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Circulatory System
Blood, Plasma, Platelets
113
Anatomy
Graduate
02/13/2015

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Term
Functions of the circulatory system
Definition
Transport: O2, Co2, nutrients, wastes hormones, and stem cells

Protection: Limit spread of infection, clotting, inflammation

Regulation: Fluid balance, pH, temperature control
Term
Granulocytes include:
Definition
Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils
Term
Agranulocytes include:
Definition
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Term
Serum is identical to plasma except for the absence of which protein?

A) Fibrinogen
B) Nitrogenous wastes
C) Platelets
D) Glucose
E) Allbumin
Definition
A) Fibrinogen
Term
Three major plasma proteins
Definition
Albumins, Globulins (antibodies), Fibrinogen
Term
Which plasma protein contributes to viscosity and osmolarity, influences blood pressure flow, and fluid balance?
Definition
Albumin
Term
Which plasma protein is not formed by the liver but produced by plasma cells?
Definition
Globulins
Term
Whole blood is __ to __ times as viscous as water.
Definition
4.5 to 5.5
Term
Plasma is __ times a viscous as water.
Definition
2.0
Term
Which condition occurs when osmolarity is too low?
Definition
Edema (swelling of tissues)
Term
A condition caused by deficiency of plasma proteins and leads to extreme starvation, liver/kidney disease, and severe burns.
Definition
Hypoproteinemia
Term
A condition caused by severe protein deficiency and leads to swollen abdomen.
Definition
Kwashiorkor
Term
In an adult, how many platelets, RBC, and WBC are produced everyday?
Definition
400 billion platelets
100-200 billion RBC
10 billion WBC
Term
True or False? RBC do not use oxygen to transport oxygen through the bloodstream.
Definition
True; Anaerobic fermentation
Term
Which protein makes up 33% of the cytoplasm and delivers oxygen to tissue?
Definition
Hemoglobin (Hb)
Term
Name the enzyme found in red blood cells that produces carbonic acid from co2 and water. (Hint: plays an important role in gas transport and pH balance).
Definition
Carbonic anhydrase (CAH)
Term
Describe the structure of hemoglobin:

A) 4 globin chains and 1 heme group
B) 1 globin chain and 1 heme group
C) 4 globin chains and 4 heme groups
D) 2 globin chains and 2 heme groups
Definition
C) 4 globin chains and 4 heme groups
Term
An adult HB molecule contains of two ___ and two ___ chains.
Definition
alpha and beta
Term
A fetal Hb molecule contains of two ___ and two ___ chains.
Definition
alpha and gamma
Term
Name three clinical measurements that express the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
Definition
RBC count
Hematocrit
Hemoglobin
Term
What is the average lifespan of a red blood cell?
Definition
120 days
Term
What are the stages of erythrocyte production (from least differentiated to most differentiated)?
Definition
Stem cell
Colony-forming unit
Erythroblast
Reticulocyte
Erythrocyte
Term
What factors stimulate the production of red blood cells?
Definition
Low levels of O2 (hypoxemia)
High altitude
Increase exercise
Emphysema (loss of lung tissue)
Term
Explain a mechanism whereby hypoxemia can be corrected.
Definition
Hypoxemia is detected by the kidneys and liver, resulting in the secretion of erythropoietin.
Term
___ is the rupture of red blood cells.
Definition
Hemolysis

hemo = blood, lysis = destruction
Term
Iron is critical for the synthesis of ___, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.
Definition
Hemoglobin
Term
List the steps of hemostasis.
Definition
1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Blood coagulation (clotting)
Term
Describe the function of an antibody.
Definition
To bind to an antigen and mark it for destruction.
Term
Name the component of hemoglobin that binds oxygen.
Definition
Heme
Term
Organize the sequence of events that lead to disposal of the heme during RBC recycling:
Definition
1. Macrophages remove the iron
2. Macrophages convert the heme into biliverdin
3. A yellow-green pigment called bilirubin is formed.
Term
List some risks associated with polycythemia.
Definition
1. High blood pressure
2. Increased blood volume
3. Increased blood viscosity
Term
True or False? Erythrocytes live for about 120 days, thus they live longer than the other formed elements of the blood.
Definition
False; some leukocytes live for many years.
Term
Basophils release ___ and ___.
Definition
Heparin
Histamine
Term
___ are the granulocytes that function to phagocytize bacteria.
Definition
Neutrophils
Term
Name the first response to a blood vessel injury.
Definition
Vascular spasm
Term
When collagen in the wall of a blood vessel is exposed as a result of injury, ___ grow long, spiny pseudopods, which adhere to the vessel and draw its walls back together.
Definition
Plateletes
Term
Formation of blood cells in the bone marrow is called ___ hemopoiesis
Definition
Myeloid
Term
Which of the following is not found in plasma?

