  miniaturize (In men, androgenic alopecia is known as male pattern baldness and usually progresses to the familiar horseshoe-shaped fringe of hair. In women it shows up as generalized thinning over the entire crown area. Androgenic alopecia affects millions of men and women in the United States.

 

 

Term

131) Type of Alopecia with unknown causes, thought to be genetic, and usually resulting in total hair loss over the entire body: 

A) Androgenic

B) Senilis

C) Universalis

D) Totalis

Definition

UNIVERSALIS

Alopecia areata (al-oh-PEE-shah _air-ee-AH-tah) is an autoimmune disorder that causes the affected hair follicles to be mistakenly attacked by a person’s own immune system. White blood cells stop the hair growth during the anagen phase. It is a highly unpredictable skin disease that affects an estimated 5 million people in the United States alone. This hair disorder usually begins with one or more small, round, smooth bald patches on the scalp and can progress to total scalp hair loss, known as alopecia totalis (al-oh-PEE-shah _  toh-TAHL-us), or complete body hair loss, called alopecia universalis            (al-oh-PEE-shah _ yoo-nih-vur-SAA-lis). Alopecia areata occurs in males and females of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds and most often begins in childhood. The scalp usually shows no obvious signs of inflammation, skin disorder, or disease.

 

 

Term

132) Body scrubs are contra-indicated for facial used because: 

A) They are too costly

B) Their abrasive base is to smooth

C) They are rough & abrasive

D) They are rough,abrasive, and the particles are too large

Definition
They are rough, abrasive, and the particles are too large
Term

133) Cellular division is referred to as_________, the new cells are known as____________: 

A)  Mitosis, daughter cells

B) Asexual reproduction, Langershans Cells

C) Desquamation

D) Mitosis,Langershans Cells

Definition

MITOSIS, DAUGHTER CELLS

Cells have the ability to reproduce, thus providing new cells for the growth and replacement of worn or injured ones. Mitosis          (my-TOH-sis) is the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues that occurs when the cell divides into two identical cells called daughter cells. Two small structures near the nucleus called centrioles (SEN-tree-olz) move to each side during the mitosis process to help divide the cell. As long as conditions are favorable, the cell will grow and reproduce. Favorable conditions include an adequate supply of food, oxygen, and water; suitable temperatures; and the ability to eliminate waste products. If conditions become unfavorable, the cell will become impaired or may die. Unfavorable conditions include toxins (poisons), disease, and injury

 

 

Term

134) When waxing, in what direction should the wax be applied: 

A) In the direction of hair-growth

 

B) Opposite the direction of the hair growth

 

C) With hard wax it does not matter, with soft wax it should be applied in the direction of hair-growth

 

D) With soft wax it does not matter, with hard wax it should be applied in the direction of hair growth

Definition

IN THE DIRECTION OF HAIR GROWS

 

Term

135) When waxing, the material removal strip should be applied: 

A) In the direction of hair-growth

 

B) Opposite the direction of the hair growth

 

C) With hard wax it does not matter, with soft wax it should be applied in the direction of hair-growth

 

D) With soft wax it does not matter, with hard wax it should be applied in the direction of hair growth

Definition
IN THE DIRECTION OF HAIR GROWTH
Term

136) When waxing, in what direction should the material strips be removed: 

A) In the direction of hair-growth

 

B) Opposite the direction of the hair growth

 

C) With hard wax it does not matter, with soft wax it should be applied in the direction of hair-growth

 

D) With soft wax it does not matter, with hard wax it should be applied in the direction of hair growth

Definition
IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF HAIR GROWTH
Term

137) When tweezing, in what direction should the hair/s be removed: 

A) In the direction of hair-growth

 

B) Opposite the direction of the hair growth

 

C) Parrallel to the skin and in the direction of the hair growth

 

D) Perpendicular to the skin and in the direction of hair-growth

Definition
PARALLEL TO THE SKIN AND IN THE DIRECTION OF HAIR GROWTH
Term

138) Any substance, although usually a caustic alkali preparation, used for the temporary removal of superfluous body hair by dissolving it at the surface level of the skin: 

A) Epilation

B) Depilation

C) Depilatory

D) All of the above

Definition

DEPILITORY

A depilatory is a substance, usually a caustic alkali preparation, used for the temporary removal of sudperfluous hair by dissolving it at the skin’s surface. It contains detergents to strip the sebum from the hair and adhesives to hold the chemicals to the hair shaft for the five to ten minutes necessary to remove the hair. During the application time, the hair expands and the disulfide bonds break. Finally, such chemicals as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, thioglycolic acid, or calcium thioglycolate destroy the disulfide bonds. These chemicals turn the hair into a soft, jelly-like mass that can be scraped from the skin. Although depilatories are not commonly used in salons, you should be familiar with them in the event that your clients have used them.

 

 

Term

139) Anything used to remove the hair from the bottom of the hair follicle: 

A) Epilation

B) Depilation

C) Depilatory

D) Epilators

Definition

EPILATORS

An epilator removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle. Wax is a commonly used epilator, applied in either hot or cold form as recommended by the manufacturer. Both products are made primarily of resins and beeswax. Cold wax is somewhat thicker and does not require fabric strips for removal. Because waxing removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle, the hair takes longer to grow back. The time between waxings is generally four to six weeks.

 

 

Term

140) Depilation is a process used to: 

A) Remove the hair from below the surface of the skin

 

B) Remove the hair from the surface of the skin


C) Remove the hair the bottom of the follicle

 

Definition

REMOVE THE HAIR FROM THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN 

A depilatory is a substance, usually a caustic alkali preparation, used for the temporary removal of sudperfluous hair by dissolving it at the skin’s surface. it contains detergents to strip the sebum from the hair and adhesives to hold the chemicals to the hair shaft for the five to ten minutes necessary to remove the hair. During the application time, the hair expands and the disulfide bonds break. Finally, such chemicals as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, thioglycolic acid, or calcium  thioglycolate destroy the disulfide bonds. These chemicals turn the hair into a soft, jelly-like mass that can be scraped from the skin. Although depilatories are not commonly used in salons, you should be familiar with them in the event that your clients have used them

Term

141) Epilation is a process used to:  

A) Remove the hair from below the surface of the skin

 

B) Remove the hair from the surface of the skin

 

C) Remove the hair from the bottom of the follicle

 

D) Both A and C are correct

Definition

REMOVE THE HAIR FROM BELOW THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN

REMOVE THE HAIR FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE FOLLICLE


EPILATORS

An epilator removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle. Wax is a commonly used epilator, applied in either hot or cold form as recommended by the manufacturer. Both products are made primarily of resins and beeswax. Cold wax is somewhat thicker and does not require fabric strips for removal. Because waxing removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle, the hair takes longer to grow back. The time between waxings is generally four to six weeks.

 

 

Term

142) Shaving is an example of: 

A) Epilation

B) Depilation

C) Epilator

D) None of the above

Definition

DEPILATION

dep·i·late (dp-lt) tr.v. dep·i·lat·ed, dep·i·lat·ing, dep·i·lates To remove hair from (the body).

Term

143) Examples of epilation includes: 

A) Waxing

B) Tweezing

C) Sugaring

D) All of the above

Definition

Waxing -Tweezing- Sugaring

EPILATORS

An epilator removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle. Wax is a commonly used epilator, applied in either hot or cold form as recommended by the manufacturer. Both products are made primarily of resins and beeswax. Cold wax is somewhat thicker and does not require fabric strips for removal. Because waxing removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle, the hair takes longer to grow back. The time between waxings is generally four to six weeks.

Sugaring is another temporary hair removal method that involves the use of a thick, sugar-based paste and is especially appropriate for more sensitive skin types. Sugaring is becoming more popular and produces the same results as hot or cold wax. One advantage with sugaring is the hair can be removed even if it is only ⅛-inch long. Removing the residue from the skin is simple, as it dissolves with warm water

.

 

 

Term

144) The process used to soften & emulsify greasy deposits (oil) and comedones in the hair follicle: 

A) Dr. Jacquet Movement

B) Desquamation

C) Desincrustation

D) Iontophotesis

Definition

[image]

Desincrustation

(des-inkrus-TAy-shun) is a form of anaphoresis and is a process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in the hair follicles. Desincrustation is frequently used to treat acne, Milia (small, white crust-like pimples), and comedones (blackheads and whiteheads).

 

 

Term

145) The thin bones located at the front of the inner wall of the orbits: 

A) Zygomatic

B) Radious

C) Lacrimal

D) Ulna

Definition

[image]

LACRIMAL

The lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit. It has two surfaces and four borders.

Term

146) As a general rule with extensions, stay _____________away from the sides, nape,part, and front hairline: 

A) 1/2 inch 

B) 1 inch 

C) 2.5 centimeters 

D) B and C

Definition
1 inch 2.5 centimeters
Term

147) Colors comprised of primarily red are considered: 

A) Pure

B) Primary

C) Warm

D) Cool

Definition

[image]

 

WARM

Warm tones can look lighter than their actual level. These tones are golden, orange, red, and yellow. Some haircolors use words such as auburn, amber, copper, strawberry, and bronze, which may be a better way to discuss and describe haircolor with the client. Cool tones can look deeper than their actual level. These tones are blue, green, and violet. Some describe cool tones as smoke or ash to the client. Natural tones are warm tones and are described as sandy or tan. 

RED, BLUE, AND YELLOW

Primary colors are Pure or fundamental colors (red, yellow, and blue) that cannot be created by combining other colors. All colors are created from these three primaries. Colors with a predominance of blue are cool colors, where as colors with a predominance of red and/or yellow are warm colors Blue is the strongest of the primary colors and is the only cool primary color. In addition to coolness, blue can also bring depth or darkness to and color. Red is the medium primary color. Adding red to blue-based colors will make them appear lighter; adding red to yellow colors will cause them to appear darker. Yellow is the weakest of the primary colors. When you add yellow to other colors, the resulting color will look lighter and brighter. When all three primary colors are present in equal proportions, the resulting color is brown. It is helpful to think of hair color in terms of different combinations of primary colors. Natural brown, for example, has the primary colors in the following proportions: blue-B, red-RR, and yellow-yyy. Black and white can’t be made by mixing colors together. They get excluded from basic color theory. White can be used to lighten a color. Black can be used to deepen a color. 

 

 

Term

148) A "U" shaped bone found in the throat: 

A) Lacrimal

B) Hyoid

C) Patella

D) Talus

Definition

[image]

 

Hyoid bone (Hy-oyd BOHN). u-shaded bone at the base of the  tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles. The larynx (lar-inks), commonly called the "voice box," is a tube shaped structure comprised of a complex system of muscle, cartilage, and connective tissue. The larynx is suspended from the hyoid bone, which is significant in that it is the only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone. The framework of the larynx is composed of three unpaired and three paired cartilages. The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the unpaired cartilages, and resembles a shield in shape. The most anterior portion of this cartilage is very prominent in some men, and is commonly referred to as an "Adam's apple."

Term

149) Name given a skin sore or abrasion produced by scraping or scratching: 

A) Fissure

B) Excoriation

C) Cictrix

D) Ulcer

Definition

EXCORIATION

excoriation /ex·co·ri·a·tion/ (eks-ko″re-a´shun) any superficial loss of substance, as that produced on the skin by scratching.

Term

150) This is the technical term for boil; it is an acute, localized, staphylococci bacterial infection, of the hair follicle, it is limited to specific area, causes constant pain, and produces pustule: 

A) Wheal

B) Favos Vulgaris

C) Carbuncle

D) Furuncle

Definition

[image]

FURUNCLE

 A furuncle (FYOO-rung-kul) is the technical term for a boil, an acute, localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain. It is limited to a specific area and produces a pustule perforated by a hair.

• A carbuncle (KAHR-bung-kul) is an inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci. It is similar to a furuncle but is larger. A boil, also known as a furuncle is a skin abscess, a painful bump that forms under the skin - it is full of puss. A carbuncle is collection of boils that develop under the skin. When bacteria infect hair follicles they can swell up and turn into boils. Such abscesses respond to hot packs and lancing, rather than antibiotics, experts say. Antibiotics may be used if the infection spreads into a deeper layer of skin. A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is most commonly caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue.[1] Individual boils clustered together are called carbuncles.[2] Most human infections are caused by coagulase-positive S. aureus strains, notable for the bacteria's ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus

 

 

Term

151) Similar to a ___________but larger, a________________is an inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by the staphylococci bacteria: 

A) Vesicle,Wheal

B) Furuncle, Favosa Vulgaris

C) Furuncle, Caruncle

D) Caruncle, Furuncle

Definition

FURUNCLE,CARUNCLE

furuncle (FYOO-rung-kul) is the technical term for a boil, an acute, localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain. It is limited to a specific area and produces a pustule perforated by a hair.

• A carbuncle (KAHR-bung-kul) is an inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci. It is similar to a furuncle but is larger. A boil, also known as a furuncle is a skin abscess, a painful bump that forms under the skin - it is full of puss. A carbuncle is collection of boils that develop under the skin. When bacteria infect hair follicles they can swell up and turn into boils. Such abscesses respond to hot packs and lancing, rather than antibiotics, experts say. Antibiotics may be used if the infection spreads into a deeper layer of skin. A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is most commonly caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue.[1] Individual boils clustered together are called carbuncles.[2] Most human infections are caused by coagulase-positive S. aureus strains, notable for the bacteria's ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus

 

 

Term

152) A protein that makes human skin thick and healthy: 

A) Fiboblast

B) Elastin

C) Collagen

D) Spiny Cells

Definition

COLLAGEN

Collagen (KAHL-uh-jen) is a fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength. This fiber makes up a large percentage of the dermis and provides structural support by holding together all the structures found in this layer. When collagen fibers are healthy, they allow the skin to stretch and contract as needed. If collagen fibers become weakened due to age, lack of moisture, environmental damage such as UV light or frequent changes in weight, the skin will begin to lose its tone and suppleness. Wrinkles and sagging are often the result of collagen fibers losing their strength

 

 

Term

153) level of decontamination you should use on hands prior to meeting a client: 

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

Definition

SANITATION

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons.

 

 

 

Term

154) A contagious animal parasite often called the "itch Mite":   

A) Tinea

B) Pediculosis

C) Scabies

D) Langerhans Cells

Definition

SCABIES

Scabies (SKAY-beez) is also a contagious skin disease and is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin. Contagious diseases and conditions caused by parasites should only be treated by a doctor. 

Term

155) A highly contagious animal parasite often called lice: 

A) Sabies

B) Tine Prdis

C) Pediculosis

D) Langerhans Cells

Definition

[image]

PEDICULOSIS

Pediculosis capitis (puh-dik-yuh-LOH-sis _ KAP-ih-tis) is the infestation of the hair and scalp with head lice. As these parasites feed on the scalp, it begins to itch. If the scalp is scratched, it can cause an infection. Head lice are transmitted from one person to another by contact with infested hats, combs, brushes, and other personal articles. You can distinguish head lice from dandruff flakes by looking closely at the scalp with a magnifying glass.

 

Term

156) A highly contagious animal parasite often called "Ringworm":

A) Scabies

B) Lice

C) Pediculosis

D) Tinea

Definition


TINEA

Tinea (TIN-ee-uh) is the technical term for ringworm. It is characterized by itching, scales, and, sometimes, painful circular lesions. Several patches may be present at one time. Tinea is caused by a fungal organism and not a parasite, as the old-fashioned term ringworm seems to suggest. All forms of tinea are contagious and can be easily transmitted from one person to another. Infected skin scales or hairs that contain the fungi are known to spread the disease. Bathtubs, swimming pools, and uncleaned personal articles are also sources of transmission. Practicing approved cleaning and disinfection procedures will help prevent the spread of this disease in the salon.

 

 

 

Term

157) When Ringworm appears on the feet, it is refered to as:

A) Athletes feet

B) Tinea Capitis

C)  Tinea Pedis

D)A and C

Definition

[image]

TINEA PEDIS

Athletes feet

Tinea pedis (TIN-ee-uh PED-us) is the medical term for fungal infections of the feet. These infections can occur on the bottoms of the feet and often appear as a red itchy rash in the spaces between the toes, most often between the fourth and fifth toe. There is sometimes a small degree of scaling of the skin. Clients with this condition should be advised to wash their feet every day and dry them completely. This will make it difficult for the infection to live or grow. Advise clients to wear cotton socks and change them at least twice per day. They should also avoid wearing the same pair of shoes each day, since shoes can take up to twenty-four hours to completely dry. Over-the-counter antifungal powders can help keep feet dry and may help speed healing.

"Athletes Foot, Jock Itch and Ringworm". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2012-07-25. "Ringworm is a skin rash caused by a fungus; it is not caused by a worm. (Fungus is a plant-like structure.) Health care providers call ringworm "tinea." "Athlete's foot" (tinea pedis) and "jock itch" (tinea cruris) are types of ringworm."

 

 

Term

158) The skin / tissue under the free edge of the nail: 

A) Perionychia 

B) Hyponychia / Hyponychium 

C) Epionychia / Epionychium 

D) Pteryhium

Definition

[image]

                                  HYPONYCHIA/HYPONYCHIUM

The hyponychium (hy-poh-NIK-eeum) is the slightly thickened layer of skin that lies between the fingertip and the free edge of the natural nail plate. It forms a protective barrier that prevents microorganisms from invading and infecting the nail bed.

 

Term

159) Forward growth of the cuticle, the result of poor circulation / dehydration: 

A) Paronchia 

B) Hyponychia / Hyponychium 

A) Agnail 

D) Pterygium

Definition

[image]

PTERYGUIM

Nail Pteryguim (teh-RIJ-ee-um) is an abnormal condition that occurs when the skin is stretched by the nail plate. This disorder is usually caused by serious injury, such as burns, or an adverse skin reaction to chemical nail enhancement products. The terms cuticle and pterygium do not designate the same thing, and they should never be used interchangeably. Nail pterygium is abnormal and is caused by damage to the eponychium or hyponychium. Do not treat nail pterygium and never push the extension of skin back with an instrument. Doing so will cause more injury to the tissues and will make the condition worse. The gentle massage of conditioning oils or creams into the affected area may be beneficial. If this condition becomes irritated, painful, or shows signs of infection, recommend that the client see a physician for examination and proper treatment

 

 

Term

160) Skin / tissue surrounding the nail on three sides: 

A) Perionychia / Perionychium

 

B) Hyponychis / Hypoponychium

 

C) Pterygium

 

D) Paronychia / Paronychium

Definition

[image]

PERIONYCHIA / PERIONYCHIUM

the epidermis forming the border around a fingernail or toenail

Term

161) Infection of the skin / tissue surrounding the nail on three sides:

A)  Perionychia / Perionychium 

B) Hyponychis / Hypoponychium 

C) Pterygium 

D) Paronychia / Paronychium

Definition

[image]

Paronychia 

Paronychia (payr-uh-NIK-ee-uh) is a bacterial inflammation of the tissues surrounding the nail . Redness, pus, and swelling are usually seen in the skin fold adjacent to the nail plate. Individuals who work with their hands in water, such as dishwashers and bartenders, or who must wash their hands continually, such as health-care workers and food processors, are more susceptible because their hands are often very dry or chapped from excessive exposure to water, detergents, and harsh soaps. This makes them much more likely to develop infections.

Term

162) Refers to "nail-biting" or "bitten nails":

A) Onychoposis

B) Onychocryptosis

C) Onychophagy

D) Onychophosis

 

Definition

[image]

Onychophagy

(ahn-ih-koh-FAY-jee), also known as bitten nails, is the result of a habit of chewing the nail or the hardened, damaged skin surrounding the nail plate. Advise clients that frequent manicures and care of the hardened eponychium can often help them overcome this habit, at the same time improving the health and appearance of the hands. Sometimes, the application of nail enhancements can beautify deformed nails and discourage the client from biting the nails. However, the bitten, damaged skin should not be treated by a cosmetologist. If the skin is broken or infected, no services can be provided until the area is healed.

