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Chapter 6 Keyterms Sec. 1,2
Modern WH McDougal Chapter 6 Section 1-2 Keyterms
14
Social Studies
9th Grade
09/22/2012

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Term
geocentric theory
Section 1
Definition
The theory that the Earth is in the center of the universe and all other stars and planets revolve around it. This was developed by Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, in the 4th century BC. Later, Ptolemy had expanded this theory in the 2nd century AD. Since this was supported by only common sense, the theory was eventually put into question by philosophers.
Term
Scientific Revolution
Section 1
Definition
a change in European thoughts that were being replaced by new theories. In the mid-1500s, scholars had began to challenge ideas of the church and ancient thinkers. Since the need for more accurate tools were needed, this helped disprove many ideas before the Revolution while also fueling it.
Term
heliocentric theory
Section 1
Definition
The theory that the Sun is in the center of the universe and the Earth, stars, and planets revolve around it. Theorized by Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish cleric and astronomer, he did not publish his book until 1543. Since other scientists had built off of this work after it was published, the theory was eventually supported mathematically as well.
Term
Galileo Galilei
Section 1
Definition
Galileo was a Dutch astronomer who had built his own telescope to study the heavens, or space, in 1609. He had published a book with many observations such as the Sun having dark spots. In 1616 however, the Catholic Church told Galileo not to defend Copernicus' ideas and had been forced to say they were false in 1633.Since he had not followed Catholic Church orders, he was put under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Term
scientific method
Section 1
Definition
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. Francis Bacon and René Descartes had helped advance the scientific method in the 1600s by urging scientists to experiment and draw conclusions, developing analytical geometry, and by using mathematical reason. Since the scientific method is such an important use in the physical world, it is still taught and practiced today.
Term
Isaac Newton
Section 1
Definition
An English scientist who had developed a theory of motion in the mid-1600s. This theory stated that all physical objects are affected equally by the same forces. This had been the key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion in the Earth. This is known as the law of universal gravitation. Since all of his laws had been proven mathematically, they are still used today and are the basis for modern physics.
Term
Enlightenment
Section 2
Definition
Also known as the Age of Reason, the Enlightenment was a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and though and the power of individuals to solve problems. The Enlightenment had reached its highest point in the mid-1700s and by then many well-known English and French philosophers such as John Locke and Voltaire had become active. Although many scholars and philosophers had studied old aspects of society, their beliefs led to many revolutions and affected the Western civilization greatly.
Term
social contract
Section 2
Definition
created by Thomas Hobbes, the social contract is a government where people hand over their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order. He had said this in 1651 after viewing the English Civil War convinced him that all humans are naturally selfish and wicked. Since his description of the social contract was much like an absolute monarchy, it never gained interest to the people.
Term
John Locke
Section 2
Definition
John Locke was an English philosopher who believed that people had natural rights to govern themselves and the society. He had believed that all citizens are born with 3 main rights- life, liberty, and property. His ideas on government had a big influence on modern political thinking. Since his ideas of the consent of the governed was a huge influence, his 3 natural rights and other ideas were implemented in the US Constitution in 1787.
Term
philosophes
Section 2
Definition
the French word for philosopher. Many philosophes had appeared in the mid-1700s when the Enlightenment was at its peak. Philosophes believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life. Their five core beliefs were reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty. Since they had fought for many individual rights, philosophes had influenced many revolutions.
Term
Voltaire
Section 2
Definition
Voltaire, or Francois Marie Arouet, was known as the most brilliant and influential philosophe. In the mid-1700s, he had been fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. In his writings, he had often used satire to target rulers such as the clergy, aristocracy, and the government. Although he had gone to prison twice and was an enemy of the French court, his teachings influenced the rights thought, expression, and religion that are used today.
Term
Montesquieu
Section 2
Definition
Montesquie, a French writer, had expressed his beliefs of the separation of powers. Montesquie had stated that a separation of power would keep any individual group from gaining total power in this book, Spirit of Laws (1748). He had believed the British government was most powerful because of its consent of the governed. His beliefs of separation of powers was later known as checks and balances which is used in the US Constitution and other governments.
Term
Rousseau
Section 2
Definition
Jean Jacques Rousseau had been a great philosophe who believed in an individual freedom. In 1762, he had explained that the only good government was direct democracy because it was guided by the "general will" of the society. His thoughts had mainly differed from Hobbes and agreed with Locke. Rousseau had also argued that titles of nobility should be abolished and everyone is given equal right. This inspired many French leaders in 1789 when overthrowing the monarchy.
Term
Mary Wollstonecraft
Section 2
Definition
One of the most persuasive students during the Enlightenment. Wollstonecraft had strongly disagreed with Rousseau and believed that women needed an education to be useful. Also, in her essay published in 1792, she had urged women to enter the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics. Since Wollstonecraft any many others fought for rights, women's rights groups had formed in Europe and North America
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