A) Glycogen
B) Fibrinogen
C) Glucose
D) Urea
E) Albumin
Definition
A) Glycogen
Term
In which organs do most red blood cells die?
Definition
Spleen and liver
Term
What is the final product of the breakdown of the organic non-protein moiety of hemoglobin?
Definition
Bilirubin
Term
The correction of hypoxemia is regulated by which mechanism?
Definition
Negative feedback loop
Term
A deficiency of ___ can cause pernicious anemia.
Definition
Vitamin b12
Term
Blood type is determined by ___ and ___ on the surface of the cell.
Definition
Glycoproteins and glycolipids
Term
An individual has type B+ blood. Therefore, the individual has ___ antigens and can produce ___ anti-bodies.
Definition
B and D antigens; A antibodies
Term
What are some causes of anemia?
Definition
Inadequate erythropoisis or hemoglobin synthesis, iron-deficiency, kidney failure, bleeding, and RBC destruction
Term
What is the least abundant formed element?
Definition
Basophils
Term
What are the most abundant agranulocytes?
Definition
Lymphocytes
Term
RBC antigens are also called ___.
Definition
Agglutinogens
Term
Antibodies are also called ___.
Definition
Agglutinins
Term
Each antibody can attach to several foreign antigens on several different RBCs at the same time. This is called:
Definition
Agglutination
Term
A transfusion reaction can cause death of the individual because:

A) Opportunistic infections may develop
B) The production of plasma proteins increases, altering kidney function
C) The binding sites for oxygen in hemoglobin is exposed
D) Free hemoglobin can block the kidney tubules and cause death from acute renal failure
Definition
D) Free hemoglobin can block the kidney tubules and cause death from acute renal failure
Term
White blood cells that increase in number during an allergic reaction or in response to a parasitic infections are the:
Definition
Eosinophils
Term
The white blood cells that are important in producing antibodies are the:
Definition
Lymphocytes
Term
___ are large phagocytic white cells that spend most of their time outside the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells.
Definition
Monocytes
Term
White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are:
Definition
Basophils
Term
The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the:
Definition
Neutrophils
Term
Which organ releases the majority of the plasma proteins?
Definition
Liver
Term
During a viral infection you would expect to see increased numbers of:
Definition
Lymphocytes
Term
Plasma proteins that are necessary for blood clotting are the:

A) Albumins
B) Fibrinogens
C) Lipoproteins
D) Metalloproteins
e) Immunoglobulins
Definition
B) Fibrinogens
Term
True or False? An Rh- woman with an Rh+ fetus may not experience any problems during her first pregnancy.
Definition
True! It is during the second pregnancy that the mother would have formed Anti-D antibodies that would attack the fetus.
Term
True or False? Platelets secrete growth factors that stimulate mitosis to repair blood vessels.
Definition
True!
Term
True or False? Platelets phagocytize and destroy bacteria.
Definition
True!
Term
Platelets secrete ___ or clotting factors to promote clotting.
Definition
Procoaglutants
Term
Platelets do not secrete which of the following?