 

 

 

Term

163) Often the result of cutting the corners of the nail too short, or the wearing of overly tight shoes-commonly referred to as ingrown nail:

A) Onychoposis

B) Onychocryptosis

C) Onychophagy

D) Onychophosis

 

 

Definition

[image]

ONYCHOCRYPTOSIS

Onychocryptosis (ahn-ih-koh-krip-TOH-sis), also known as ingrown nails, can affect either the fingers or toes  In this condition, the nail grows into the sides of the living tissue around thenail. The movements of walking can press the soft tissues up against the nail plate, contributing to the problem. If the tissue around the nail plate is not infected, or if the nail is not imbedded in the flesh, you can carefully trim the corner of the nail in a curved shape to relieve the pressure on the nail groove. However, if there is any redness, pain, swelling, or irritation, you may not provide any services. Cosmetologists are not allowed to service ingrown nails. Refer the client to a physician.

 

 

Term

164) This is the lowest level of decontamination:

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

 

Definition

SANITATION

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons.

 

 

 

 

Term

165)  This is the highest level of decontamination:

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

 

Definition

Sterilization


From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

STERILIZATION

 Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Sanitation 

 

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment 

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons.

 

 

 

 

Term

166) This is the level of decontamination required in medical settings:

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

 

Definition

Sterilization


From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

STERILIZATION 

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Sanitation 

 

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment 

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons.

 

 

 

 

Term

167) This is the level of decontamination required in salons / spa: 

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

Definition

DISINFECTION


From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

Disinfection  

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment 

STERILIZATION 

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Sanitation 

 

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

 

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons.

 

 

 

 

Term

168) This is the level of decontamination required to destroy bacterial spores: 

A) Antiseptic

B) Sanitation

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

Definition

STERILIZATION

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

STERILIZATION 

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Sanitation 

 

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

 

 Disinfection  

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment 

 

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons.

 

 

 

 

Term

169) This is the most pathogenic bacteria, it is Rod Shaped:

A) Cocci

B) Spirilla

C) Bacilli

D) Diplococci

Definition

[image]

BACILLI

Bacilli (bah-SIL-ee) are short rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most  common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw) typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria

Bacilli  refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria. It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens like Bacillus anthracis. (the cause of anthrax)

 

 

Term

170) The type of pathogenic bacteria causing pneumonia:

A) Bacilli

B) Diplococci

C) Cocci

D) Spirilla

 

Definition

[image]

Diplococci

Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia.

Any of various encapsulated bacteria (as Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia) that usually occur in pairs and that were formerly grouped in a single taxon (genus Diplococcus) but are now all assigned to other general

A diplococcus (plural diplococci) is a round bacterium (a coccus) that typically occurs in the form of two joined cells. Examples are gram-negative Neisseria sp., and gram-positiveStreptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp..

 Its name comes from diplo, meaning double, and coccus, meaning berry

 

 

 

Term

171) Spiral shaped pathogenic bacteria, causes syphilis:

A) Staphlococci

B) Streptocicci

C) Bacilli

D) Spirilla

Definition

[image]

SPIRILLA

Spirilla (spy-RIL-ah) are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria. They are subdivided into subgroups, such as treponema papillida, which causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease  (STD), and borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease 

Spirillum in microbiology refers to a bacterium with a cell body that twists like a spiral. It is the third distinct bacterial cell shape type besides coccus and bacillus cells Syphilis, rat bite fever, and Sodoku are just three diseases that Spirilla bacteria can cause. Usually, the diseases that this bacterium causes are considerably serious

 

 

Term

172) Pathogenic bacteria with a round shape: 

A) Cocci

B) Diplococci

C) Streptococci

D) Staphlococci

Definition

[image]

COCCI

 Cocci (KOK-sy) are round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups

Coccus (plural cocci or coccuses) can be used to describe any bacterium that has a spherical shape. It is one of the three distinct types of bacteria shapes, the other two being bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirillum (spiral-shaped) cells. Coccus is an English loanword of aNeolatin noun, which in turn stems from the Greek masculine noun kokkos (κόκκος) meaning "berry"

Term

173) Watts measure electrical current usasge per:

A) Second

B) Minute

C) Cycle

D) None of the above

 

Definition

PER SECOND

A watt (WAHT), abbreviated W, is a unit that measures how much electric energy is being used in one second. A 40-watt light bulb uses 40 watts of energy per second.

 

 

Term

174) The most common skin cancer is referred to as:

A) Basal Cell Carcinoma

B) Squamous Cell Carcinoma

C) Malignant Melanoma

D) Erthema Carcinoma

Definition

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Skin cancer falls into two major groups: Nonmelanoma and melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Term

175) The least dangerous skin cancer is referred to as:

A) Basal Cell Carcinoma

B) Squamous Cell Carinoma

C) Malignant Melanoma

D) Erthema Carcinoma

Definition

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Skin cancer falls into two major groups: Nonmelanoma and melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Term

176) The most dangerous and least common skin cancer is referred to as:

A) Basal Cell Carinoma

B) Squamous Cell Carinoma

C) Malignant Melanoma

D) Erthema Carinoma

Definition

MALIGNANT MELANOMA

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer. Malignant means that the cells are positive for cancer. Therefore, malignant melanoma means your cells are positive for cancer.

 

Term

177) Type of pin curl that will create minimum / least volume in a set:

A) Half Stem

B) On Base

C) No Stem

D) Full Stem

Definition

[image]

Full Stem 

 The full-stem curl allows for the greatest mobility. The curl is placed completely off the base. The base may be a square, triangular, half-moon, or rectangular section, depending on the area of the head in which the full-stem curls are used. It gives as much freedom as the length of the stem will permit. If it is exaggerated, the hair near the scalp will be flat and almost straight. It is used to give the hair a strong, definite direction

 

 

Term

178) Type of bacteria that may appear alone (singular) or in pairs: 

A) Bacilla

B) Diplococci

C) Cocci

D) Sprilla

Definition

[image]

COCCI

 Cocci (KOK-sy) are round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups

Coccus (plural cocci or coccuses) can be used to describe any bacterium that has a spherical shape. It is one of the three distinct types of bacteria shapes, the other two being bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirillum (spiral-shaped) cells. Coccus is an English loanword of aNeolatin noun, which in turn stems from the Greek masculine noun kokkos (κόκκος) meaning "berry"

Term

179) The process used to soften and emulsify greasy (oil) and comedones (blackheads) in the hair follicle/s:

A) Extractions

B) Disquamation

C) Gommage

D) Disincrustation

Definition

[image]

Desincrustation

(des-inkrus-TAy-shun) is a form of anaphoresis and is a process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in the hair follicles. Desincrustation is frequently used to treat acne, milia (small, white cRust-like pimples), and comedones (blackheads and whiteheads

 

 

Term

180) The tecnical term for dandruff is:

A) Pityriasis

B) Pityriasis Capitis Simplex

C) Pityriasis Steatoids

D) Pityriasis versicolor

Definition

PITYRIASIS

Pityriasis (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus) is the technical term for dandruff, which is characterized by the excessive production and accumulation of skin cells. Instead of the normal, one-at-a-time shedding of tiny individual skin cells, dandruff is the shedding of an accumulation of large visible clumps of skin cells. Although the cause of dandruff has been debated for over 150 years, current research confirms that dandruff is the result of a fungus called malassezia (mal-uh-SEEZ-ee-uh). Malassezia is a naturally occurring fungus that is present on all human skin but causes the symptoms of dandruff when it grows out of control. Some individuals are also more susceptible to malassezia’s irritating effects. Factors such as stress, age, hormones, and poor hygiene can cause the fungus to multiply and dandruff symptoms to worsen.

 Pityriasis capitis simplex (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus _  KAP-ih-tis _  SIM-pleks) is the technical term for classic dandruff that is characterized by scalp irritation, large flakes, and an itchy scalp. The scales may attach to the scalp in masses, scatter loosely in the hair, or fall to the shoulders. Regular use of antidandruff shampoos, conditioners, and topical  lotions are the best treatment.

 Pityriasis steatoides (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus _ stee-uh-TOY-deez) is a more severe case of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scales, mixed with sebum, that stick to the scalp in crusts. 

 

 

Term

181) Greasy / Waxy dandruff is known as:

A) Pityriasis

B) Pityriasis Capitis Simplex

C) Pityriasis Steatoidsis

D) Pityriasis Versicolor

Definition

Pityriasis Steatoidsis

Pityriasis steatoides (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus _ stee-uh-TOY-deez) is a more severe case of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scales, mixed with sebum, that stick to the scalp in crusts. 

Pityriasis (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus) is the technical term for dandruff, which is characterized by the excessive production and accumulation of skin cells. Instead of the normal, one-at-a-time shedding of tiny individual skin cells, dandruff is the shedding of an accumulation of large visible clumps of skin cells. Although the cause of dandruff has been debated for over 150 years, current research confirms that dandruff is the result of a fungus called malassezia (mal-uh-SEEZ-ee-uh). Malassezia is a naturally occurring fungus that is present on all human skin but causes the symptoms of dandruff when it grows out of control. Some individuals are also more susceptible to malassezia’s irritating effects. Factors such as stress, age, hormones, and poor hygiene can cause the fungus to multiply and dandruff symptoms to worsen.

 Pityriasis capitis simplex                                                            (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus _  KAP-ih-tis _  SIM-pleks) is the technical term for classic dandruff that is characterized by scalp irritation, large flakes, and an itchy scalp. The scales may attach to the scalp in masses, scatter loosely in the hair, or fall to the shoulders. Regular use of antidandruff shampoos, conditioners, and topical  lotions are the best treatment.

 

Term

182) Dry / Flaky dandruff is known as:

A) Pityriasis

B) Pityriasis Capitis Simplex

C) Pityriasis Steatoidsis

D) Pityriasis Versicolor

Definition

Pityriasis capitis simplex 

 (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus _ KAP-ih-tis _  SIM-pleks) is the technical term for classic dandruff that is characterized by scalp irritation, large flakes, and an itchy scalp. The scales may attach to the scalp in masses, scatter loosely in the hair, or fall to the shoulders. Regular use of antidandruff shampoos, conditioners, and topical lotions are the best treatment. 

Pityriasis (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus) is the technical term for dandruff, which is characterized by the excessive production and accumulation of skin cells. Instead of the normal, one-at-a-time shedding of tiny individual skin cells, dandruff is the shedding of an accumulation of large visible clumps of skin cells. Although the cause of dandruff has been debated for over 150 years, current research confirms that dandruff is the result of a fungus called malassezia (mal-uh-SEEZ-ee-uh). Malassezia is a naturally occurring fungus that is present on all human skin but causes the symptoms of dandruff when it grows out of control. Some individuals are also more susceptible to malassezia’s irritating effects. Factors such as stress, age, hormones, and poor hygiene can cause the fungus to multiply and dandruff symptoms to worsen. 

  Pityriasis steatoides 

(pit-ih-RY-uh-sus stee-uh-TOY-deez) is a more severe case of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scales, mixed with sebum, that stick to the scalp in crusts. 

Term

183) Prior to perming / chemically relaxing the hair, perform a/an:

A) Elasticity Test

B) Match Test

C) Strand Test

D) Porosity test

Definition

Elasticity test and porosity test

Perform an analysis of the hair and scalp. Perform tests for  porosity and elasticity. Remember, this procedure requires that the hair and scalp be completely dry.

Term

184) To help predict the outcome of a hair-color, prior to coloring a client's hair, the stylist should perform this test:

A) P.D. Test

B) Match Test

C) Strand Test

D) Porosity Test

Definition
STRAND TEST
Term

185) To test the hair's ability to absorb moisture (including waving lotion, relaxer, hair color, and all other liquids), preform a /an _______________ Test: 

A) Elasticity Test

B) Match Test

C) Strand Test

D) Porosity Test

Definition

POROSITY TEST

Hair porosity is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. The degree of porosity is directly related to the condition of the cuticle layer. Healthy hair with a compact cuticle layer is naturally resistant to being penetrated by moisture and is referred to as hydrophobic (hy-druh-FOHB-ik). Porous hair has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs moisture and is called hydrophilic (hy-druh-FIL-ik).Hair with low porosity is considered resistant. Chemical services performed on hair with low porosity require a more alkaline solution than those on hair with high porosity. Alkaline solutions raise the cuticle and permit uniform saturation and processing on resistant hair.

Hair with average porosity is considered to be normal hair. Chemical services performed on this type of hair will usually process as expected, according to the texture.

 

 

Term

186) Test used to determine client's possible allergic reation to hair color:

A) P.D. Test

B) Match Test

C) Strand Test

D) Porosity Test

Definition

P.D TEST

When working with haircolor, you must determine whether your clients have and allergies or sensitivities to the mixture. To identify an allergy in a client, the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires that a patch test be given twenty-four to forty-eight hours prior to each application of an aniline haircolor. A patch test, also known as predisposition test, is a test for identifying a possible allergy in a client. The color used for the match test must be the same as the color that will be used for the haircolor service

Term

187) Another term for "Alkaline" on the 

PH Scale is: 

A) Base

B) Acid

C) Alkali

D) A and C

Definition

BASE AND ALKALI

A pH scale is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance. It has a range of 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is a neutral solution, a pH below 7 indicates an acidic solution, and a pH above 7 indicates an alkaline solution 

All alkalis (AL-kuh-lyz), also known as bases, owe their chemical reactivity to the hydroxide ion. Alkalis are compounds that react with acids to form salts. Alkalis have a pH above 7.0. They feel slippery and soapy on the skin. Alkalis soften and swell hair, skin, the cuticle on the nail plate, and calloused skin.

Sodium hydroxide, commonly known as lye, is a very strong alkali used in chemical hair relaxers, callous softeners, and drain cleaners. These products must be used according to manufacturer’s instructions, and it is very important that you do not let the products touch or sit on the skin as they may cause injury to or a burning sensation on the skin. Sodium hydroxide products may be especially dangerous if they get into the eyes, so always wear safety glasses to avoid eye contact.

All acids owe their chemical reactivity to the hydrogen ion. Acids have a pH below 7.0. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) (al-FAH HY-drok-see AS-udz), derived from plants (mostly fruit), are examples of acids often used in salons to exfoliate the skin and to help adjust the pH of a lotion or cream. Acids contract and harden hair. One such acid is thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLY-kuh-lik AS-ud), a colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions

 

 

Term

188) One row of Pin-Curls going clockwise and an adjacent row of Pin-Curls going counter clockwise:

A) Ridge Curls

B) Cascade Curls

C) Double Curls

D) Skip Waves

Definition

[image]

SKIP WAVES

  Skip waves are two rows of ridge curls, usually on the side of the head. Skip waves create a strong wave pattern with well-defined lines between the waves. This technique represents a combination of finger waving and pin curls 

Term

189) A row of Pin-Curls going in one direction next to a row of Pin-Curls going opposite direction:

A) Ridge Curls

B) Cascade Curls

C) Double Curls

D) Skip Waves

Definition

[image]

SKIP WAVES

Skip waves are two rows of ridge curls, usually on the side of the head. Skip waves create a strong wave pattern with well-defined lines between the waves. This technique represents a combination of finger waving and pin curls 

 

Term

190) This tecnique represents a combination of finger-waves and Pin-curls:

A) Skip Waves

B) Ridge Curls

C) Cascade Waves

D) C-Shaping

Definition

[image]

RIDGE CURL

Ridge curls are pin curls placed immediately behind or below a ridge to form a wave 

Term

191) Two rows of Ridge curls on the side of the head: 

A) Ridge Curls

B) Cascade Curls

C) Doulble Curls

D) Skip Waves

 

Definition

[image]

SKIP WAVES

 Skip waves are two rows of ridge curls, usually on the side of the head. Skip waves create a strong wave pattern with well-defined lines between the waves. This technique represents a combination of finger waving and pin curls 

Term

192) Often referred to as the "foundation of hair styling"

A) Skip Waves

B) Ridge Curls

C) Wet Set

D) Finger Waves 

Definition

 

FINGER WAVES

Term

193) Type if Pin-Curl base used to avoid splits, especially at the hairline: 

A) Triangle

B) Square

C) Rectangular

D) Cresent

 

Definition

[image]

TRIANGLE BASE

Triangular base pin curls are recommended along the front or facial hairline to prevent breaks or splits in the finished hairstyle. The triangular base allows a portion of the hair from each curl to overlap the next, and this style can be combed into a wave without splits

Term

194) Another name for the "Stem" of the Pin-Curl is the:

A) Indention

B) Arc

C) Circle

D) Both B and C

Definition

ARC 

The Arc / stem is the section of the pin curl between the base and first arc (turn) of the circle that gives the curl its direction and movement, the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the roller

Term

195) Which part of the Pin-Curl is found between the base and the first turn:

A) indentation

B) Arc / Stem

C) Circle

D) Both B and C

Definition

[image]

ARC / STEM

The stem is the section of the pin curl between the base and first arc (turn) of the circle that gives the curl its direction and movement, the hair between the scalp and the first turn of the roller.

Term

196) Pin-Curls are not recomemended for this type of hair: 

A) Curly

B) Straight

C) Overly Curly

D) Wavy

 

Definition

 

OVERLY CURLY

Term

197) Which of the following is NOT "part" of a Pin-Curl: 

A) Stem

B) Base

C) indentation

D) Circle

Definition

 

INDENTATION

Term

198) Which of the following is NOT a "Type" of Pin-Curl: 

A) Crescent

B) Flat

C) Stand-up

D) Indentation

Definition

 

CRESENT

Term

199) Which part of the Pin-Curl determines it's direction: 

A Indentation

B) Arc / Stem

C) Circle

D) Both B and C

Definition

[image]

Arc and Stem 

Curls may be turned toward the face, away from the face, upward,downward, or diagonally. The finished result will be determined by the stem’s direction.The terms clockwise curls and counterclockwise curls are used todescribe the direction of pin curls. Curls formed in the same direction as the movement of the hands of a clock are known as clockwise curls. Curls formed in the opposite direction are known as counterclockwise curls

Term

200) Portion of Pin-curl determining the degree of movement: 

A) Stem

B) Arc

C) Base

D) A and B

Definition

STEM / ARC

The no-stem curl is placed directly on the base of the curl. It produces a tight, firm, long-lasting curl and allows minimum mobility

The half-stem curl permits medium movement; the curl (circle)is placed half off the base. It gives good control to the hair

The full-stem curl allows for the greatest mobility. The curl is placedcompletely off the base. The base may be a square, triangular, half-moon, or rectangular section, depending on the area of the head in which the full-stem curls are used. It gives as much freedom as the length of the stem will permit. If it is exaggerated, the hair near the scalp will be flat and almost straight. It is used to give the hair a strong, definite direction 

Term

201) To create maximum volume, use this type of Pin-Curl:

A) Full Stem

B) No Stem

C) Half Base Stem

D) Half Stem

Definition

[image]

No Stem

The no-stem curl is placed directly on the base of the curl. Itproduces a tight, firm, long-lasting curl and allows minimum mobility

Term

202) To create medium volume, use this type of Pin-Curl: 

A) Full Stem

B) No Stem

C) Half Base Stem

D) Half Stem

Definition

[image]

HALF STEM

The half-stem curl permits medium movement; the curl (circle) is placed half off the base. It gives good control to the hair

Term

203) To create least volume, use this type of Pin-Curl: 

A) Full Stem

B) No Stem

C) Half Base Stem

D) Half Stem

Definition

FULL STEM

The full-stem curl allows for the greatest mobility. The curl is placed completely off the base. The base may be a square, triangular, half-moon, or rectangular section, depending on the area of the head in which the full-stem curls are used. It gives as much freedom as the length of the stem will permit. If it is exaggerated, the hair near the scalp will be flat and almost straight. It is used to give the hair a strong, definite direction

Term

204) To create maxiumum volume in a roller set /permanent wave:

A) No stem

B) Off Stem

C) Half off Base

D) On base

Definition

[image]

ON BASE

 On base, also known as full base. For full volume, the roller sits directly on its base. Overdirect (higher than 90 degrees) the strand slightly in front of the base, and roll the hair down to the base. The roller should fit on the base

Term

205) To create medium volume in a roller set /permanent wave:

A) On base

B) No stem

 C) Half off Base

D) Half Stem

Definition

[image]

HALF OFF BASE

 Half base. For medium volume, the roller sits halfway on its base and halfway behind the base. Hold the strand straight up (90 degrees) from the head and roll the hair down

Term

206) To create the least volume in a roller set / Permanant Wave:

A) Half off Base

B) Off Base

C) On Base

D) Full Stem

Definition

[image]

OFF BASE

Off base For the least volume, the roller sits completely off the base. Hold the strand 45 degrees down from the base and roll the hair down

 

Term

207) Where is the clip placed in a Pin-Curl Set?

A) At the closed end 

B) At the open end

C) At the Arc

D) At the stem

Definition

[image]

AT THE OPEN END

To anchor pin curls, start at the open end of the curl. This is the side opposite the stem. The clip should enter the circle parallel to the stem. Open the clip, and place one prong above and one prong below one side of the circle. The upper prong should enter the hair in the center of the circle. The curl should be in the gap between the prongs. To avoid an indentation (dent) in the curl, do not pin across the circle.

 

 

Term

208) The wave pattern that combines Finger Waves and Pin-Curls: 

A) Ridge Curls

B) Skip Waves

C) C-Shaping

D) Cascade Waves

Definition

[image]

Ridge curls

are pin curls placed immediately behind or below a ridge to form a wave

Term

209) Electrical current is defined as:

A) The movement of electrons along a path known as an insulator

B) The movement of protrons along a path known as an insulator

C) The movement of neutrons along a path known as an condutor

D) The movement of electrons along a path known as an conductor

Definition

The movement of electrons along a path known as an conductor


An electric current (ee-lEK-trik KuR-unt) is the flow of electricity along a conductor. All materials can be classified as conductors or nonconductors (insulators), depending on the ease with which an electric current can be transmitted through them. A conductor (kahn-DuK-tur) is any material that conducts electricityMost metals are good conductors. This means that electricity will pass through the material easily. Copper is a particularly good conductor and is used in electric wiring and electric motors. Pure (distilled) water is a poor conductor, but the ions usually found in ordinary water, such as tawater or a river or a lake, make it a good conductor. This explains whyou should not swim in a lake during an electrical storm

Term

210) Acute, localized, bacterial infection, of a hair follicle, causing pain:

A) Carbuncle

B) Vesicle

C) Furbuncle

D) Ulcer

Definition

[image]

FURUNCLE 

A furuncle (FYOO-rung-kul) is the technical term for a boil, an acute, localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain. It is limited to a specific area and produces a pustule perforated by a hair

 

• A carbuncle (KAHR-bung-kul) is an inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci. It is similar to a furuncle but is larger. A boil, also known as a furuncle is a skin abscess, a painful bump that forms under the skin - it is full of puss. A carbuncle is collection of boils that develop under the skin. When bacteria infect hair follicles they can swell up and turn into boils. Such abscesses respond to hot packs and lancing, rather than antibiotics, experts say. Antibiotics may be used if the infection spreads into a deeper layer of skin. A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is most commonly caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue.[1] Individual boils clustered together are called carbuncles.[2] Most human infections are caused by coagulase-positive S. aureus strains, notable for the bacteria's ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus

Term

211) The potential oxidation of varying H2O2 strengths is measured in:

A) Volume

B) Percentage

C) A and B 

C) Value

Definition

VOLUME (AND PERCENTAGE ? )

Volume measures the concentration and strength of hydrogen peroxide. The lower the volume, the less lift achieved; the higher the volume, the greater the lifting action. The majority of permanent haircolor products use 10-, 20-, 30-, or 40-volume hydrogen peroxide for proper lift and color development.

Term

212) If a finger nail is lost, approximatly how long will it take to grow back:

 

A) 1-2 months

B) 3-6 months

C) 6-9 months

D) 9-18 months

Definition
3-6 months
Term

213) If a toe-nail is lost, approximatly how long will it take to grow back;

A) 1-2 months

B) 3-6 months

C) 6-9 months

D) 9-18 months

Definition
9-18 MONTHS
Term

214) Always start a Pin-Curl at the:

A) Open end

B) Closed end

C) Base

D) Stem / Arc

Definition

[image]

open end

A shaping is a section of hair that is molded in a circular movement in preparation for the formation of curls. Shapings are either open- or closed-end. Always begin a pin curl at the open end, or convex side, of a shaping

 

 

Term

215) Method of Decontamination used to slow down the spread of bacteria:

A) sterilization

B) Disinfection

C) Sanitation

D) Antiseption

Definition

SANITATION

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

216) Nerve endings of the skin are most abundant here:

A) Eyelids

B) Soles of the feet

C) Fingertips

C) Palms of the hands

Definition

FINGERTIPS

The papillary layer of the dermis houses the nerve endings that provide the body with the sense of touch, pain, heat, cold, and pressure. Nerve endings are most abundant in the fingertips. Complex sensations, such as vibrations, seem to depend on the sensitivity of a combination of these nerve endings.

 

 

 

Term

217) Density refers to: 

A) The diameter of the hair strand

B) The number of hairs on the head

C) The number of hairs per square inch

D) The texture of the hair

Definition

The number of hairs per square

inch

Hair density measures the number of individual hair strands on 1 square inch (2.5 square centimeters) of scalp. It indicates how many hairs there are on a person’s head. Hair density can be classified as low, medium, or high (also known as thin, medium, or thick / dense). Hair density is different from hair texture—individuals with the same hair texture can have different densities.

Term

218) Hair texture refers to:

A) The diameter of the hair strand

B) The number of hairs on the head

C) The number of hairs per square inch 

D) The texture of the hair

 

Definition

[image]

The diameter of the hair strand

Hair texture is the thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand. Hair texture can be classified as coarse, medium, or fine and can vary from strand to strand on the same person’s head. It is not uncommon for hair from different areas of the head to have different textures. Hair on the nape (back of the neck), crown, temples, and front hairline of the same person may have different textures.

 

 

Term

219) Hair texture may be classified as all of the following except: 

A) Medium

B) Curly

C) Coarse

D) Fine

Definition

[image]

CURLY

Coarse hair texture has the largest diameter. It is stronger than fine hair, for the same reason that a thick rope is stronger than a thin rope. It is often more resistant to processing than medium or fine hair, so it usually requires more processing when you are applying products such as hair lighteners, haircolors, permanent waving solutions, and chemical hair relaxers. 

Medium hair texture is the most common texture and is the standard to which other hair is compared. Medium hair does not pose any special problems or concerns.

 Fine hair has the smallest diameter and is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage from chemical services than coarse or medium hair. 

As with hair cuticle analysis, hair texture can be determined by feeling a single dry strand between the fingers. Take an individual strand from four different areas of the head—front hairline, temple, crown, and nape—and hold each strand securely with one hand while feeling it with the thumb and forefinger of the other hand. With a little practice, you will be able to feel the difference between coarse, medium, and fine hair diameters

 

 

Term

220) This is the most common angle used in hair cutting:

A: 0

B) 45

C) 90

D) 180

Definition

[image]

45

Term

221) The outer perometer of the haircut is known as the:

A) Design Line

B) Weight Line

C) Guide Line

D) All of the above

Definition

DESIGN LINE

Points on the head that mark where the surface of the head changes or the behavior of the hair changes, such as ears, jawline, occipital bone, apex, and so on; used to establish design lines that are proportionate.

 

Term

222) To achieve a "solid Form", or one lenth Haircut, use this elevation:

A: 0

B) 45

C) 90

D) 180

Definition
0
Term

223) To achieve a "solid Form", or one lenth Haircut, use a:

A: Traveling guide line

B) Vertical guide line

C) Stationary Guide Line

D) Combination of A and C

Definition

  STATIONARY GUIDE LINE

A guideline, also known as guide, as a sectton of hair that determines the length the hair will be cut. Guidelines are located either at the perimeter, the outer line, or the interior, inner or internal line, of the cut. The guideline is usually the first section cut when creating a shape. The two types of guidelines in haircuttung are stationary and traveling.

Term

224) To properly thin the hair, the thinning shears should be:

A) 1 inch from the ends

B) 1/2 inch from the scalp

C) 1/4 inch from the ends

D) 1 inch from the scalp

Definition

1 INCH FROM THE SCALP

Texturizing shears are mainly used to remove bulk from the hair. They are sometimes referred to as thinning shears, tapering shears, or notching shears. Many types of thinning shears are used today, with varying amounts of teeth in the blades. A general rule of thumb is that the more teeth in the shear, the less hair is removed per cut. Notching shears are usually designed to remove more hair, with larger teeth set farther apart. Removing bulk (thinning). Thinning shears were originally created for the purpose of thinning hair and blending. Many clients are afraid of the word thinning. A better choice of words would be removing bulk or removing weight. When using the thinning shears for this purpose, it is best to follow the same sectioning as used on the haircut. Comb the subsection out from the head and cut it with the thinning scissors, at least 4 to 5 inches (10 to 12.5 centimeters) from the scalp. On longer lengths, you may need to repeat the process again as you move out toward the ends. On coarse hair textures, stay farther away from the scalp, as sometimes the shorter hairs will poke through the haircut. On blunt haircuts, avoid thinning the top surfaces, because you may see lines where the hair is cut with the thinning shears. When working on curly hair, it is best to use the free-hand notching technique rather than thinning shears.

 Removing weight from the ends you can also use thinning shears to remove bulk from the ends. This process works well on many hair textures. It can be used on both thin and thick hair, and it helps taper the perimeter of both graduated and blunt haircuts. Elevating each subsection out from the head, place the thinning shears into the hair at an angle and close the shears a few times as you work out toward the ends

 

Term

225) Two or more substances mixed together that will  seperate upon standing:

A) Solution

B) Emultion

C) Suspention

D) Coloid

Definition

Suspension

(sus-PEN-shunz) are unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid. Compared with solutions, suspensions contain larger and less miscible particles. The particles are generally visible to the naked eye but are not large enough to settle quickly to the bottom. Suspensions are not usually transparent and may be colored. They are unstable and separate over time, which is why some lotions and creams can separate in the bottle and need to be shaken before they are used. Another example of a suspension is the glitter in nail polish that can separate from the polish.  Oil and vinegar salad dressing is an example of a suspension, with tiny oil droplets suspended in the vinegar. The suspension will separate when left sitting still and must be shaken before using. Calamine lotion and nail polish are other examples of suspensions 

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Term

226) Two or more substances mixed together that will  not seperate upon standing:

A) Solute

B) Emulsion

C) Suspention

D) Colloid

Definition

EMULSIONS

An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An Emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. In example of an emulsion is hand lotion

 

 

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

 

 

Term

227) Added to emulsions to keep them from separating:

A) Emulsifiers

B) Binders

C) Gums

D All of the above

Definition

Emulsifiers- Binders-Gums

An Emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. In example of an emulsion is hand lotion

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

 

.

Term

228) In a solution, this is the portion being dissoved:

A) Solvent

B)Solute

C) Coloid

D) Suspentions

 

Definition

SOLUTE

A solution is a stable physical mixture of two or more substances. The solute (SAHL-yoot) is the substance that is dissolved into solution

 

 

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

 

 

 

Term

229) The most common cutting position in a hair cut:

A) Palm up

B) Palm to Palm

C) Palm Down

C) A and C

Definition

[image]

 Cutting palm-to-palm. When cutting with a vertical or diagonal cutting line, cutting palm-to-palm is the best way to maintain control of the subsection, especially with regard to elevation and overdirection. Cutting palm-to-palm means that the palms of both hands are facing each other while cutting. This is different from cutting on the top of your fingers or knuckles. Cutting palm-to-palm also helps to prevent strain on your back as you work 

Term

230) Which of the following is an objective condition:

A) Bright Red Hair

B) Beautiful Red Hair

C) Red Hair

D) Dark Red Hair

 

Definition


RED HAIR

Term

231) Which is a subjective condition: 

A) Pityriasis

B) A headache

C) a Veruca

D) A Carbuncle

 

Definition


A HEADACHE

Term

232) Agency requiring you to preform an allergy test prior to the service: 

A) EPA

B) FDA

C) OSHA

D) CDC

Definition


FDA

Term

233) In a make-up application, appy the foundation:

A) One shade lighter than clients skin

B) One shade darker than clients skin

C) The same shade as clients skin

D) The same shade or one shade lighter than clients skin

Definition
The same shade or one shade lighter than clients skin
Term

234) Refers to the lining sourrounding the heart:

A) Perionychium

B) Pericardium

C) Perioal

D) Peristalysis

Definition

[image]

PERICARDIUM

The heart is a muscular, cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system. It is often referred to as the body’s pump. The heart is enclosed by a double-layered membranous sac known as the pericardium (payr-ih-KAR-dee-um), which is made of epithelial tissue.

 

 

Term

235) Refers to the tissue surrounding the nail on three sides:

A) Perionychium

B) Pericardium

C) Perioal

D) Peristalysis

 

Definition

[image]

PERIONCHIUM

the epidermis forming the border around a fingernail or toenail

 

Term

237) The portion of the haircut above the parietal ridge is referred to as the:

A) Interior

B) Exterior

C) Fringe

D) Design Line

Definition

[image]

INTERIOR 

Parietal ridge. This is the widest area of the head, starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of the crown. This area is easily found by placing a comb flat on the side of the head: the parietal ridge is found where the head starts to curve away from the comb. The parietal ridge is also referred to as the crest area. A guideline, also known as guide, is a section of hair that determines the length the hair will be cut. Guidelines are located either at the perimeter, the outer line, or the interior, inner or internal line, of the cut. The guideline is usually the first section cut when creating a shape. The two types of guidelines in haircutting are stationary and traveling.

 

 

Term

238) The portion of the haircut below the parietal ridge is referred to as the:

A) Interior

B) Exterior

C) Fringe

D) Design Line

Definition

EXTERIOR

Parietal ridge. This is the widest area of the head, starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of the crown. This area is easily found by placing a comb flat on the side of the head: the parietal ridge is found where the head starts to curve away from the comb. The parietal ridge is also referred to as the crest area. A guideline, also known as guide, is a section of hair that determines the length the hair will be Cut. Guidelines are located either at the perimeter, the outer line, or the interior, inner or internal line, of the cut. The guideline is usually the first section cut when creating a shape. The two types of guidelines in haircutting are stationary and traveling

 

 

 

 

Term

239) Round shaped bacteria that grows in pairs and cause pneumonia:

A) cocci

B) Diplococci

C) Bacilli

D) Spirilla

Definition

[image]

DIPLOCOCCI

Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia. any of various encapsulated bacteria (as Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia) that usually occur in pairs and that were formerly grouped in a single taxon (genus Diplococcus) but are now all assigned to other general

diplococcus (plural diplococci) is a round bacterium (a coccus) that typically occurs in the form of two joined cells. Examples are gram-negative Neisseria sp., and gram-positiveStreptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp.

Its name comes from diplo, meaning double, and coccus, meaning berry

 

 

Term

240) Groups of cells working together for a single purpose are called:

A) Sytsems

B) Organs

C) Tissues

D) Cells

Definition

TISSUE

Tissue (TiSH-oo) is a collection of similar cells that perform a particular function. Each kind of tissue has a specific function and can be recognized be its characteristic appearance. Body tissues are composed of large amounts of water, along with various other substances.

There are four types of tissue in the body:

Connective tissue is fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body. Examples of connective tissue are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph, and adipose tissue (ADD-ih-pohz _  TiSH-oo), a technical term for fat. Adipose tissue gives smoothness and contour to the body. 

Epithelial tissue (ep-ih-THEE-lee-ul _TiSH-oo) is a protective covering on body surfaces, such as skin, mucous membranes, the  tissue inside the mouth, the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and the glands.

Muscle tissue contracts and moves various parts of the body.

Nerve tissue carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neurons that make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord.

 

 

Term

241) Groups of tissues working together for a single purpose are called:

A) Sytsems

B) Organs

C) Tissues

D) Cells

Definition

ORGANS


Organs are structures composed of specialized tissues designed to perform specific functions in plants and animals. Nine Major Body Organs and Their Functions,

BRAIN-Controls the body

EYES- Control the body’s vision.

HEART- Circulates the blood.

KIDNEYS- Excrete water and waste products.

LUNGS- Supply oxygen to the blood.

LIVER- Removes waste created by digestion.

SKIN- Covers the body and is the external protective coating.

STOMACH- Digests food, along with the intestines

INTESTINES- Digest food, along with the stomach.

  

Term

242) Groups of organs working together for a single purpose are called:

A) Sytsems

B) Organs

C) Tissues

D) Cells

Definition

Body systems

also known as systems, are groups of body organs acting together to perform one or more functions, 

Eleven Main Body Systems and Their Functions,

list some of the most important organs of  the body and the main body systems and their functions.

DIGESTIVE-Breaks down foods into nutrients and wastes; consists of mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric glands, and other organs.

ENDOCRINE-Affects the growth, development, sexual functions, and health of the entire body; consists of specialized glands.

EXCRETORY-Purifies the body by eliminating waste matter; consists of kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine, and lungs.

INTEGUMENTARY-Serves as a protective covering and helps regulate the body’s temperature; consists 

of skin and its accessory organs, such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.

LYMPHATIC/IMMUNE-Protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-

causing toxins and bacteria.

MUSCULAR-Covers, shapes, and holds the skeletal system in place; the muscular system contracts and moves various parts of the body.

NERVOUS-Controls and coordinates all other systems of the body and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently; composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

REPRODUCTIVE-Produces offspring and passes on the genetic code from one generation to another.

RESPIRATORY-Enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen, and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product; consists of the lungs and air passages.

SKELETAL-Forms the physical foundation of the body; composed of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints.

Term

243) Process involving the Sudoriferous Gland and involved in regulating body temperature:

A) Halitosis

B) Anhidrosis

C) Secretion

D) Excretion

 

Definition

EXCRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

 

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit). The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain drugs. The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin.

Term

244) Process involving the Sebaceous Glands and involved in moisturizing and lubricating the skin:

A) Halitosis

B) Anhidrosis

C) Secretion

D) Excretion

 
Definition

SECRETION

The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. these are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands

 

Sebaceous glands (sih-BAY-shus GLANZ), also known as oil glands, are connected to the hair follicles. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete sebum (SEE-bum), a fatty or oily substance that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair. With the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly in the face and scalp, where they are larger.

Term

245) An electrical measurement used in measuring Resistance:

A) Amps

B) Ohms

C) Watts

D) Volts

Definition

OHMS

An ohm (OHM), abbreviated O, is a unit that measures the resistance of an electric current. Current will not flow through a conductor unless the force (volts) is stronger than the resistance (ohms).

Term

246) In electrical measurement, AMPS measure:

A) Pressure

B) Strength

C) Resistance

D) Energy used per second

Definition

[image]

STRENGHT

An ampere (AM-Peer), abbreviated A and also known as amp (AMP), is the unit that measures the strength of an electric current. Just as the sink hose must be large enough to carry the amount of water flowing through it, a wire also must be large enough to carry the amount of electricity (AMPs) flowing through it. A hair dryer rated at 12 amPs must have a cord that is twice as thick as one rated at 6 amps; otherwise, the cord might overheat and start a fire. A higher amp rating indicates a greater number of electrons and a stronger current 

Term

247) In electrical measurement, Volts measure:

A) Pressure

B) Strength

C) Resistance

D) Energy used per second

Definition

[image]

PRESSURE

A volt (VOlT), abbreviated V and also known as voltage (VOl-tij), is the unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes electric current forward through a conductor . Car batteries are 12 volts. Normal electric wall sockets that power your hair dryer and curling iron are 120 volts. Most air conditioners and clothes dryers run on 220 volts. A higher voltage indicates more power.

 

 

Term

248) In electrical measurement, Watts measure:

A) Pressure

B) Strength

C) Resistance

D) Energy used per second

Definition

Energy used per second

A watt (WAHT), abbreviated W, is a unit that measures how much electric energy is being used in one second. A 40-watt light bulb uses 40 watts of energy per second.

Term

249) The most commonly used electrical modality in a salon is:

A) Faradic

B) Galvanic

C) Sinusoidal

D) Tesla

Definition
Galvanic
Term

250) A 50 Watt light bulb uses 50 Watts of electricity or electrical energy per:

A) Day

B) Hour 

C) Minute

D) second

Definition

 

SECOND

A watt (WAHT), abbreviated W, is a unit that measures how much electric energy is being used in one second. A 40-watt light bulb uses 40 watts of energy per second.