a) procoagulants (clotting factors).
b) thrombopoietin.
c) growth factors.
d) vasoconstrictors.
e) chemicals that attract neutrophils.
Definition
B) Thrombopoietin
Term
Platelets are formed from cells in the bone marrow called:
Definition
Megakaryocytes
Term
Platelets release ___, a chemical vasoconstrictor that contributes to the vascular spasm.
Definition
Serotonin
Term
What is the name of the platelet repellent that prevents the spontaneous formation of a clot?
Definition
Prostacyclin
Term
True or False? A person develops anti-A antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen A.
Definition
False! When an antigen is present on the RBC, then the opposite antibody is present in the plasma. For instance, type A blood has anti-type-B antibodies. Type B blood has anti-type-A antibodies. Type AB blood has no antibodies in the plasma, and type O blood has both anti-type-A and anti-type-B antibodies in the plasma.
Term
True or False? Rh incompatibility between a sensitized Rh+ woman and an Rh- fetus can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Definition
False! When an Rh- mother is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus, then the mother forms antibodies that can travel through the placenta and cause a disease called hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Term
Type A blood can safely donate RBCs to ___ and receive RBCs of type ___.
Definition
AB; O
Term
The universal donor of RBCs, but not necessarily plasma, is ...
Definition
O, Rh-
Term
The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh+ is because:
Definition
Anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate the RBCs of the donor.
Term
A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), or erythroblastosis fetalis. The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood. The mother is most likely type ___ and both children are most likely ___.
Definition
A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive
Term
Extrinsic pathway
Definition
Factors released by damaged tissues begin cascade
Term
Intrinsic pathway
Definition
Factors found in blood begin cascade (platelet degranulation)
Term
Fibrinolysis
Definition
Dissolution of a clot
Term
Which white blood cells are developed from myeloblasts?
Definition
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basonphils
Term
True or False? Lymphocytes can live in the blood for decades.
Definition
True!
Term
Platelet plug formation
Definition
1. Broken vessel exposes collagen
2. Platelet pseudopods stick to damaged vessel and other platelets
3. Pseudopods contract
4. Platelets degraulate, releasing substances (Serotonin, ADP, Thromboxane)
Term
Universal donor
Definition
Type O
Lacks RBC antigens
Term
Universal recipient
Definition
Type AB
Lacks antibodies
Term
The term "formed elements" refers to:

A) The non-cellular components of blood
B) The cellular components of blood
C) The matrix of blood
D) Both non-cellular and cellular components of blood
Definition
B) The cellular components of blood
Term
Individuals heterozygous for sickle cell anemia have higher resistance against what disease?
Definition
Malaria
Term
Which condition is caused by a recessive allele that modifies the structure of Hb (makes HbS)?
Definition
Sickle Cell Disease
Term
The largest of the formed elements is this white blood cell:
Definition
Monocytes
Term
Vascular spasm is triggered by all but which of the following?

A) Pain receptor stimulation
B) Injury to smooth muscle of vessel
C) Serotonin released from platelets
D) Growth factors secreted by platelets
Definition
D) Growth factors secreted by platelets
Term
Which cell stage in the formation of erythrocytes has lots its nucleus and yet retains a fine network of endoplasmic reticulum?

A) Reticulocyte
B) Erythroblast
C) Proerythroblast
D) Normoblast
Definition
A) Reticulocyte
Term
Ferrous iron travels in the plasma bound to the protein:

A) Gastroferritin
B) Transferrin
C) Apoferritin
D) Ferrin
Definition
B) Transferrin
Term
Each hemoglobin molecule can carry up to how many oxygen molecules bound to its heme group?
Definition
4
Term
Anemia can be caused by all of the following except:

A) Nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 or iron
B) Failure of gastric production of intrinsic factor
C) Kidney failure
D) Hypoxemia from smoking or air polution
Definition
D) Hypoxemia from smoking or air pollution
Term
Hemolysis yields heme. After removal of iron, the remainder of the heme is first converted to:

A) Bilirubin
B) Hemoglobin
C) Biliverdin
D) Urobilinogen
E) Bilee
Definition
C) Biliverdin
Term
Antibody B is present in the blood plasma of individuals with which blood types?

A) Types A and O
B) Type B
C) Types B and A
D) Types B and O
Definition
A) Types A and O
Term
Which of the following is incorrectly matched?

A) Lymphoytes: dark purple cytoplasmic granules
B) Eosinophils: red cytoplasmic granules
C) Neutrophils: nucleus divided into two or five lobes
D) Monocytes: large blood cells with round or kidney-shaped nucleus
Definition
A) Lymphocytes: dark purple cytoplasmic granules
Term
What percent of the WBCs are monocytes in a healthy individual?