Term

251) A "Hand-Knotted" wig is also referred to as a:

A) Cap Wigs

B) Capless Wig

C) Postiches

D) Toupees

Definition

                           CAP WIG

Cap wigs are constructed with an elasticized, mesh-fiber base to which the hair is attached. They are made in several sizes and require special fittings. More often than not, cap wigs are hand-knotted. The front edge of a cap wig is made of a material that resembles the client’s scalp, along with a lace extension and a wire support that is used at the temples for a snug, secure fit. Hair is hand-tied under the net (under-knotted) to conceal the cap edge. The side and back edges contain wire supports, elastic, and hooks for a secure fit. Latex molded cap wigs are also available; these are prostheses for clients with special needs.

Term

252) Machine made wigs, or machine tied wigs are also referred to as a: 

A) Cap Wigs

B) Capless Wig

C) Postiches

D) Toupees

Definition

[image]

CAPLESS WIGS

Capless wigs, also known as caps, are machine-made from human or artificial hair. The hair is woven into wefts, which are long strips of hair with a threaded edge. Rows of wefts are sewn to elastic strips in a circular pattern to fit the head shape. Capless wigs are more popular than cap wigs as they are ready-to-wear and less expensive.

Term

253) Consists of rows of "wefts", sewn to elastic strips: 

A) Cap Wigs

B) Capless Wig

C) Postiches

D) Toupees

Definition

[image]

CAPLESS WIG

Capless wigs, also known as caps, are machine-made from human or artificial hair. The hair is woven into wefts, which are long strips of hair with a threaded edge. Rows of wefts are sewn to elastic strips in a circular pattern to fit the head shape. Capless wigs are more popular than cap wigs as they are ready-to-wear and less expensive.

Term

254) Consists of elastic "mesh fibers" to which the hair is attached: 

A) Cap Wigs

B) Capless Wig

C) Postiches

D) Toupees

 

Definition

                         CAP WIG

Cap wigs are constructed with an elasticized, mesh-fiber base to which the hair is attached. They are made in several sizes and require special fittings. More often than not, cap wigs are hand-knotted. The front edge of a cap wig is made of a material that resembles the client’s scalp, along with a lace extension and a wire support that is used at the temples for a snug, secure fit. Hair is hand-tied under the net (under-knotted) to conceal the cap edge. The side and back edges contain wire supports, elastic, and hooks for a secure fit. Latex molded cap wigs are also available; these are prostheses for clients with special needs.

Term

255) Small hair piece, covering the top of the head, usually worn by men : 

A) Cap Wigs

B) Capless Wig

C) Postiches

D) Toupee

Definition

TOUPEE

While men usually are the clients for toupees, women can also wear these hairpieces. A toupee is a small wig used to cover the top and crown of the head. The fine-net base is usually the most appropriate material for the client with severe hair loss. There are two ways to attach toupees: temporary (tape or clips) or semipermanent (tracks, adhesive, or sewing).

Term

256) According to the Law of color, this is the darkest color pigment and may be used to darken any color or pigment:

A) Blue

B) Red

C) Brown

D) Black

Definition

BLUE

Blue is the strongest of the primary colors and is the only cool primary color. in addition to coolness, blue can also bring depth or darkness to any color.

 

Term

257) The 3 Primary or Pure colors are: 

A) Red, White and Blue

B) Orange, Green, and Violet /  purple

C) Red, Yellow, and Green

D) Red, Blue, Yellow

Definition

[image]

RED, BLUE, AND YELLOW

Primary colors are Pure or fundamental colors (red, Yellow, and blue) that cannot be created by combining other colors. All colors are created from these three primaries. Colors with a predominance of blue are cool colors, where as colors with a predominance of red and/or yellow are warm colors Blue is the strongest of the primary colors and is the only cool primary color. In addition to coolness, blue can also bring depth or darkness to and color. Red is the medium primary color. Adding red to blue-based colors will make them appear lighter; adding red to yellow colors will cause them to appear darker. Yellow is the weakest of the primary colors. When you add yellow to other colors, the resulting color will look lighter and brighter. When all three primary colors are present in equal proportions, the resulting color is brown. it is helpful to think of hair color in terms of different combinations of primary colors. Natural brown, for example, has the primary colors in the following proportions: blue-B, red-RR, and yellow-yyy. Black and white can’t be made by mixing colors together. They get excluded from basic color theory. White  can be used to lighten a color. Black can be used to deepen a color. 

 

 

Term

258) The 3 secondary colors are: 

A) Red, White and Blue

B) Orange, Green, and Violet /  purple

C) Red, Yellow, and Green

D) Red, Blue, Yellow

Definition

[image]

ORANGE, GREEN, VIOLET / PURPLE

A secondary color is a color obtained be mixing equal parts of two primary colors. The secondary colors are green, orange, and violet. Green is an equal combination of blue and yellow. Orange is an equal combination of red and yellow. Violet is an equal combination of blue and red

Term

259) Term used to mean the color pigment of the skin, eyes, and hair: 

A) Melanocytes

B) Eumelanin

C) Pheomelanin

D) Melanin

Definition

[image]

                          MELANIN

The color of the skin—whether fair, medium, or dark—depends primarily on melanin (MEL-ah-nin), the tiny grains of pigment (coloring matter) that are produced by melanocytes and then deposited into cells in the stratum germinativum layer of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis. The color of the skin is a hereditary trait and varies among races and Nationalities. Genes determine the amount and type of pigment produced in an individual. The body produces two types of melanin: 

pheomelanin (fee-oh-MEL-uh-nin), which is red to yellow in color, and eumelanin (yoo-MEL-uh-nin), which is dark brown to black. People with light-colored skin mostly produce pheomelanin, while those with dark-colored skin mostly produce eumelanin. The size of melanin granules varies from one individual to another. Melanin helps protect sensitive cells from the sun’s UV light, but it does not provide enough protection to prevent skin damage. Daily use of a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher can help the melanin protect the skin from burning, skin cancer, and premature aging 

 

 

Term

260) Dark hair, dark eyes, and dark skin would indicate the presence of: 

A) Melanocytes

B) Eumelanin

C) Pheomelanin

D) Melanin

Definition

[image]

EUMELANIN

pheomelanin (fee-oh-MEL-uh-nin), which is red to yellow in color, and eumelanin (yoo-MEL-uh-nin), which is dark brown to black. People with light-colored skin mostly produce pheomelanin, while those with dark-colored skin mostly produce eumelanin. The size of melanin granules varies from one individual to another. 

Term

261) Which rays of sun are responsible for burning of the skin:

A) UVB

B) UVC

C) UVA

d) V.C.'S

Definition

UVB

UVB rays, also known as burning rays, cause sunburns, tanning of the skin, and the majority of skin cancers. These are shorter rays that stop penetration at the base of the epidermis.

Term

262) Which rays of sun are responsible for aging / wrinkling  of the skin:

A) UVB

B) UVC

C) UVA

d) V.C.'S

Definition

UVA

UVA rays, also known as aging rays, are deep-penetrating rays that can even go through a glass window. These rays weaken the collagen and elastin fibers, causing wrinkling and sagging of the tissues.

Term

263) Which rays cause damage to the skin (wrinkling, burning, & cancer): 

A) Tesla

B) High Frequency Rays

C) Ultra-violet Rays

D) Violet Rays

Definition

ULTRA VIOLET RAYS

The sun and its ultraviolet (UV) light have the greatest impact of all extrinsic factors on how skin ages. Approximately 80 to 85 percent of the symptoms of aging skin are caused by the rays of the sun. As we age, the collagen and elastin fibers of the skin naturally weaken. This weakening happens at a much faster rate when the skin is frequently exposed to UV light without proper protection.

Term

264) The upper two, thin-walled chambers of the heart, are referred to as: 

A) Atrium

B) Ventricles

C) Vesicles

D) Aorta

Definition

[image]

ATRIUM

Upper, thin-walled chamber of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles. There is a right atrium and a left atrium.

Term

265) The lower two, thick-walled chambers of the heart, are referred to as: 

A) Atrium

B) Ventricles

C) Vesicles

D) Aorta

Definition

[image]

Ventricles

The ventricle (VEN-truh-kul) is a lower, thick-walled chamber that receives blood from the atrium. There is a right ventricle and a left ventricle. 

Term

266) Which will kill bacterial spores on a porous surface:

A) Sterilization

B) Disinfection

C) Sanitation

D) None of the above

Definition

NONE OF THE ABOVE


From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

267) Which will kill bacteria and bacterial spores on a non-porous surface:

A) Sterilization

B) Disinfection

C) Sanitation

D) None of the above

Definition

STERILIZATION

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

S

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly disinfected. Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth—it just does not work properly! Cleaned surfaces can still harbor small amounts of pathogens, but the presence of fewer pathogens means infections are less likely to be spread. Putting antiseptics on your skin or washing your hands with soap and water will drastically lower the number of pathogens on your hands. However, it does not clean them properly. The proper cleaning of the hands requires rubbing hands together and using liquid soap, warm running water, a nail brush, and a clean towel. Do not underestimate the importance of proper cleaning and hand washing. They are the most powerful and important ways to prevent the spread of infection.

There are three ways to clean your tools or implements:

• Washing with soap and warm water, then scrubbing them with  a clean and properly disinfected nail brush. 

• Using an ultrasonic unit.

• Using a cleaning solvent (e.g., on metal bits for electric files).

The second step of Decontamination Method 1 is disinfection. Remember that disinfection is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment. Remember that disinfectants are products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses (but not spores) on surfaces. Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair, or nails. All disinfectants clearly state on the label that you should avoid skin contact. This means avoid contact with your skin as well as the client’s. Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution.  If you mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, the container must be properly labeled with the contents and the date it was mixed. All concentrated disinfectants must be diluted exactly as instructed by the manufacturer on the container’s label. 

Decontamination Method 2 also has two steps: cleaning and sterilizing. The word sterilize is often used incorrectly. Sterilization is the Process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons. Most people without medical training do not understand how to use an autoclave. For example, dirty implements cannot be properly sterilized without first being properly 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

268) The opposite of yellow, used to neutralize or cancel yellow: 

A) Violet

B) Blue

C) Green

D) Orange

Definition

[image]

VIOLET

Complementary colors are Primary and secondary colors positioned directly opposite each other on the color wheel. Complementary colors include blue and orange, red and green, and yellow and violet. Complementary colors neutralize each other. When formulating haircolor, you will find that it is often your goal to emphasize or distract from skin tones or eye color. You may also want to neutralize or refine unwanted tones in the hair. Understanding complementary colors will help you choose the correct tone to accomplish these goals. Here is an easy reference guide for color correction:

• When hair is green…use red to balance.

• When hair is red…use green to balance.

• When hair is blue…use orange to balance.

• When hair is orange…use blue to balance.

• When hair is yellow…use violet to balance.

• When hair is violet…use yellow to balance.

 

 

Term

269) The skin and it's various accessory organs is known as the:

A) Epithelial System

B) Endocrine System

C) Pulmonary System

D) Integumentary System

Definition

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Body system that consists of skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails; serves as a protective covering and helps regulate the body’s temperature.

Term

270) Which color can be used to diffuse an orange cast in the hair:

A) Violet

B) Blue

C) Green

D) Orange

Definition

[image]

Blue

Complementary colors are Primary and secondary colors positioned directly opposite each other on the color wheel. Complementary colors include blue and orange, red and green, and yellow and violet. Complementary colors neutralize each other. When formulating haircolor, you will find that it is often your goal to emphasize or distract from skin tones or eye color. You may also want to neutralize or refine unwanted tones in the hair. Understanding complementary colors will help you choose the correct tone to accomplish these goals. Here is an easy reference guide for color correction:

• When hair is green…use red to balance.

• When hair is red…use green to balance.

• When hair is blue…use orange to balance.

• When hair is orange…use blue to balance.

• When hair is yellow…use violet to balance.

• When hair is violet…use yellow to balance.

 

 

Term

271) Direct current may be described as:

A) An even, uninterrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction only

B) An even, uninterrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction and then the other

C) An uneven, interrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction only

D) An uneven, interrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction and then the other

Definition
An even, uninterrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction only
Term

272) Alternating current may be described as:

A) An even, uninterrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction only

B) An even, uninterrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction and then the other

C) An uneven, interrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction only

D) An uneven, interrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction and then the other

Definition
An uneven, interrupted flow of electron, along a path known as a conductor, flowing in one direction and then the other
Term

273) Which is not a type of Reducing Agent found in chemical relaxers:

A) Sodium Hydroxide

B) ATG

C) Guandine

D) Sodium Hypochloride

Definition

SODIUM HYDPOCHLORIDE

  • Sodium hydroxide, commonly known as lye, is a very strong alkali used in chemical hair relaxers, callous softeners, and drain cleaners. These products must be used according to manufacturer’s instructions, and it is very important that you do not let the products touch or sit on the skin as they may cause injury to or a burning sensation on the skin. Sodium hydroxide products may be especially dangerous if they get into the eyes, so always wear safety glasses to avoid eye contact. 
  • Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) (uh-MOH-nee-um _  thy-oh-Gly-kuh-latt), which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents. Thio relaxers use the same ATG that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher PH (above 10). Thio relaxers are also thicker, with a higher viscosity, the measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows, making them more suitable for application as a relaxer
  • The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers, which are very strong alkalis with a PH over 13. Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, and guanidine hydroxide are all types of hydroxide relaxers, which can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter. 
  • Guanidine (GWAN-ih-deen) hydroxide relaxers are also advertised and sold as no-lye relaxers. Although technically they are not lye, the hydroxide ion is still the active ingredient. Guanidine hydroxide relaxers contain two components that must be mixed immediately prior to use. These relaxers straighten hair completely, with less scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxers. Most guanidine hydroxide relaxers are recommended for sensitive scalps, and they are sold over the counter for home use. Although they reduce scalp irritation, they do not reduce hair damage. They swell the hair slightly more than other hydroxide relaxers, and they are also more drying, especially after repeated applications.

 

 

Term

274) This is the oldest and most common type of  relaxer: 

A) Guandine

B) Sodium Hydoxide

C) Ammonium Thioycolate

D) Lithium Hypochloride

Definition

SODIUM HYDROXIDE

Sodium hpdroxide (NaOH) relaxers are commonly called lye relaxers. Sodium hydroxide is the oldest, and still the most common, type of chemical hair relaxer. Sodium hydroxide is also known as lye or caustic soda. Sodium hydroxide is the same chemical that is used in drain cleaners and chemical hair depilatories.

Term

275) Type of relaxer sold over-the-counter for home use, afvertised as being for "sensitive scalps", and while they reduce scalp irritation they do not reduce hair damage. In fact, they are actually more drying to the than other types of relaxers: 

A) Guandine

B) Sodium Hydoxide

C) Ammonium Thioycolate

D) Lithium Hypochloride

Definition

GUANDINE

 

Guanidine (GWAN-ih-deen) hydroxide relaxers are also advertised and sold as no-lye relaxers. Although technically they are not lye, the hydroxide ion is still the active ingredient. Guanidine hydroxide relaxers contain two components that must be mixed immediately prior to use. These relaxers straighten hair completely, with less scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxers. Most guanidine hydroxide relaxers are recommended for sensitive scalps, and they are sold over the counter for home use. Although they reduce scalp irritation, they do not reduce hair damage. They swell the hair slightly more than other hydroxide relaxers, and they are also more drying, especially after repeated applications. 

Term

276) In a chemical texture service (permanent wave or chemical relaxer), the process of reduction & oxidation is referred to as:

A) Rebox

B) Nuetralization

C) Disquamation

D) Redox

Definition


                             REDOX

Oxidation–reduction, also known as redox (ree-DOCS), is a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen). Even though the word order is reversed, redox is used as a contraction of the term oxidation-reduction.

 

 

Term

277) Which of the following is not a type of end wrap:

A) Book-end

B) Double book-end

C) Double flat wrap

D) Single flat wrap

Definition

DOUBLE BOOK-END

o       The double flat wrap is a perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped. Both papers extend past the hair ends. This wrap provides the most control over the hair ends and also helps keep them evenly distributed over the entire length of the rod 

o       The single flat wrap is similar to the double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair 

o       The bookend wrap uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope. The bookend wrap eliminates excess paper and can be used with short rods or with very short lengths of hair. When using this wrap method, be careful to distribute the hair evenly over the entire length of the rod. Avoid bunching the hair in the fold of the paper—hair should be in the center—to produce an even curl 

 

 

Term

278) Electric Current useful in treatment of acne and Alopecia:

A) Tesla

B) High Frequency

C) Violet Ray

D) All of the above

Definition

[image]

 TESLA, HIGH FREQUENCY, VIOLET RAY

The Tesla high-frequency current

(TES-luh _  Hy-FREE-kwen-see _ KuR-ent), also known as violet ray, is a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments. Tesla current does not produce muscle contractions, and the effects can be either stimulating or soothing, depending on the method of application. The electrodes are made from either glass or metal, and only one electrode is used to perform a service The benefits of the Tesla high-frequency current are:

• Stimulates blood circulation

 • increases elimination and absorption

• Increases skin metabolism

• improves germicidal action

• Relieves skin congestion

 

As you learn more about facials and treatments, you will become familiar with the term contraindication, a condition that requires avoiding certain treatments, procedures, or products to prevent undesirable side effects.


Term

279) In electricity, the term "load" refers to:

A) Any form of electrical modality

B) Any type of electrical appliance / device

C) Any type of electric current

D) A, B and C

Definition
ANY TYPE OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE DEVICE
Term

280) Device used to change Alternating Current into Direct Current:

A) Coverter

B) Rectifier

C) Wall Plate

D) Rheostat

Definition

RECTIFIER

rectifier (REK-ti-fy-ur) is an apparatus that changes alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Cordless electric clippers and mobile phone chargers use a rectifier to change the AC from an electric wall outlet to the DC needed to recharge their batteries. 

There are two types of electric current:

Direct current (dy-REKT _  KUR-unt), abbreviated DC, is a constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only and is produced by chemical means. Flashlights, mobile telephones, and cordless hairstyling tools use the direct current produced by batteries. The battery in your car stores electric energy. Without it, your car would not start in the morning. A converter (kun-VUR-tur) is an apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current. 

Converters usually have a plug and a cord. They allow you to use appliances outside of the salon or your home that normally would have to be plugged into an electric wall outlet. The mobile phone charger in a car is an example of a converter

Alternating current (AWL-tur-nayt-ing _ KUR-rent), abbreviated AC, is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction; it is produced by mechanical means and changes directions 60 times per second. Corded hair dryers, curling irons, electric files, and table lamps that plug into a wall outlet use alternating current. 

 

 

 

Term

281) Deviced used to change Direct Current into Alternating Current:

A) Coverter

B) Rectifier

C) Wall Plate

D) Rheostat

Definition

CONVERTER 

Converters usually have a plug and a cord. They allow you to use appliances outside of the salon or your home that normally would have to be plugged into an electric wall outlet. The mobile phone charger in a car is an example of a converter

rectifier (REK-ti-fy-ur) is an apparatus that changes alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Cordless electric clippers and mobile phone chargers use a rectifier to change the AC from an electric wall outlet to the DC needed to recharge their batteries. 

There are two types of electric current:

Direct current (dy-REKT _  KUR-unt), abbreviated DC, is a constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only and is produced by chemical means. Flashlights, mobile telephones, and cordless hairstyling tools use the direct current produced by batteries. The battery in your car stores electric energy. Without it, your car would not start in the morning. A converter (kun-VUR-tur) is an apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current. 

 

Alternating current (AWL-tur-nayt-ing _ KUR-rent), abbreviated AC, is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction; it is produced by mechanical means and changes directions 60 times per second. Corded hair dryers, curling irons, electric files, and table lamps that plug into a wall outlet use alternating current. 

  

Term

282) Leucocytes refer to:

A) Dark spots Milasma

B) Whites spots on the skin

C) White blood Cells

D) White spots on the nail/s

Definition

WHITE BLOOD CELLS


LEUCOCYTES White blood cells, also known as white corpuscles (WHyT _ KOR-pus-uls) or leukocytes (LOO-koh-syts) perform the function of destroying disease-causing toxins and bacteria.