A) 25-33%
B) Less than 1%
C) 65%
D) 3-8%
Definition
D) 3-8%
Term
Most strokes and heart attacks are due to abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. This process is called:

A) Embolus
B) Thrombosis
C) Cirrhosis
D) Thrombus
Definition
B) Thrombosis
Term
If all the molecules of hemoglobin contained in RBCs were free in the plasma,

a) it would considerably increase blood oxygen carrying capacity.
b) it would facilitate delivery of oxygen into tissues supplied by small capillaries.
c) it would facilitate oxygen diffusion into cells distant from blood capillaries.
d) it would significantly increase blood osmolarity.
e) it would drastically increase osmotic colloid pressure.
Definition
d) it would significantly increase blood osmolarity
Term
All these can lead to polycythemia except

a) cancer of the erythropoietic line of the red bone marrow.
b) iron deficiency.
c) dehydration.
d) emphysema.
e) excessive aerobic exercise.
Definition
b) iron deficiency
Term
Most of the procoagulants that are required for clotting are synthesized by:

a) The liver.
b) The kidneys.
c) Megakaryocytes.
d) Platelets.
e) The spleen
Definition
a) The liver
Term
The extrinsic pathway of coagulation is activated by the:

a) Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
b) Release of heparin from the liver.
c) Activation of a proenzyme exposed to collagen.
d) Release of tissue factor by damaged endothelium.
e) Sticking of platelets to damaged tissue.
Definition
d) Release of tissue factor by damaged epithelium
Term
The intrinsic pathway of coagulation is activated by the:

a) Release of tissue factor by damaged endothelium.
b) Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
c) Release of heparin from the liver.
d) Sticking of platelets to damaged tissue.
e) Activation of proenzyme exposed to collagen.
Definition
e) Activation of proenzyme exposed to collagen
Term
The common pathway of coagulation begins with the:

a) Sticking of platelets to damaged tissue.
b) Activation of a proenzyme exposed to collagen.
c) Activating of a clotting factor that converts prothrombin to thrombin.
d) Activation of a clotting factor that converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
e) Release of tissue factor by damaged endothelium
Definition
c) Activating of a clotting factor that converts prothrombin to thrombin
Term
A hematocrit provides information on:

a) Plasma composition.
b) Clotting factors.
c) Packed cell volume.
d) Blood type.
e) The types of leukocytes
Definition
c) Packed Cell Volume
Term
In adults, the only site of red blood cell production, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the:

a) Spleen.
b) Liver.
c) Red bone marrow.
d) Yellow bone marrow.
e) Thymus.
Definition
c) Red Bone Marrow
Term
List ways that the body uses iron.
Definition
1. The muscles use Fe2+ to make myoglobin.
2. The bone marrow uses Fe2+ for hemoglobin synthesis.
3. Nearly all cells use Fe2+ to make electron-transport molecules (cytochromes) in their mitochondria.
Term
List some functions of proteins in plasma.
Definition
1. Transport of iron, copper, lipids, hydrophobic hormones.
2. Body defense.
3. Clotting.
Term
How many leukocytes are found in a normal sample of blood?

A) 15,000-20,000 WBCs/microliter
B) 25,000-30,000 WBCs/microliter
C) 5,000-10,000 WBCs/microliter
D) 1,000-4,000 WBCs/microliter
Definition
Term
Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein. List its functions (choose 3):

A) pH buffering of plasma
B) Maintenance of osmolarity
C) Immune defense
D) Primary source of energy
E) Solute transport
Definition
A, B, and E
Term
What could cause hemolytic anemia?
Definition
1. Sickle cell disease, thalassemia, malaria
2. Snake and spider venom
3. Penicilin allergy
Term
What could cause aplastic anemia?
Definition
Iron or vitamin B deficiency
Term
An excess of red blood cells is called ___.
Definition
Polycythemia
Term
List some consequences of anemia (Choose 3):

A) Hypoxia
B) Decreased blood viscosity
C) Decreased blood pH
D) Decreased blood osmolarity
Definition
A, B, and D
Term
Describe the role of plasma cells:

A) Produce all plasma proteins
B) Transport nutrients
C) Phagocytize parasites
D) Produce gamma globulins
Definition
D) Produce gamma globulins
Term
Blood agglutinates when anti-A and anti-B antiserum are added to a slide. What blood type does this person have?
Definition
AB

Since type-AB blood has both A and B antigens, it will be agglutinated by the anti-A and the anti-B antibodies in the serum.
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