Term

283) Leukonychia refer to:

A) Dark spots Milasma

B) Whites spots on the skin

C) White blood Cells

D) White spots on the nail/s

Definition

[image]

WHITE SPOTS ON THE NAIL/S:

Leukonychia spots (loo-koh-NIK-ee-ah _ SPATS), also known as white spots, are whitish discolorations of the nails, usually caused by minor injury to the nail matrix. They are not a symptom of any vitamin or mineral deficiency. It is a myth that these result from calcium or zinc deficiency. They appear frequently in the nails but do not indicate disease. As the nail continues to grow, the white spots eventually disappear 

 

 

Term

284) Leukoderma refers to:

A) Dark spots / Milasma

B) White spots on the skin

C) White blood cells

D) White spots on the nail

Definition

WHITE SPOTS ON THE SKIN

Leukoderma (loo-koh-DUR-muh) is a skin disorder characterized by light abnormal patches (hypopigmentation); it is caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment-producing cells. Examples are vitiligo and albinism.

 

 

Term

285) The PH scale measures:

A) The quality / amount / number of hydroxyl based ions in a water based solution:

B) The alkalinity or base of a water solution

C) The Quantity of hydrogen ion in a solution

D) The quantity of hydrogen based ions in a water base solution

Definition

THE QUANTITY OF HYDROGEN BASED IONS IN A WATER BASED SOLUTION

Although pH, the abbreviation used for potential hydrogen, is often mentioned when talking about salon products, it is one of the least understood chemical properties. Notice that pH is written with a small p (which represents a quantity) and a capital H (which represents the hydrogen ion). The term pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions. 

Term

286) The approximate pH of H2O2 is:

A) 7

B) 9

C) 4

D) 2

Definition

4

A hydrogen peroxide developer is an oxidizing agent that, when mixed with an oxidation haircolor, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop the color molecules and create a change in natural hair color. Developers, also known as oxidizing agents or catalysts, have a pH between 2.5 and 4.5. Although there are a number of developers on the market, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the one most commonly used in haircolor. 

Term

287) Type of Alopecia associated with wearing braids and extentions:

A) Androgenic 

B) Areata

C) Postpartum

D) Traction

Definition

TRACTION ALOPECIA

 Traction alopecia.....This condition is particularly prevalent among African-American women and children. It begins with scalp irritation and excessive flakiness, and eventually leads to hair loss, particularly around the hairline. Wearing excessively tight braids (tight enough to pull the hair or impede circulation to the scalp) over a prolonged period of time can lead to permanent hair loss. Keep in mind that while braids are beautiful, they must be without excessive tension to avoid long-term follicle damage

 

Term

288) Type of Alopecia associated with continuous tension on the root:

A) Androgenic 

B) Areata

C) Postpartum

D) Traction

Definition

TRACTION ALOPECIA

Traction alopecia.....This condition is particularly prevalent among African-American women and children. It begins with scalp irritation and excessive flakiness, and eventually leads to hair loss, particularly around the hairline. Wearing excessively tight braids (tight enough to pull the hair or impede circulation to the scalp) over a prolonged period of time can lead to permanent hair loss. Keep in mind that while braids are beautiful, they must be without excessive tension to avoid long-term follicle damage

Term

289) The actual name of FDA is:

A) Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

B) Food and Drug Administration

C) Food and Drug Agency

D) Food, Drug, and Narcotics Administration

Definition
FOOD, DRUG AND COSMETIC ACT ???
Term

290) Lite hair, lite eyes, and fair skin would indicate the presence of:

A) Melanocytes

B) Eumelanin

C) Pheomelanin

D) Melanin

Definition

PHEOMELANIN

The body produces two types of melanin:

pheomelanin (fee-oh-MEL-uh-nin), which is red to yellow in color, and

eumelanin (yoo-MEL-uh-nin), which is dark brown to black. People with light-colored skin mostly produce pheomelanin, while those with dark-colored skin mostly produce eumelanin. The size of melanin granules varies from one individual to another. 

Term

291) Allergy test would include which of the following:

A) P.D. Tests

B) Patch Test

C) Predisposition Tests

D) All of the above

Definition

P.D TESTS

PATCH TEST

PREDISPOSITION TEST

Term

292) Agency associated with MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheetand Universal Precautions:

A) EPA

B) FDA

C) OSHA

D) CDC 

Definition

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was created as part of the U.S. Department of Labor to regulate and enforce safety and health standards to protect employees in the workplace. Regulating employee exposure to potentially toxic substances and informing employees about the possible hazards of materials used in the workplace are key points of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. This regulation created the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), which requires that chemical manufacturers and importers assess and communicate the potential hazards associated with their products. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a result of the HCS. The standards set by OSHA are important to the cosmetology industry because of the products used in salons. OSHA standards address issues relating to the handling, mixing, storing, and disposing of products; general safety in the workplace; and your right to know about any potentially hazardous ingredients contained in the products you use  and how to avoid these hazards.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all products sold. The MSDS contains information compiled by the manufacturer about product safety, including the names of hazardous ingredients, safe handling and use procedures, precautions to reduce the risk of accidental harm or overexposure, and flammability warnings. The MSDS also provides useful disposal guidelines and medical and first aid information. When necessary, the MSDS can be sent to a medical facility, so that a doctor can better assess and treat the patient

 

 

Term

293) Pathogenic bacteria are known as:

A) Parasites / pathogens

B) Microbes

C) Germs

D) A, B and C

Definition

PARASITES / PATHOGENS  

MICROBES

GERMS

Pathogenic (path-uh-JEN-ik) bacteria are harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body.

Bacteria (bak-TEER-ee-ah) (singular: bacterium, back-TEER-ee-um) are one-celled microorganisms that have both plant and animal characteristics.

A microorganism (my-kroh-OR-gah-niz-um) is any organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size. Some bacteria are harmful and some are harmless. Bacteria can exist almost anywhere: on skin, in water, in the air, in decayed matter, on environmental surfaces, in body secretions, on clothing, or under the free edge of nails. Bacteria are so small they can only be seen with a microscope. 

 

 

Term

294) Which of the following is not one of the 3 types of Pathogenic bacteria:

A) Cocci

B) Spirilla

C) Saprophytes

D) Bacilli

Definition

SAPROPHYTES

sap·ro·phyte (spr-ft) n. An organism, especially a fungus or bacterium that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter. 

•  Cocci (KOK-sy) are round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone)or in groups 

•  Bacilli (bah-SIL-ee) are short rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), 

 SPIRILLA  (spy-RIL-ah) are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria. They are subdivided into subgroups, such as treponema papillida, which causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease  (STD), and borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease 

 

•  Diplococci (dip-lo-KOK-sy) are spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia.

 

Staphylococci (staf-uh-loh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils. Some types of staphylococci (or staph as many call it) may not cause infections in healthy humans.

•  Streptococci (strep-toh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning .

 

 

Term

295) Bacteria that appears in bunches or grape like clusters:

A) Cocci

B) Streptococci

C) Staphlococci

D) Spirilla

Definition

[image]

STAPHYLOCOCCI

 Staphylococci (staf-uh-loh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils . Some types of staphylococci (or staph as many call it) may not cause infections in healthy humans

Term

296) Which of the following is a vegetable parasite:

A) Scabies

B) Pediculosis

C) Tinea / Ringworm

D) A & C

Definition

TINEA / RINGWORM

Tinea (TIN-ee-uh) is the technical term for ringworm. It is characterized by itching, scales, and, sometimes, painful circular lesions. Several patches may be present at one time. Tinea is caused by a fungal organism and not a parasite, as the old-fashioned term ringworm seems to suggest. All forms of tinea are contagious and can be easily transmitted from one person to another. Infected skin scales or hairs that contain the fungi are known to spread the disease. Bathtubs, swimming pools, and uncleaned personal articles are also sources of transmission. Practicing approved cleaning and disinfection procedures will help prevent the spread of this disease in the salon. 

 

 

Term

297) Make-up Technique to make close set eyes appear wider / further apart:

A) Apply shadow to the inner corners

B) Apply shadow to outer corners

C) Tweeze the brows further apart

D) Both B and C

Definition

[image]

  • APPLY SHADOW TO THE OUTER CORNERS
  • TWEEZE THE BROWS FURTHER APART
Term

298) Make-up Technique to wide set eyes appear closer together:

A) Apply shadow to the inner corners

B) Apply shadow to outer corners

C) Pencil the brows closer together

D) Both B and C

Definition

APPLY SHADOW TO INNER CORNERS

PENCIL THE BROWS CLOSER TOGETHER

Term

299) How many tissues are found in the human body:

A) 4

B) 5

C) 7

D) 3

Definition

4

Tissue (TISH-oo) is a collection of similar cells that perform a particular function. Each kind of tissue has a specific function and can be recognized by its characteristic appearance. Body tissues are composed of large amounts of water, along with various other substances. There are four types of tissue in the body:

Connective tissue is fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body. Examples of connective tissue are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph, and adipose tissue (ADD-ih-pohz TISH-oo), a technical term for fat. Adipose tissue gives smoothness and contour to the body. 

  Epithelial tissue (ep-ih-THEE-lee-ul _ TISH-oo) is a protective covering on body surfaces, such as skin, mucous membranes, the  tissue inside the mouth, the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and the glands.

 Muscle tissue contracts and moves various parts of the body.

Nerve tissue carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neUrons that make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord.

 

 

Term

300) This pin-curl, placed correctly, allows the greatest movement / mobility:

A) Half off base

B) Full stem

C) Half stem

D) Off base

Definition

[image]

FULL STEM

The full-stem curl allows for the greatest mobility. The curl is placed completely off the base. The base may be a square, triangular, half-moon, or rectangular section, depending on the area of the head in which the full-stem curls are used. It gives as much freedom as the length of the stem will permit. If it is exaggerated, the hair near the scalp will be flat and almost straight. It is used to give the hair a strong, definite direction 

Term

301) The process of removing hair at the surface of the skin:

A) Waxing

B) Depilation

C) Epilation

D) Electrolysis

Definition

DEPILATION

A depilatory is a substance, Usually a caustic alkali preparation, used for the temporary removal of superfluous hair by dissolving it at the  skin’s surface. it contains detergents to strip the sebum from the hair and adhesives to hold the chemicals to the hair shaft for the five to ten minutes necessary to remove the hair. During the application time, the hair expands and the disulfide bonds break. Finally, such chemicals as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, thioglycolic acid, or calcium thioglycolate destroy the disulfide bonds. These chemicals turn the hair into a soft, jelly-like mass that can be scraped from the skin. Although depilatories are not commonly used in salons, you should be familiar with them in the event that your clients have used them

 

 

Term

302) The process of removing hair below the surface of the skin:

A) Waxing

B) Depilation

C) Epilation

D) Electrolysis

Definition

EPILATION

An epilator removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle. Wax is a commonly used epilator, applied in either hot or cold form as recommended by the manufacturer. Both products are made primarily of resins and beeswax. Cold wax is somewhat thicker and does not require fabric strips for removal. Because waxing removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle, the hair takes longer to grow back. The time between waxings is generally four to six weeks

 

 

Term

303) Waxing is an example of which type of hair removal:

A) Photo-epilation

B) Depilation

C) Epilation

D) Electrolysis

 

Definition

EPILATION

An epilator removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle. Wax is a commonly used epilator, applied in either hot or cold form as recommended by the manufacturer. Both products are made primarily of resins and beeswax. Cold wax is somewhat thicker and does not require fabric strips for removal. Because waxing removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle, the hair takes longer to grow back. The time between waxings is generally four to six weeks

 

 

Term

304) Tweezing is an example of:

A) Photo-epilation

B) Depilation

C) Epilation

D) Electrolysis

 

Definition

EPILATION

An epilator removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle. Wax is a commonly used epilator, applied in either hot or cold form as recommended by the manufacturer. Both products are made primarily of resins and beeswax. Cold wax is somewhat thicker and does not require fabric strips for removal. Because waxing removes the hair from the bottom of the follicle, the hair takes longer to grow back. The time between waxings is generally four to six weeks

 

 

Term

305) Reduction occurs during which stage of the permanent wave:

A) Processing

B) Blocking

C) Neutralizing

D) Wrapping

Definition

[image]

PROCESSING


Reduction Reaction

Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called reduction. A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen. The reduction reaction in permanent waving is due to the addition of hydrogen. The chemical process of permanent waving involves the following reactions:

•  A disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms in two adjacent  polypeptide chains.

•  permanent wave solution breaks a disulfide bond by adding a hydrogen atom to each of its sulfur atoms.

•  The sulfur atoms attach to the hydrogen from the permanent waving solution, breaking their attachment to each other.

•  Once the disulfide bond is broken, the polypeptide chains can form into their new curled shape. Reduction breaks disulfide bonds and oxidation reforms them. 

All permanent wave solutions contain a reducing agent. The reducing agent commonly referred to as thio is used in permanent waving solutions. It contains a thiol (THy-ohl), which is a particular group of compounds, along with carboxylic acid Thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLY-kuh-lik), a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. The strength of the permanent waving solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio. Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means that more disulfide bonds are broken compared to weaker perms. Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) (uh-MOH-nee-um _  thy-oh-Gly-kuh-layt), which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents. The degree of alkalinity (pH) is a second factor in the overall strength of the waving solution. Coarse hair with a strong, resistant cuticle layer needs the additional swelling and penetration that is provided by a more alkaline waving solution. By contrast, porous hair, or hair with a damaged cuticle layer, is easily penetrated and could be damaged by a highly alkaline permanent waving solution. The alkalinity of the perm solution should correspond to the resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer

 

 

Term

306) Oxidation occurs during which stage of the permanent wave or chemical relaxer process:

A) Processing

B) Blocking

C) Neutralizing

D) Wrapping

 

Definition

NEUTRALIZING

In permanent waving, thio neutralization stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form. Neutralization performs two important functions:

• Any waving solution that remains in the hair is deactivated (neutralized).

• Disulfide bonds that were broken by the waving solution are rebuilt. The neutralizers used in permanent waving are oxidizers. In fact, the term neutralizer is not accurate because the chemical reaction involved is actually oxidation. The most common neutralizer is hydrogen peroxide. Concentrations vary between 5 volume (1.5 percent) and 10 volume (3 percent).

 

 

Term

307) The primary reducing agent in most alkaline permanent waves is:

A) Glycerl Monothioglycolate

B) Ammonium Thioglycolate

C) Guanidine

D) Sodium Hypochloride

Definition

AMMONIUM THIOGLYCOLATE 

Thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLy-kuh-lik), a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. The strength of the permanent waving solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio 

Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means that more disulfide bonds are broken compared to weaker perms. Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) (uh-MOH-nee-um thy-oh-GLy-kuh-layt), which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.

 

 

 

Term

308) The primary reducing agent in most acid permanent waves is:

A) Glycerl Monothioglycolate

B) Ammonium Thioglycolate

C) Guanidine

D) Sodium Hydroxide

Definition

GLYCERL MONOTHIOGLYCOLATE

Acid Waves

Glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)

(GLIS-ur-il mon-oh-thY-oh-Gly-koh-laYt) is the main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions. It has a low pH. Although it is the primary reducing agent in all acid waves, it may not be the only one. Most acid waves also contain ATG, just like a cold wave. Although the low pH of acid waves may seem ideal, repeated exposure to GMTG is known to cause allergic sensitivity in both hairstylists and clients.

 

 

 

Term

309) ______________ is the primary reducing agent in most Alkaline perms:

A) Glycerl Monothioglycolate

B) Ammonium Thioglycolate / ATG

C) Guanidine

D) Sodium Hydroxide

 

Definition

AMMONIUM THIOGLYCOLATE / ATG


Thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLy-kuh-lik), a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. The strength of the permanent waving solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio

Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means that more disulfide bonds are broken compared to weaker perms. Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) (uh-MOH-nee-um thy-oh-GLy-kuh-layt), which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.

 

 

Term

310) The primary reducing agent in most relaxers: 

A) Glycerl Monothioglycolate

B) Ammonium Thioglycolate

C) Guanidine

D) Sodium Hydroxide

 

Definition

SODIUM HYDROXIDE

The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers, which are very strong alkalis with a pH over 13. Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, and guanidine hydroxide are all types of hydroxide relaxers, which can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter.

Term

311) The approximate pH of most alkaline permanent waves is:

A) 7

B) 9.5 - 10.5

C) 8.2 - 9.6

D) 4

Definition

[image]

8.2 - 9.6

Alkaline waves, also known as cold waves, were developed in 1941, have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition  of heat

 

 

 

Term

312) The approximate pH of most alkaline permanent waves neutralizers is:

A) 7

B) 9.5 - 10.5

C) 8.2 - 9.6

D) 4

Definition

4

The neutralizers used in permanent waving are oxidizers. In fact, the term neutralizer is not accurate because the chemical reaction involved is actually oxidation. The most common neutralizer is hydrogen peroxide. Concentrations vary between 5 volume (1.5 percent) and 10 volume (3 percent

 

Term

313) The most common neutralizer for an alkaline permanent wave is:

A) H202

B) Sodium Bromide

C) Guanidine

D) H2O

Definition

H2O2

The neutralizers used in permanent waving are oxidizers. in fact, the term neutralizer is not accurate because the chemical reaction involved is actually oxidation. The most common neutralizer is hydrogen peroxide. Concentrations vary between 5 volume (1.5 percent) and 10 volume (3 percent).

Term

314) The presence of this substance will leave the hair unfit for additional chemical services- such as, chemical relaxers, permanent waves, or permanent color:

A) Metallic salts / dyes

B) Aniline Derivative tints

C) Henna

D) Both A & C

Definition

METALLIC SALTS / DYES 

HENNA

Metallic Salts……….Some home hair coloring products contain metallic salts that are not compatible with permanent waving. Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause uneven curls, severe discoloration, or hair breakage. Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause uneven curls, severe discoloration, or hair breakage. Metallic salts are more commonly found in men’s haircolors that are sold for home use. Haircolor restorers and progressive haircolors that darken the hair gradually with repeated applications are the most likely to contain metallic salts. If you suspect that metallic salts may be present on the hair, perform the following test. In a glass or plastic bowl, mix 1 ounce of 20-volume peroxide with 20 drops of 28-percent ammonia. immerse at least 20 strands of hair in the solution for thirty minutes. If metallic salts are not present, the hair will lighten slightly and you may proceed with the service. If metallic salts are present, the hair will lighten rapidly. The solution may get hot and give off an unpleasant odor, indicating that you should not proceed with the service.

Natural haircolors, also known as vegetable haircolors, such as henna, are colors obtained from the leaves or bark of plants. They do not lighten natural hair color. The color result tends to be weak, and the process tends to be lengthy and messy. Also, shade ranges are limited. For instance, henna is usually available only in clear, black, chestnut, and auburn tones. Finally, when a client who has used natural haircolor comes to the salon for chemical haircoloring services, she may be distressed to find out that many of these chemical products cannot be applied over natural haircolors.

 

  

Term

315) An "Endothermic" permanent wave is one that:

A) Requires heat from an outside source

B) is Highlt Alkaline

C) Generates it's own heat

D) None of the above

Definition

   REQUIRES HEAT FROM AN OUTSIDE SOURCE

An endothermic chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surroundings. Endothermic waves (en-duh-THUR-mik) are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer. Endothermic waves will not process properly at room temperature. Most true acid waves are endothermic and require the added heat of a hair dryer. 

 

 

Term

316) An "Exothermic" permanent wave is one that:

A) Requires heat from an outside source

B) is Highly Alkaline

C) Generates it's own heat

D) None of the above

Definition

GENERATES IT'S OWN HEAT

An exothermic chemical reaction produces heat. Exothermic waves (Eks-oh-THUR-mik) create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing. All exothermic waves have three components:  permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer. The permanent waving solution contains thio, just as in a cold wave. The activator contains an oxidizing agent (usually hydrogen peroxide) that must be added to the permanent waving solution immediately before use. Mixing an oxidizer with the permanent waving solution causes a rapid release of heat and an increase in the temperature of the solution. The increased temperature increases the rate of the chemical reaction, which shortens the processing time. 

 

Term

317) These are the weakest bonds in the hair, they can be broken by heat, humidity, wind, and pressure:

A) Disulfide Bond

B) Hydrogen Bonds

C) Sulfide Bonds

D) Bearer Bonds

Definition

[image]

HYDROGEN BONDS

Side Bonds of the Cortex

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains. Polypeptide chains are cross-linked like the rungs on a ladder by three different types of side bonds that link the polypeptide chains together and are responsible for the extreme strength and elasticity of human hair. They are essential to services such as wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing. The three types of side bonds are hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds 

• A hydrogen bond is a weak, physical, cross-link side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Hydrogen bonds are broken by wetting the hair with water. That allows the hair to be stretched and wrapped around rollers. The hydrogen bonds reform when the hair dries.

•  A salt bond is also a weak, physical, cross-link side bond between adjacent polypeptide chains. Salt bonds depend on pH, so they are easily broken by strong alkaline or acidic solutions. Even though they are weak bonds, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. 

•  A disulfide bond (dy-SUL-fyd BAHND) is a strong, chemical, side bond that is very different from the physical side bond of a hydrogen bond or salt bond. The disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine (SIS-ti-een) amino acids to create one cystine (SIS-teen). The cystine joins together two polypeptide strands. Although there are far fewer disulfide bonds than hydrogen or salt bonds, disulfide bonds are so much stronger that they also account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Disulfide bonds are not broken by water. They are broken by permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of hair additionally, normal amounts of heat, such as the heat used in conventional thermal styling, do not break disulfide bonds. The bonds can be broken by extreme heat produced by boiling water and some high-temperature thermal styling tools such as straightening or flat irons. Thio permanent waves break disulfide bonds and reform the bonds with thio neutralizers. Hydroxide chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds and then convert them to lanthionine bonds (lan-THY-oh-neen BAHNDZ) when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair. The disulfide bonds that are treated with hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be reformed

 

 

Term

318) These are the strongest bonds in the hair, they can only be broken by chemicals or boiling water:

A) Disulfide BondS

B) Hydrogen Bonds

C) Sulfide Bonds

D) Bearer Bonds

Definition

[image]

DISULFIDE BONDS

• A disulfide bond (dy-SUL-fyd BAHND) is a strong, chemical, side bond that is very different from the physical side bond of a hydrogen bond or salt bond. The disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine (SIS-ti-een) amino acids to create one cystine (SIS-teen). The cystine joins together two polypeptide strands. Although there are far fewer disulfide bonds than hydrogen or salt bonds, disulfide bonds are so much stronger that they also account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Disulfide bonds are not broken by water. They are broken by permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of hair Additionally, normal amounts of heat, such as the heat used in conventional thermal styling, do not break disulfide bonds. The bonds can be broken by extreme heat produced by boiling water and some high-temperature thermal styling tools such as straightening or flat irons. Thio permanent waves break disulfide bonds and reform the bonds with thio neutralizers. Hydroxide chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds and then convert them to lanthionine bonds (lan-THY-oh-neen BAHNDZ) when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair. The disulfide bonds that are treated with hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be reformed

 

Side Bonds of the Cortex

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains. Polypeptide chains are cross-linked like the rungs on a ladder by three different types of side bonds that link the polypeptide chains together and are responsible for the extreme strength and elasticity of human hair. They are essential to services such as wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing (see Chapter 20, Chemical Texture Services). The three types of side bonds are hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds 

• A hydrogen bond is a weak, physical, cross-link side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Hydrogen bonds are broken by wetting the hair with water (Figure 11–7). That allows the hair to be stretched and wrapped around rollers. The hydrogen bonds reform when the hair dries.

• A salt bond is also a weak, physical, cross-link side bond between adjacent polypeptide chains. Salt bonds depend on pH, so they are easily broken by strong alkaline or acidic solutions. Even though they are weak bonds, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. 

•  A disulfide bond (dy-SUL-fyd BAHND) is a strong, chemical, side bond that is very different from the physical side bond of a hydrogen bond or salt bond. The disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine (SIS-ti-een) amino acids to create one cystine (SIS-teen). The cystine joins together two polypeptide strands. Although there are far fewer disulfide bonds than hydrogen or salt bonds, disulfide bonds are so much stronger that they also account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Disulfide bonds are not broken by water. They are broken by permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of hair Additionally, normal amounts of heat, such as the heat used in conventional thermal styling, do not break disulfide bonds. The bonds can be broken by extreme heat produced by boiling water and some high-temperature thermal styling tools such as straightening or flat irons. Thio permanent waves break disulfide bonds and reform the bonds with thio neutralizers. Hydroxide chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds and then convert them to lanthionine bonds (lan-THY-oh-neen BAHNDZ) when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair. The disulfide bonds that are treated with hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be reformed

 

 

Term

319) The sebaceous gland produce:

A) Sebum

B) Sweat

C) Oil

D) A and C

Definition

Sebum and Oil

SECRETION...The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands

Sebaceous glands (sih-BAY-shus GLANZ), also known as oil glands, are connected to the hair follicles. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete sebum (SEE-bum), a fatty or oily substance that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair. With the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly in the face and scalp, where they are larger.

 

 

Term

320) Sudoriferous Glands produce_____________and one of their functions is____________:

A) Sebum / heat regulation

B) Sweat / lubrication for the skin

C) Perspiration / heat regulation

D) Both B and C

Definition

PERSPIRATION / HEAT REGULATION

The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin. The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands Sudoriferous glands (sood-uh-RIF-uhrus GLANZ), also known as sweat glands, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a secretory coil (seh-KREET-toh-ree KOYL), the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudoriferous glands, which are more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead, and the underarm (armpit). The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin’s surface. The activity of sudoriferous glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions, and certain The excretion of sweat is controlled by the nervous system. Normally, 1 to 2 pints of salt-containing liquids are eliminated daily through sweat pores in the skin

Term

321) Small, thin bones, located at the front, inner walls, of the orbits:

A) Malar bones

B) Lacrimal Bones

C) Zygomatic Bone

D) Hyoid Bones

Definition

[image]

LACRIMAL BONES

The lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit. It has two surfaces and four borders.

Term

322) These bones form the prominence of the cheeks:

A) Zygomatic Bone

B) Malar bones

C) Hyoid Bones

D) A & B

 

 

Definition

ZYGOMATIC BONE

MALAR BONES

Zygomatic bones (zy-goh-MAT-ik BOHNS), also known as malar bones or cheekbones. Bones that form the prominence of the cheeks. There are two zygomatic bones. 

zygomatic bone- (malar bone) In the human skull, the zygomatic bone (cheekbone, malar bone) is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. It is situated at the upper and lateral part of the face and forms the prominence of the cheek, part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit, and parts of the temporal and infratemporal fossa. It presents a malar and a temporal surface; three processes, the frontosphenoidal, orbital, maxillary, and temporal; and four borders

.

 

 

Term

323) A stable mixture of two or more substances, mixed together, that will not seperate upon standing:

A) Solution

B) Suspension

C) Emulsion

D) Colloid

Definition

SOLUTION 

A solution is a stable physical mixture of two or more substances. The solute (SAHL-yoot) is the substance that is dissolved into solution

 

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

.

 

 

Term

324) An unstable mixture of two or more substances, mixed together, that seperate upon standing:

A) Solution

B) Suspension

C) Emulsion

D) Colloid

Definition

     SUSPENSION 

Suspensions.....Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

 

D. Chocolate Milk 


Colloids

Emulsion* A blend of two liquid where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other. It is not strictly a mixture, because the two liquids do not actually mix. The technical term for combinations of this kind is a colloid*. 

  An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. An example of an emulsion is hand lotion.

 

Term

325) An unstable mixture of two or more substances, mixed together, that will seperate upon standing, unless held together by additional chemicals:

A) Solution

B) Suspention

C) Emulsion

D) Colloid

Definition

EMULSION

Colloids

Emulsion* A blend of two liquid where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other. It is not strictly a mixture, because the two liquids do not actually mix. The technical term for combinations of this kind is a colloid*. 

  An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. An example of an emulsion is hand lotion.

 

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

D. Chocolate Milk 

.

 

  

 

 

 

 

Term

326) An unstable mixture of two or more substances, mixed together, that will seperate upon standing, unless held together by additional chemicals and it contains particles large enough to be seen with the naked eye:

A) Solution

B) Suspention

C) Emulsion

D) Colloid

Definition

COLLOID

Colloids

Emulsion* A blend of two liquid where one forms tiny droplets which are evenly dispersed in the other. It is not strictly a mixture, because the two liquids do not actually mix. The technical term for combinations of this kind is a colloid*. 

  An emulsion (ee-MUL-shun) is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier. An emulsifier (ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur) is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend. Emulsions are considered to be a special type of suspension because they can separate, but the separation usually happens very slowly over a long period of time. An example of an emulsion is hand lotion.

What Is A Mixture? 

1. Mixtures- two or more things combine physically 

    in no specific proportions. They just mix. 

2. A mixture is not chemically combined. 

3. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and chromatography 

4. Mixtures can be divided into two groups 

         A. Homogenous mixtures 

         B. Heterogeneous mixtures 

 

1. Hydrogen is an element. 

2. Oxygen is an element. 

3. When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.

4. When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. 

 

    Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. 

 

What Is a Homogenous Mixture? 

1. A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that is evenly distributed- THE SAME THROUGHOUT 

2. Homogeneous mixtures called solutions or colloids

   A. Solution = Solute + Solvent 

    I. Solute: substance being dissolved 

    II. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving 

3. The solvent is present in greater quantity 

4. The solute is present in the lesser quantity 

   A. Ex: Salt water Salt = solute Water = solven



Solutions - Homogeneous Mixture

1. A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another.

2. The size of the solute in a solution ion, atom or molecular, so solutions never settle –they always still mixed. 

3. Solutions never settle and solutions never show the Tyndal effect. 

 

Colloid – Homogeneous Mixture

1. In a colloid the particles are mixed together but not dissolved. 

2. The particles are microscopic size so they are kept permanently suspended. 

3. A colloid will not separate upon standing. 

4. The particles are constantly colliding, and this allows a colloid to scatter light – thus colloids often seem cloudy. 

Colloids and the Tyndal Effect 

The microscopic particles of a colloid reflect the light that passes through it so you see the “beam of light” 

–it’s called the Tyndal Effect 

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Suspension 

1. Suspension – the solute is unevenly distributed, has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it. 

2. Examples 

A. Paint 

B. Chex Mix: You may find a different number of pretzels or Chex cereal in each handful; therefore, the mixture is unevenly distributed 

C. Italian Salad dressing 

 

D. Chocolate Milk 

Term

327) Which is the longest stage of hair growth:

A) Halogen

B) Telagen

C) Catagan

D) Anagen

Definition

                        ANAGEN

 During the anagen phase (AN-uh-jen FAYZ), also known as growth phase, new hair is produced. New cells are actively manufactured in the hair follicle. During this phase, hair cells are produced faster than any other normal cell in the human body. The average growth of healthy scalp hair is about ½ (0.5) inch (1.25 centimeters) per month. The rate of growth varies  on different parts of the body, between sexes, and with age. Scalp hair grows faster on women than on men. Scalp hair grows rapidly between the ages of 15 and 30, but slows down sharply after the age of 50. About 90 percent of scalp hair is growing in the anagen phase at any time. The anagen phase generally lasts from three to five years, but in some cases, it can last as long as 10 years. The longer the anagen cycle is, the longer the hair is able to grow. This is why some people can only grow their hair down to their shoulders, while others can grow it down to the floor!

Term

328) Which is know as the "Resting Stage" of the hair:

A) Halogen

B) Telagen

C) Catagan

D) Anagen

 

Definition

TELAGEN

The telogen phase (TEL-uh-jen FAYZ), also known as resting phase, is the final phase in the hair cycle and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed. The hair is either shed during the telogen phase or remains in place until the next anagen phase, when the new hair growing in pushes it out. About 10 percent of scalp hair is in the telogen phase at any one time. The telogen phase lasts for approximately three to six months. As soon as the telogen phase ends, the hair returns to the anagen phase and begins the entire ycle again. On average, the entire growth cycle repeats itself once every four to five years

 

 

 

Term

329) Which is know as the "Transitional Stage" of the hair of hair growth:

A) Halogen

B) Telagen

C) Catagan

D) Anagen

Definition

                                              CATAGEN

The catagen phase (KAT-uh-jen FAYZ) is the brief transition period between the growth and resting phases of a hair follicle. It signals the end of the anagen phase. During the catagen phase, the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla. The hair bulb disappears and the shrunken root end forms a rounded club. Less than one percent of scalp hair is in the catagen phase at any time. The catagen phase is very short, lasting from one to two weeks.

Term

330) The Growth Stage of hair lasts between:

A) 1 & 7 years

B) 2 & 5 years

C) 2 & 6 months

D) 8 & 10 years 

Definition

                                           1 & 7 years ?

During the anagen phase (AN-uh-jen FAYZ), also known as growth phase, new hair is produced. New cells are actively manufactured in the hair follicle. During this phase, hair cells are produced faster than any other normal cell in the human body. The average growth of healthy scalp hair is about ½ (0.5) inch (1.25 centimeters) per month. The rate of growth varies  on different parts of the body, between sexes, and with age. Scalp hair grows faster on women than on men. Scalp hair grows rapidly between the ages of 15 and 30, but slows down sharply after the age of 50. About 90 percent of scalp hair is growing in the anagen phase at any time. The anagen phase generally lasts from three to five years, but in some cases, it can last as long as 10 years. The longer the anagen cycle is, the longer the hair is able to grow. This is why some people can only grow their hair down to their shoulders, while others can grow it down to the floor!

Term

331) A healthy nail cuticle will typically be:

A) Loose & Pliable

B) Loose & Rigid

C) Rigid & Pliable

D) Dry & Pliable

Definition
LOOSE AND PLIABLE
Term

332) Which bonds are broken and reformed into a new shape in the processing action of both permanent waving and chemical relaxer service:

A) Hydrogen Bonds

B) "S" Bonds

C) Disulfide Bonds

D) Salt Bonds

Definition

[image]

DISULFIDE BONDS

Side Bonds of the Cortex

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains. Polypeptide chains are cross-linked like the rungs on a ladder by three different types of side bonds that link the polypeptide chains together and are responsible for the extreme strength and elasticity of human hair. They are essential to services such as wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing. The three types of side bonds are hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds  

  A disulfide bond (dy-SUL-fyd BAHND) is a strong, chemical, side bond that is very different from the physical side bond of a hydrogen bond or salt bond. The disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine (SIS-ti-een) amino acids to create one cystine (SIS-teen). The cystine joins together two polypeptide strands. Although there are far fewer disulfide bonds than hydrogen or salt bonds, disulfide bonds are so much stronger that they also account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Disulfide bonds are not broken by water. They are broken by permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of hair additionally, normal amounts of heat, such as the heat used in conventional thermal styling, do not break disulfide bonds. The bonds can be broken by extreme heat produced by boiling water and some high-temperature thermal styling tools such as straightening or flat irons. Thio permanent waves break disulfide bonds and reform the bonds with thio neutralizers. Hydroxide chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds and then convert them to lanthionine bonds (lan-THY-oh-neen BAHNDZ) when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair. The disulfide bonds that are treated with hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be reformed

• A hydrogen bond is a weak, physical, cross-link side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Hydrogen bonds are broken by wetting the hair with water. That allows the hair to be stretched and wrapped around rollers. The hydrogen bonds reform when the hair dries.

• A salt bond is also a weak, physical, cross-link side bond between adjacent polypeptide chains. Salt bonds depend on pH, so they are easily broken by strong alkaline or acidic solutions. Even though they are weak bonds, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. 

 

 

 

Term

333) Type of design line used to create length and height in a hair cut:

A) Curved lines

B) Diagional lines

C) Horizontal Lines

D) Verticle Lines

Definition

[image]

VERTICLE

Line defines form and space. The presence of one nearly always means that the other two are involved. Lines create the shape, design, and movement of a hairstyle. The eye follows the lines in a design. They can be straight or curved. There are four basic types of lines:

Vertical lines create length and height in hair design. They make a hairstyle appear longer and narrower as the eye follows the lines up and down 

Horizontal lines create width in hair design. They extend in the same direction and maintain a constant distance apart—from the floor or horizon

Diagonal lines are positioned between horizontal and vertical lines. They are often used to emphasize or minimize facial features. Diagonal lines are also used to create interest in hair design 

Curved lines, lines moving in a circular or semi-circular direction, soften a design. They can be large or small, a full circle, or just part  of a circle  Curved lines may move in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. They can be placed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Curved lines repeating in opposite directions create a wave

 

 

Term

334) Type of design line used to make the hairstyle appear Longer and narrower:

A) Curved lines

B) Diagional lines

C) Horizontal Lines

D) Verticle Lines

Definition

[image]

VERTICLE

Line defines form and space. The presence of one nearly always means that the other two are involved. Lines create the shape, design, and movement of a hairstyle. The eye follows the lines in a design. They can be straight or curved. There are four basic types of lines:

Vertical lines create length and height in hair design. They make a hairstyle appear longer and narrower as the eye follows the lines up and down 

Horizontal lines create width in hair design. They extend in the same direction and maintain a constant distance apart—from the floor or horizon

Diagonal lines are positioned between horizontal and vertical lines. They are often used to emphasize or minimize facial features. Diagonal lines are also used to create interest in hair design  

Curved lines, lines moving in a circular or semi-circular direction, soften a design. They can be large or small, a full circle, or just part  of a circle  Curved lines may move in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. They can be placed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Curved lines repeating in opposite directions create a wave

Term

335) Type of design line that are straight up and down:

A) Curved lines

B) Diagional lines

C) Horizontal Lines

D) Verticle Lines

Definition

[image]

VERTICLE

Line defines form and space. The presence of one nearly always means that the other two are involved. Lines create the shape, design, and movement of a hairstyle. The eye follows the lines in a design. They can be straight or curved. There are four basic types of lines:

Vertical lines create length and height in hair design. They make a hairstyle appear longer and narrower as the eye follows the lines up and down 

Horizontal lines create width in hair design. They extend in the same direction and maintain a constant distance apart—from the floor or horizon

Diagonal lines are positioned between horizontal and vertical lines. They are often used to emphasize or minimize facial features. Diagonal lines are also used to create interest in hair design  

Curved lines, lines moving in a circular or semi-circular direction, soften a design. They can be large or small, a full circle, or just part  of a circle  Curved lines may move in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. They can be placed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Curved lines repeating in opposite directions create a wave

Term

336) Type of design line that are parallel to the floor, used to create width, or bulk in the finishing design:

A) Curved lines

B) Diagional lines

C) Horizontal Lines

D) Verticle Lines

Definition

[image]

HORIZONTAL

Line defines form and space. The presence of one nearly always means that the other two are involved. Lines create the shape, design, and movement of a hairstyle. The eye follows the lines in a design. They can be straight or curved. There are four basic types of lines:

Horizontal lines create width in hair design. They extend in the same direction and maintain a constant distance apart—from the floor or horizon

Vertical lines create length and height in hair design. They make a hairstyle appear longer and narrower as the eye follows the lines up and down 

Diagonal lines are positioned between horizontal and vertical lines. They are often used to emphasize or minimize facial features. Diagonal lines are also used to create interest in hair design  

Curved lines, lines moving in a circular or semi-circular direction, soften a design. They can be large or small, a full circle, or just part  of a circle  Curved lines may move in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. They can be placed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Curved lines repeating in opposite directions create a wave

Term

337) The most common pH range of an Ammonium Thiogycolate perm is:

A) 4.5 - 5.5

B) 6.5 - 7.5

C) 8.2 - 9.6

D) 9.6 - 10.8

Definition

[image]

8.2 - 9.6 ?

Alkaline Waves or Cold Waves Alkaline waves, also known as cold waves, were develoved in 1941, have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat. All permanent wave solutions contain a reducing agent. The reducing agent commonly referred to as thio is used in permanent waving solutions. It contains a thiol (THy-ohl), which is a particular group of compounds, along with carboxylic acid. Thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLy-kuh-lik), a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. The strength of the permanent waving solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio. Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means  that more disulfide bonds are broken compared to weaker perms. Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) (uh-MOH-nee-um thy-oh-GLy-kuh-layt), which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents. The degree of alkalinity (pH) is a second factor in the overall strength of the waving solution. Coarse hair with a strong, resistant cuticle layer needs the additional swelling and penetration that is provided by a more alkaline waving solution.

 

 

Term

338) Term for rolling the hair from ends to the scalp (perm, curling iron):

A) Croquingnole

B) Spiral

C) Piggyback

D) Tiered

Definition

[image]

CROQUIGNOLE

Wrapping Techniques There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod: croquignole perm wrap and spiral perm wrap.

croquignole perm wrap (KROH-ken-ohl) is wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers. Because the hair is wrapped perpendicular to the length of the rod, each new layer of hair is wrapped on top of the previous layer, increasing the size (diameter) of the curl with each new overlapping layer, because each layer is rolled on top of the previous ones. This produces a tighter curl at the ends, and a larger curl at the scalp. longer, thicker hair increases this effect. in a spiral perm wrap the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on a candy cane. A spiral perm wrap may partially overlay the preceding layers. As long as the angle remains constant, any overlay will be uniform along the length of the rod and the strand of hair. This wrapping technique causes the size (diameter) of the curl to remain 

Term

339) Term for rolling the hair from scalp to ends (perms, curling irons):

A) Croquignole

B) Spiral

C) Piggyback

D) Tiered

Definition

[image]

SPIRAL

Wrapping Techniques There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod: croquignole perm wrap and spiral perm wrap.

croquignole perm wrap (KROH-ken-ohl) is wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers. Because the hair is wrapped perpendicular to the length of the rod, each new layer of hair is wrapped on top of the previous layer, increasing the size (diameter) of the curl with each new overlapping layer, because each layer is rolled on top of the previous ones. This produces a tighter curl at the ends, and a larger curl at the scalp. longer, thicker hair increases this effect. in a spiral perm wrap the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on a candy cane. A spiral perm wrap may partially overlay the preceding layers. As long as the angle remains constant, any overlay will be uniform along the length of the rod and the strand of hair. This wrapping technique causes the size (diameter) of the curl to remain 

 

 

Term

340) Type of perm wrap / curling iron set producing a curl looser at the scalp:

A) Croquignole

B) Spiral

C) Piggyback

D) Tiered

Definition

[image]

CROQUIGNOLE

Wrapping Techniques There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod: croquignole perm wrap and spiral perm wrap.

croquignole perm wrap (KROH-ken-ohl) is wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers. Because the hair is wrapped perpendicular to the length of the rod, each new layer of hair is wrapped on top of the previous layer, increasing the size (diameter) of the curl with each new overlapping layer, because each layer is rolled on top of the previous ones. This produces a tighter curl at the ends, and a larger curl at the scalp. longer, thicker hair increases this effect. in a spiral perm wrap the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on a candy cane. A spiral perm wrap may partially overlay the preceding layers. As long as the angle remains constant, any overlay will be uniform along the length of the rod and the strand of hair. This wrapping technique causes the size (diameter) of the curl to remain 

 

 

Term

341) Type of perm wrap / curling iron set producing a uniform curl from scalp to ends:

A) Croquignole

B) Spiral

C) Piggyback

D) Tiered

Definition

[image]

SPIRAL

In a spiral perm wrap the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on a candy cane. A spiral perm wrap may partially overlay the preceding layers. As long as the angle remains constant, any overlay will be uniform along the length of the rod and the strand of hair. This wrapping technique causes the size (diameter) of the curl to remain constant along the entire length of the strand and produces a uniform curl from the scalp to the ends. For extra-long hair, you may need to use a double-rod wrap, also known as piggyback wrap, in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction. This allows for better penetration of the processing solution and for a tighter curl near the scalp than that provided by a conventional croquignole wrap.

 

 

 

Term

342) What is not a type of Side Bond in the hair:

A) Anagen Bonds / A Bonds

B) Hydrogen Bonds / H Bonds

C) Sulfide Bonds / S Bonds

D) Disulfide Bonds / SS Bonds

Definition

ANAGEN BONDS / A BONDS

Side Bonds of the Cortex

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains. Polypeptide chains are cross-linked like the rungs on a ladder by three different types of side 

bonds that link the polypeptide chains together and are responsible for the extreme strength and elasticity of human hair. They are essential to services such as wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing (see Chapter 20, Chemical Texture Services). The three types of side bonds are hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds.

•  A hydrogen bond is a weak, physical, cross-link side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. Hydrogen bonds are broken by wetting the hair with water. That allows the hair to be stretched and wrapped around rollers. The hydrogen bonds reform when the hair Dries. 

•  A salt bond is also a weak, physical, cross-link side bond between adjacent polypeptide chains. Salt bonds depend on pH, so they are easily broken by strong alkaline or acidic solutions. Even though they are weak bonds, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair’s overall strength. 

•  A disulfide bond (dy-SUL-fyd BAHND) is a strong, chemical, side bond that is very different from the physical side bond of a hydrogen bond or salt bond. The disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine (SIS-ti-een) amino acids to create one 

Term

343) The type of perm rod (tool) producing a uniform curl throughout the hair:

A) Converx

B) Concave

C) Straight

D) Spiral

 

Definition

[image]

STRAIGHT

Straight rods are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area. This produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand. Both concave and straight rods come in different lengths to accommodate different sections on the head. Short rods, for instance, can be used for wrapping small and awkward sections where long rods would not fit.

Concave rods are the most common type of perm rod; they have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends. Concave rods produce a tighter curl in the center, and a looser curl on either side of the strand .

Soft bender rods are usually about 12-inches (30.5 centimeters) long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod. These soft foam rods have a flexible wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape .

The loop rod, also known as circle rod, is usually about 12-inches (30.5 centimeters) long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod. After the hair is wrapped, the rod is secured by fastening the ends together to form a loop. Today, many perms are performed with large rollers, rag rollers or other tools, in order to achieve large, loose curls and waves. Larger tools are also used for root perms, in which only the base of the hair is permed in order to create volume and lift without curl.

 

  

Term

344) The type of perm rod (tool) producing a smaller / tighter curl in the center:

A) Converx

B) Concave

C) Straight

D) Spiral

Definition

[image]

Concave rods are the most common type of perm rod; they have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends. Concave rods produce a tighter curl in the center, and a looser curl on either side of the strand .

Straight rods are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area. This produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand. Both concave and straight rods come in different lengths to accommodate different sections on the head. Short rods, for instance, can be used for wrapping small and awkward sections where long rods would not fit.

Soft bender rods are usually about 12-inches (30.5 centimeters) long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod. These soft foam rods have a flexible wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape .

The loop rod, also known as circle rod, is usually about 12-inches (30.5 centimeters) long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod. After the hair is wrapped, the rod is secured by fastening the ends together to form a loop. Today, many perms are performed with large rollers, rag rollers or other tools, in order to achieve large, loose curls and waves. Larger tools are also used for root perms, in which only the base of the hair is permed in order to create volume and lift without curl.

 

 

 

Term

345) Most popular / common type of permanent wave tool used:

A) Converx

B) Concave

C) Straight

D) Spiral

Definition

[image]

CONCAVE

Concave rods are the most common type of perm rod; they have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends. Concave rods produce a tighter curl in the center, and a looser curl on either side of the strand .

Straight rods are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area. This produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand. Both concave and straight rods come in different lengths to accommodate different sections on the head. Short rods, for instance, can be used for wrapping small and awkward sections where long rods would not fit.

Soft bender rods are usually about 12-inches (30.5 centimeters) long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod. These soft foam rods have a flexible wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape .

The loop rod, also known as circle rod, is usually about 12-inches (30.5 centimeters) long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod. After the hair is wrapped, the rod is secured by fastening the ends together to form a loop. Today, many perms are performed with large rollers, rag rollers or other tools, in order to achieve large, loose curls and waves. Larger tools are also used for root perms, in which only the base of the hair is permed in order to create volume and lift without curl.

Term

346) To determine whether a wig is synthetic or human hair, preform a / an:

A) Elasticity Test

B) Preliminary Test Curl

C) Match Test

D) Predisposition Test

Definition

MATCH TEST

What is the fastest way to tell if a strand of hair is a synthetic product or real human hair? Pull the strand out of the wig or hairpiece and burn it with a match. Human hair will burn slowly, giving off a distinctive odor. A strand of synthetic fiber, on the other hand, will either ball up and melt, extinguishing itself (a characteristic of a synthetic like Kanekalon®), or it will continue to flame and burn out very quickly (typical of polyester). In either case, it will not give off an odor.

Term

347) Type of wig best suited for a client with very thin / no hair:

A) Cap Wig

B) Toupee

C) Postiche

D) Capless Wig

Definition

CAP WIG

A cap wig is best for clients with extremely thin hair and for clients with no hair because capless wigs will allow a bald scalp to show through. 

CAP WIG are constructed with an elasticized, mesh-fiber base to which the hair is attached. They are made in several sizes and require special fittings. More often than not, cap wigs are hand-knotted. The front edge of a cap wig is made of a material that resembles the client’s scalp, along with a lace extension and a wire support that is used at the temples for a snug, secure fit. Hair is hand-tied under the net (under-knotted) to conceal the cap edge. The side and back edges contain wire supports, elastic, and hooks for a secure fit. Latex molded cap wigs are also available; these are prostheses for clients with special needs.

Term

348) Type of test to determine hair's suitability to receive a permanent:

A) Strand Test

B) Predisposition Test

C) Porosity Test

D) Elasticity Test

Definition

ELASTICITY TEST / PULL TEST

Perform an analysis of the client’s hair and scalp. Test the hair for elasticity and porosity on several areas of the head. If the hair has poor elasticity, do not perform a relaxer service. Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to pull it apart. If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity

Term

349) The ability of the hair to absorb moisture is referred to as it's:

A) Strength

B) ATG

C) Elasticity 

D) Porosity 

 

Definition

POROSITY

Hair porosity is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. The degree of porosity is directly related to the condition of the cuticle layer. Healthy hair with a compact cuticle layer is naturally resistant to being penetrated by moisture and is referred to as hydrophobic (hy-druh-FOHB-ik). Porous hair has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs moisture and is called hydrophilic                         (hy-druh-FIL-ik).Hair with low porosity is considered resistant. Chemical services performed on hair with low porosity require a more alkaline solution than those on hair with high porosity. Alkaline solutions raise the cuticle and permit uniform saturation and processing on resistant hair. Hair with average porosity is considered to be normal hair. Chemical services performed on this type of hair will usually process as expected, according to the texture.Hair with high porosity is considered overly porous hair and is often the result of previous overprocessing, Overly porous hair is damaged, dry, fragile, and brittle. Chemical services performed on overly porous hair require less alkaline solutions with a lower pH, which help prevent additional overprocessing and damage.The texture of the hair can be an indication of its porosity, but it is only a general rule of thumb. Different degrees of porosity can be found in all hair textures. Although coarse hair normally has a low porosity and is resistant to chemical services, in some cases coarse hair will have high porosity, perhaps as the result of previous chemical services. You can check porosity on dry hair by taking a strand of several hairs from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold the strand securely with one hand while sliding the thumb and forefinger of the other hand from the end to the scalp. If the hair feels smooth and the cuticle is compact, dense, and hard, it is considered resistant. If you can feel a slight roughness, it is considered porous. If the hair feels very rough, dry, or breaks, it is considered highly porous and may have been overprocessed

 

 

Term

350) The ability of the hair to stretch and spring back without breaking:

A) Strength

B) ATG

C) Elasticity 

D) Porosity 

 

Definition

ELASTICITY TEST / PULL TEST

perform an analysis of the client’s hair and scalp. Test the hair for elasticity and porosity on several areas of the head. If the hair has poor elasticity, do not perform a relaxer service. Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to pull it apart. If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity

Term

351) Side Bonds are responsible for the:

A) Elasticity of the hair

B) Porosity of the hair

C) Strength of the hair

D) A & C

 

 

 

Definition

Elasticity of the hair

Strength of the hair

Side Bonds

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds: disulfide, salt, and hydrogen. Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair. Altering these three types of side bonds is what makes wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, curl re-forming, and chemical  hair relaxing possible

Term

352) In what layer of the hair do you find the Side Bonds:

A) Cuticle

B) Madulla

C) Cortex

D) A & C

Definition

[image]

CORTEX

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds: disulfide, salt, and hydrogen. Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair. Altering these three types of side bonds is what makes wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, curl re-forming, and chemical  hair relaxing possible.

Hair is composed of the following three major components:

• The cuticle which is the outermost layer of the hair. it protects the interior cortex layer and contriubtes up to 20 ercent of the overall strength of the hair.

• The cortex which is the middle layer and gives the hair the majority of its strength and elasticity. A healthy cortex contributes about 80 percent to the overall strength of the hair. it contains the natural pigment called melanin that determines hair color. Melanin granules are scattered between the cortex cells like chips in a chocohate chip cookie.

• The medulla which is the innermost layer of the hair. it is sometimes absent from the hair and does not play a role in the haircoloring process.

Term

353) The __________ is composed of millions of polpypeptide bonds crossed linked by three types of Side Bonds:

A) Cuticle

B) Madulla

C) Cortex

D) A & C

Definition

[image]

CORTEX

The cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds: disulfide, salt, and hydrogen. Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair. Altering these three types of side bonds is what makes wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, curl re-forming, and chemical  hair relaxing possible.

Hair is composed of the following three major components:

• The cuticle which is the outermost layer of the hair. it protects the interior cortex layer and contriubtes up to 20 ercent of the overall strength of the hair.

• The cortex which is the middle layer and gives the hair the majority of its strength and elasticity. A healthy cortex contributes about 80 percent to the overall strength of the hair. it contains the natural pigment called melanin that determines hair color. Melanin granules are scattered between the cortex cells like chips in a chocohate chip cookie.

• The medulla which is the innermost layer of the hair. it is sometimes absent from the hair and does not play a role in the haircoloring process.

 

Term

354) Because chemical changes occur during the permanent wave process always preform a / an _______  prior to perming the hair:

A) P.D. Test

B) Strand Test

C) Elasticity Test

D) None of the above

Definition


ELASTICITY TEST

 Perform an analysis of the client’s hair and scalp. Test the hair for elasticity and porosity on several areas of the head. If the hair has poor elasticity, do not perform a relaxer service.Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to pull it apart. If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity

Term

355) Normal elasticity of dry hair is approximatly:

A) 40 - 50%

B) 20%

C) 1/5

D) B & C

Definition

20 %

1/5


ELASTICITY TEST

Perform an analysis of the client’s hair and scalp. Test the hair for elasticity and porosity on several areas of the head. If the hair has poor elasticity, do not perform a relaxer service.Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to pull it apart. If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity

 

 

Term

356) Normal elasticity of wet hair is approximatly:

A) 40 - 50%

B) 20%

C) 1/5

D) B & C

Definition

40 - 50 %

ELASTICITY TEST

Perform an analysis of the client’s hair and scalp. Test the hair for elasticity and porosity on several areas of the head. If the hair has poor elasticity, do not perform a relaxer service.

Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). 

Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to pull it apart. If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity

 

 

Term

357) Elasticity Test is also know as:

A) Patch Test

B) Pull Test

C) Match Test

D) Strand Test

Definition

PULL TEST

ELASTICITY TEST / PULL TEST

Perform an analysis of the client’s hair and scalp. Test the hair for elasticity and porosity on several areas of the head. If the hair has poor elasticity, do not perform a relaxer service. Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to pull it apart. If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity

 

 

Term

358) The _________ of the rod determines the size of the curl:

A) Circumference

B) Diameter

C) Shape

D) Angle

Definition

[image]

DIAMETER

Term

359) Which perm wrapping placement would create the least volume:

A) No Stem

B) On Base

C) Half off Base

D) Off Base

Definition

[image]

OFF BASE

Off-base placement refers to wrapping the hair at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so that the rod is positioned completely off its base . Off-base placement creates the least amount of volume and results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the scalp.In half off-base placement, the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.

Base placement refers to the Position of the rod in relation to its base section; base Placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wraPPed. Rods can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base. 

Half off-base placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair. For on-base placement, the hair is Wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base. Although on-base placement may result in greater volume at the scalp area, any increase in volume will be lost as soon as the hair begins to grow out. Caution should be used with on-base placement, because the additional stress and tension can mark or break the hair.

Term

360) Which perm wrapping placement would create the most volume:

A) No Stem

B) On Base

C) Half off Base

D) Off Base

Definition

[image]

ON BASE

ON Base placement refers to the Position of the rod in relation to its base section; base Placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wraPPed. Rods can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base. Although on-base placement may result in greater volume at the scalp area, any increase in volume will be lost as soon as the hair begins to grow out. Caution should be used with on-base placement, because the additional stress and tension can mark or break the hair. 

Half off-base placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair. For on-base placement, the hair 

is wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base. 

Off-base placement refers to wrapping the hair at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so that the rod is positioned completely off its base . Off-base placement creates the least amount of volume and results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the scalp.In half off-base placement, the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.

Term

361) Which perm wrapping technique creates high tension on the hair and may result in marks on the hair and breakage:

A) No Stem

B) On Base

C) Half off Base

D) Off Base

Definition

[image]

ON BASE

ON Base placement refers to the Position of the rod in relation to its base section; base Placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wraPPed. Rods can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base. Although on-base placement may result in greater volume at the scalp area, any increase in volume will be lost as soon as the hair begins to grow out. Caution should be used with on-base placement, because the additional stress and tension can mark or break the hair. 

Half off-base placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair. For on-base placement, the hair 

is wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base. 

Off-base placement refers to wrapping the hair at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so that the rod is positioned completely off its base . Off-base placement creates the least amount of volume and results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the scalp.In half off-base placement, the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.

Term

362) The end papers / wraps extend past the ends of hair in a perm wave wrap to assure which of the following:

A) No fishhooks

B) Hair is not over-processed

C) keeps hair smooth & straight

D) all of the above

Definition

 No fishhooks

Hair is not over-processed

keeps hair smooth & straight

End papers, also known as end wraps, are absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on the perm rods. End papers should extend beyond the ends of the hair to keep them smooth and straight and prevent fishhooks, or hair that is bent up at the ends. The most common end paper techniques are the double flat wrap, single flat wrap, and bookend single paper wrap

 

 

Term

363) Over-processed hair is usually:

A) Curly at the root / staight at the ends

B) Straight at the end, curly at the root

C) Straight at both ends and roots

D) Straight at the roots, curly at the ends

Definition

[image]

CURLY AT THE ROOTS STRAIGHT AT THE ENDS


                              Overprocessed Hair                           A thorough saturation with a stronger (more alkaline) solution will break more disulfide bonds and process the hair more, but processing the hair more does not necessarily translate into more curl. A properly processed permanent wave should break and rebuild approximately 50 percent of the hair’s disulfide bonds if too many disulfide bonds are broken, the hair may not have enough strength left to hold the desired curl. Weak hair equals a weak curl. Contrary to what many people believe, overprocessed hair does not necessarily mean hair that is overly curly. If too many disulfide bonds are broken, the hair will be too weak to hold a firm curl. Overprocessed hair usually has a weak curl or may even be completely straight. Since the hair at the scalp is usually stronger than the hair at the ends, overprocessed hair is usually curlier at the scalp and straighter at the ends. If the hair is overprocessed, further processing will make it straighter.

 

 

 

Term

364) Under-processed hair is usually:

A) Curly at the root

B) Straight at the end

C) Straight at both ends and roots

D) Straight at the roots, curly at the ends

Definition

[image]

STRAIGHT AT ROOTS, CURLY AT ENDS


Underprocessed Hair

As the title suggests, underprocessed hair is the exact opposite of overprocessed hair. If too few disulfide bonds are broken, the hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not be able to hold the desired curl. underprocessed hair usually has a very weak curl, but it may also be straight. Since the hair at the scalp is usually stronger than the ends, underpocessed hair is usually straighter at the scalp and curlier at the ends. If the hair is underprocessed, processing it more will make it curlier.

 

 

Term

365) A mild perm requiring the application of heat from an external source:

A) Ammonium Thioglycolate

B) Guanidine

C) Endothermic

D) Exothermic

Definition

ENDOTHERMIC

Endothermic Waves

An endothermic chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surroundings. Endothermic waves (en-duh-THUR-mik) are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-tpye hair dryer. Endothermic waves will not process properly at room temperature. Most true acid waves are endothermic and require the added heat of a hair dryer.

Term

366) A mild perm requiring the application of heat from an internal souce:

A) Ammonium Thioglycolate

B) Guanidine

C) Endothermic

D) Exothermic

Definition

EXOTHERMIC

An exothermic chemical reaction produces heatExothermic waves (Eks-oh-THUR-mik) create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing. All exothermic waves have three components:  permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer. The permanent waving solution contains thio, just as in a cold wave. The activator contains an oxidizing agent (usually hydrogen peroxide) that must be added to the permanent waving solution immediately before use. Mixing an oxidizer with the permanent waving solution causes a rapid release of heat and an increase in the temperature of the solution. The increased temperature increases the rate of the chemical reaction, which shortens the processing time.

 

 

Term

367) What is not a funtion of the neutralization step:

A) Rebuild Hydrogen Bonds

B) Deactivate perm solution remaining on the hair

C) Rebuild SS Bonds

D) Rebuild Desulfide Bonds

Definition

[image]

REBUILD HYDROGEN BOND

The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is the deactivation, or neutralization, of any waving lotion that remains in the hair after processing and rinsing. The chemical reaction involved is called oxidation.

Stage Two: permanent waving solution breaks disulfide bonds by adding hydrogen. Thio neutralization rebuilds the disulfide bonds by removing the hydrogen that was added by the permanent waving solution. The hydrogen atoms are strongly attracted to the oxgen in the neutralizer and release their bond with the sulfur atoms and join with the oxygen. Each oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to rebuild one disulfide bond, forming a water molecule. The water is removed in the final rinse. Side bonds are then re-formed into their new shape as different pairs

Term

368) After removing the lightener you observe dark spots on the hair shaft, what should you do:

A) Apply an ash toner

B) Apply more lightener

C) Apply a lighter toner

D) Both A and C 

Definition

APPLY MORE LIGHTENER

Check for lightening action about fifteen minutes before the time indicated by the preliminary strand test. Spray a hair strand with a water bottle and remove the lightener with a damp towel. Examine the strand. If the strand is not light enough, reapply the mixture and continue testing frequently until the desired level is reached.

 

 

Term

369) Usually Hand-knotted / Hand-tied, these wigs have a mesh fiber base to which the hair is attached:

A) Cap Wigs

B) Postiche

C) Capless Wig

D) Toupee

Definition

                        CAP WIG

Cap wigs are constructed with an elasticized, mesh-fiber base to which the hair is attached. They are made in several sizes and require special fittings. More often than not, cap wigs are hand-knotted. The front edge of a cap wig is made of a material that resembles the client’s scalp, along with a lace extension and a wire support that is used at the temples for a snug, secure fit. Hair is hand-tied under the net (under-knotted) to conceal the cap edge. The side and back edges contain wire supports, elastic, and hooks for a secure fit. Latex molded cap wigs are also available; these are prostheses for clients with special needs

Term

370) Machine wigs with the hair woven into "wefts":

A) Cap Wigs

B) Postiche

C) Capless Wig

D) Toupee

 

Definition

[image]

                                                                                     CAPLESS WIG

Capless wigs, also known as caps, are machine-made from human or artificial hair. The hair is woven into wefts, which are long strips of hair with a threaded edge. Rows of wefts are sewn to elastic strips in a circular pattern to fit the head shape. Capless wigs are more popular than cap wigs as they are ready-to-wear and less expensive.

 

Term

371) Clients suffering extreme Alopecia should use this type of wig:

A) Cap Wigs

B) Postiche

C) Capless Wig

D) Toupee

 

Definition

                             CAP WIG

 

A cap wig is best for clients with extremely thin hair and for clients with no hair because capless wigs will allow a bald scalp to show through. 

CAP WIG.......are constructed with an elasticized, mesh-fiber base to which the hair is attached. They are made in several sizes and require special fittings. More often than not, cap wigs are hand-knotted. The front edge of a cap wig is made of a material that resembles the client’s scalp, along with a lace extension and a wire support that is used at the temples for a snug, secure fit. Hair is hand-tied under the net (under-knotted) to conceal the cap edge. The side and back edges contain wire supports, elastic, and hooks for a secure fit. Latex molded cap wigs are also available; these are prostheses for clients with special needs.

 

Term

372) A ___________ will allow a bald scalp to show through:

A) Cap Wigs

B) Postiche

C) Capless Wig

D) Toupee

 

Definition

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                                     CAPLESS WIG

 

Capless wigs, also known as caps, are machine-made from human or artificial hair. The hair is woven into wefts, which are long strips of hair with a threaded edge. Rows of wefts are sewn to elastic strips in a circular pattern to fit the head shape. Capless wigs are more popular than cap wigs as they are ready-to-wear and less expensive.

 

Term

373) To achieve a more natural look, when cutting a wig, you should:

A) Try to achieve a solid form

B) Taper the ends

C) Do not taper the ends

D) Use a blunt cut technique at the ends

Definition

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TAPER THE ENDS

When cutting a wig, generally your goal is to make the hair look more realistic. As you know, natural hair has many lengths. Even when hair is cut to one length, internally there are various stages of hair growth. Hair that is one-month old and hair that is years-old exist on the same head. The stylist should try to achieve this natural look in the wig. The most effective way to do this is to taper the ends when cutting the wig. The more solid the shape, the more unnatural the hair will look.

Term

374) Cutting a wig is best preformed on hair that is:

A) Dry

B) Damp

C) Wet

D) On the clients head

Definition

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DRY

When cutting and trimming wigs, you can follow the basic methods of haircutting—blunt, layered, and graduated—using the same sectioning and elevations as on a real head of hair. Or you may do what many top stylists prefer to do, which is to cut free-form on dry hair. The wig should be placed on the block for cutting, but the comb out and finishing should be done on the client’s head. If you use free-form cutting, always work toward the weight. Vertical sections create lightness. Diagonal sections create a rounder beveled edge. Horizontal sections build heavier weight. To use this visual approach, begin by cutting a small section and observe how the hair falls. Your next step will be based on how the hair responds.

 

 

Term

375) A wig with the cuticle all positioned in one direction is known as:

A) Non-Remi Hair

B) Turned Hair

C) Fallen Hair

D) Both B and C

Definition

TURNED HAIR

Turned hair, also known as Remi hair, is hair in which the root end of every single strand is sewn into the base, so that the cuticles of all hair strands move in the same direction: down. The hair is in better condition, and it is much easier to work with because it doesn’t tangle easily. Turning is a tedious, time-consuming process that increases the cost of the hair addition

Term

376) A wig with the cuticle moving in different directions is known as:

A) Non-Remi Hair

B) Turned Hair

C) Fallen Hair

D) Both B and C

Definition

FALLEN

Fallen hair (the opposite of Remi hair), hair that has been shed from the head and gathered from a hairbrush, as opposed to hair that has been cut? Fallen hair is not turned, so the cuticles of the strands will move in different directions. This makes it tangle. In what is called Remi refined hair, the cuticle is partially removed, so that it will not lock and mat. This hair tends to be less expensive than Remi hair.

Term

377) Because this type of hair generally has its cuticle moving in opposite directions and is likely to tangle, mat or lock-the cuticle is often removed:

A) Remi 

B) Turned

C) Synthetic

D) Fallen

 

Definition

FALLEN

Fallen hair (the opposite of Remi hair), hair that has been shed from the head and gathered from a hairbrush, as opposed to hair that has been cut? Fallen hair is not turned, so the cuticles of the strands will move in different directions. This makes it tangle. In what is called Remi refined hair, the cuticle is partially removed, so that it will not lock and mat. This hair tends to be less expensive than Remi hair.

Term

378) The recommended treatment for Agnails is:

A) Removal

B) Hot oil manicures

C) Paraffin treatments

D) Warm wax manicures

Definition

HOT OIL MANICURES

AGNAIL.......ag•nail (gnl) n. 1. A hangnail. 2. A painful sore or swelling around a fingernail or toenail

Term

379) Nail growth begins at the:

A) Lanula

B) Matrix

C) Phalanges

D) Epionychium

Definition

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MATRIX

The matrix (MAY-trikz) is the area where the nail plate cells are formed; this area is composed of matrix cells that produce the nail plate cells. The matrix contains nerves, lymph, and blood vessels to nourish the matrix cells. As long as it is nourished and healthy, the matrix will continue to create new nail plate cells. The matrix extends from under the nail fold at the base of the nail plate. The visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin is called the lunula (LOO-nuh-luh). It is the whitish, half-moon shape at the base of the nail. The whitish color is caused by the reflection of light off the surface of the matrix. The lighter color of the lunula shows the true color of the matrix. Every nail has a lunula, but some lunulas are short and remain hidden under the Eponychium. Growth and appearance of the nails can be affected if an individual is in poor health, if a nail disorder or disease is present, or if there has been an injury to the matrix.

Term

380) The layer of the skin containing the most blood is the:

A) Epidermis

C) Dermis

C) Subcutaneous

D) Adipose

Definition

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Dermis

The dermis (DUR-mis), also known as derma (DUR-muh), corium (KOH-ree-um), cutis (KYOO-tis), or true skin, is the underlying or inner layer of the skin. The dermis extends to form the subcutaneous tissue. The highly sensitive dermis layer of connective tissue is about 25 times thicker than the epidermis. Within its structure, there are numerous blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, sebaceous (oil) glands, and hair follicles, as well as arrector pili muscles. Arrector pili muscles (ah-REK-tohr PY-leh _MUS-uls) are the small, involuntary muscles in the base of the hair that cause goose flesh—or goose bumps, as many people call them—and papillae. The dermis is comprised of two layers: the papillary (superficial layer) and the reticular (deeper layer).

• The papillary layer (PAP-uh-lair-ee LAY-ur) is the outer layer of the dermis, directly beneath the epidermis. Here you will find the dermal papillae (DUR-mul _ puh-PIL-eye) (singular: dermal papilla; DUR-mul _ puh-PIL-uh), which are small, cone-shaped elevations at the base of the hair follicles. Some papillae contain looped capillaries, and others contain small epidermal structures called tactile corpuscles (TAK-tile _ KOR-pusuls), with nerve endings that are sensitive to touch and pressure. This layer also contains melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. The top of the papillary layer where it joins the epidermis is called the epidermal–dermal junction (ep-ih-DUR-mul - DUR-mul _ JUNK-shun).

• The reticular layer (ruh-TIK-yuh-lur _ LAY-ur) is the deeper layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with all of its oxygen and nutrients. It contains the following structures within its network:

 • Fat cells  

 • Sudoriferous (sweat) glands

• Blood vessels

• Hair follicles

• Lymph vessels

• Arrector pili muscles

• Sebaceous (oil) glands

• Nerve endings

Subcutaneous tissue (sub-kyoo-TAY-nee-us _ TISH-oo), also known as adipose tissue (AD-uh-pohs TISH-oo) or subcutis tissue (sub- KYOO-tis _ TISH-oo), is the fatty tissue found below the dermis. It gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fats for use as energy, and also acts as a protective cushion for the skin. Subcutaneous tissue varies in thickness according to the age, gender, and general health of the individual

 

  

Term

381) Which of the following contains the most nerve ending:

A) Fingernail

B) Eyelids

C) Palms of the hands

D) Fingertips

Definition

FINGERTIPS

TThe papillary layer of the dermis houses the nerve endings that provide the body with the sense of touch, pain, heat, cold, and pressure. Nerve endings are most abundant in the fingertips. Complex sensations, such as vibrations, seem to depend on the sensitivity of a combination of these nerve endings.

 

Term

382) Where do you start a Pin-Curl:

A) At the stem

B) At the end /base

C) At the open end

D) At the Arc

Definition

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AT THE OPEN END

A shaping is a section of hair that is molded in a circular movement in preparation for the formation of curls. Shaping are either open- or closed-end. Always begin a pin curl at the open end, or convex side, of a shaping 

Term

383) Where do you end a Pin-Curl:

A) At the stem

B) At the closed end /base

C) At the open end

D) At the Arc

Definition

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At the closed end / Base

Term

384) A very common reducing agent in chemical relaxers:

A) Glycerol Monothioycolate

B) Sodium Hypochlorite

C) Sodium Hydroxide

D) Sodium Bromate / Bromide

Definition

SODIUM HYDROXIDE

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) relaxers are commonly called lye relaxers. Sodium hydroxide is the oldest, and still the most common, type of chemical hair relaxer. Sodium hydroxide is also known as lye or caustic soda. Sodium hydroxide is the same chemical that is used in drain cleaners and chemical hair depilatories

Term

385) A filtered black light used to illuminate skin disorders, bacterial disorders, fungi, and pigmentation:

A) Woods Lamp

B) Fitzpatrick Scale

C) Halogen Light

D) Murad Lamp

Definition

WOODS LAMP

 

Term

386) A product used to increase adhesion on acrylic nails:

A) Base Coat

B) Bonder

C) Primer

D) Aniline Derivative

 

Definition

 PRIMER

Nail Primer.....Many kinds of nail primers are available today. In the past, acid-based nail primer (methacrylic acid) was widely used to help adhere enhancements to the natural nail. Since acid-based nail primer is corrosive to the skin and potentially dangerous to eyes, acid-free and nonacid primers were developed. Acid-free and nonacid primers are the types of primers that are most often used today. They work as well as or better than acid-based nail primers, and have the added advantage of not being corrosive to skin or eyes.

 

Term

387) A system for understanding the relationships of color is called:

A) The level System

B) The Law of Complimentary Color

C) The Color Wheel

D) The law of Color

Definition

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THE LAW OF COLOR

The law of color is a system for understanding color relationships. When combining colors, you will always get the same result from the same combination. Equal parts of red and blue mixed together always make violet. Equal parts of blue and yellow always make green. Equal parts of red and yellow always make orange. The color wheels   will help you understand colors.

 

 

Term

388) A system for determining the lightness or darkness of color is called:

A) The level System

B) The Law of Complimentary Color

C) The Color Wheel

D) The law of Color

Definition

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THE LEVEL SYSTEM

Level is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a color. level is the saturation, density, or concentration of color. The level of color answers the following question:

How much color? 

The level system is a system that colorists use to determine the lightness or darkness of a hair color. Haircolor levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 the lightest. Although the names for the color levels may vary among manufacturers, the important thing is being able to identify the degrees of lightness to darkness (depth) in each level.

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Term

389) What is the primary purpose of a scalp treatment:

A) Remove oil accumulation from the follicle

B) Maintain scalp cleanliness and stimulate blood flow to the follicle

C) Prolongation of the anagen stage and diminishment of the Catagen stage

D) Maintain the scalp and hair in a clean and healthy condition

Definition

MAINTAIN THE SCALP AND HAIR IN A CLEAN AND HEALTHY CONDITION

The purpose of a general scalp treatment is to maintain the scalp and hair in a clean and healthy condition. A hair or scalp treatment should be recommended only after a hair and scalp examination. If the client does not  have the time to sit for a treatment, recommend scheduling the treatment at a later, more convenient time. If the client does request a treatment at that time, it should be given either before or after the shampoo, depending on which treatment is given                                                                                       

A dry hair and scalp treatment should be used when there is a deficiency of natural oil on the scalp and hair. Select scalp preparations containing moisturizing and emollient ingredients. Avoid the use of strong soaps, preparations containing a mineral- or ulfonated-oil base, greasy preparations, or lotions with high alcohol content. During a dry hair and scalp treatment, a scalp steamer, which resembles a hooded dryer, is used.

Excessive oiliness is caused by overactive sebaceous glands. Manipulate the scalp and knead it to increase blood circulation to the surface. Any hardened sebum in the pores of the scalp will be removed with gentle pressing or squeezing. To normalize the function of these glands, excess sebum should be flushed out with each treatment.

 

 

Term

390) The HIV Virus is spread primarily by:

A) Unprotected sex

B) Food preparation

C) Intravenous (IV) drug users

D) A and D

Definition

UNPROTECTED SEX

INTRAVENEOUS (IV) DRUG USERS

Term

391) ATG is the "Reducing Agent" in an alkaline wave, it is short for:

A) Ammonium Thiolgycolate

B) Acquass Tyrosine Glycerol

C) Ammonia Tetracycline Glutamate

D) Acid Thioglycolate Glycerol

Definition

AMMONIUM THIOLGYCOLATE

Alkaline waves, also known as cold waves, were developed in 1941, have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.

 

 

Term

392) Metallic Salts are products often found in at-home hair coloring products, especially men's products. They will tend to darken the hair gradually, over repeated usage. They are incompatible with permanent waves preparations as well as any other chemical service, and may result in all the following except:

A) Hair breakage

B) Hair discoloration

C) Overly tight curl formation

D) Uneven curl fromation

Definition

   

OVERLY TIGHT CURL

Metallic Salts

Some home haircoloring products contain metallic salts that are not compatible with permanent waving. Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause uneven curls, severe discoloration, or hair breakage. Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause uneven curls, severe discoloration, or hair breakage. Metallic salts are more commonly found in men’s haircolors that are sold for home use. Haircolor restorers and progressive haircolors that darken the hair gradually with repeated applications are the most likely to contain metallic salts. If you suspect that metallic salts may be present on the hair, perform the following test. In a glass or plastic bowl, mix 1 ounce of 20-volume peroxide with 20 drops of 28-percent ammonia. Immerse at least 20 strands of hair in the solution for thirty minutes. If metallic salts are not present, the hair will lighten slightly and you may proceed with the service. If metallic salts are present, the hair will lighten rapidly. The solution may get hot and give off an unpleasant odor, indicating that you should not proceed with the service.

 

 

Term

393) Wrapping the hair from the ends to the scalp, whether in a permanent wave or when using a curling iron is known as:

A) Spiral

B) Croquignole

C) Barrel

D) Pocket

Definition

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CROQUIGNOLE

Wrapping Techniques

There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod: 

croquignole perm wrap and spiral perm wrap.

croquignole perm wrap (KROH-ken-ohl) is wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers. Because the hair is wrapped perpendicular to the length of the rod, each new layer of hair is wrapped on top of the previous layer, increasing the size (diameter) of the curl with each new overlapping layer, because each layer is rolled on top of the previous ones. This produces a tighter curl at the ends, and a larger curl at the scalp. longer, thicker hair increases this effect. In a spiral perm wrap the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on a candy cane. A spiral perm wrap may partially overlay the preceding layers. As long as the angle remains constant, any overlay will be uniform along the length of the rod and the strand of hair. This wrapping technique causes the size (diameter) of the curl to remain 

 

 

Term

394) When performing a preliminary test curl procedure, wrap 3 Tools in different areas of the head, including the top, side, and:

A) Nape

B) Occipital

C) Apex

D) Fringe

Definition

NAPE

Wrap one rod in each different area of the head (top, side, and nape).

 

 

Term

395) From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:

A) Sanitation, Disinfection, Sterlization

B) Disinfection, Sanitation, Sterlization

C) Sterlization, Disinfection, Sanitation

D) Disinfection, Sterlization, Sanitation

Definition

           STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION          

From the highest to lowest, the levels of Decontamination are:            STERLIZATION...DISINFECTION...SANITATION

SANITATION

also known as sanitizing; a chemical process of reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level

1. To eliminate contamination in. 

2. To make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious chemicals or radioactive material.

Disinfection 

is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonliving surfaces. This process is not effective against bacterial spores. In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on surfaces such as shears, nippers, and other multiuse tools and equipment

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is the process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores. The most effective methods of sterilization use high-pressure steam equipment called autoclaves. Simply exposing instruments to steam is not enough. To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized in an autoclave so that the steam penetrates the spore coats of the spore-forming bacteria. Dry heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. Dry heat sterilization is not recommended for use in salons

Decontamination Method 1 has two steps: cleaning and disinfecting. Remember that when you clean, you must remove all visible dirt and debris from tools, implements, and equipment by washing with liquid soap and warm water and by using a clean and disinfected nail brush to scrub any grooved or hinged portions of the item. A surface is properly cleaned when the number of contaminants on the surface is greatly reduced. In turn, this reduces the risk of infection. The vast majority of contaminants and pathogens can be removed from the surfaces of tools and implements through proper cleaning. This is why cleaning is an important part of disinfecting tools and equipment. A surface must be properly cleaned before it can be properly