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Chapter 3
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
31
Psychology
Undergraduate 1
01/18/2015

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Term
Unique treatments come out of the biological paradigm, especially _____, medications that have psychological effects; the psychodynamic paradigm including Freudian _____, _____, and _____, all of which encourage the exploration of past relationships in order to obtain _____ to current motivations; the cognitive-behavioral paradigm, where _____ focuses on the present and teaching more adaptive thoughts, behaviors, and feelings; the humanistic paradigm, where _____ focuses on empathy and heightening emotional awareness.
Definition
psychopharmacology, psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, interpersonal therapy, insight, cognitive-behavior therapy, humanistic psychotherapy
Term
Different therapies "work" and include both common factors important across treatments and "active ingredients" for specific disorders. The text focuses on specific treatments for specific disorders, yet for empirical and humanistic reasons, we must recognize the universal importance of the therapist-client relationship. The _____ produces change through expectations about a treatment's effectiveness. This makes placebos important both as controls for common factors and to study as an "active ingredient," since placebos produce change psychologically. Traditional treatments focus on the individual, but couple therapy, family therapy, and group therapy all produce individual change by changing relationships. Some prevention efforts attempt to change dysfunctional aspects of society.
Definition
placebo effect
Term
a characterization of psychotherapy outcome research such that investigators commonly find the most effective treatment is the one to which they hold a theoretical allegiance
Definition
allegiance effect
Term
Carl Roger's humanistic therapy that follows the client's lead. Therapists offer warmth, empathy, and genuineness, but clients solve their own problems
Definition
client-centered therapy
Term
a psychotherapy technique and important part of cognitive behavior therapy that was developed by Aaron Beck specifically as a treatment. Beck's cognitive therapy involves challenging negative cognitive distortions through a technique called collaborative empiricism
Definition
cognitive therapy
Term
the expansion of the scope of behavior therapy to include cognition and research on human information processing. Includes various general techniques, such as Beck's cognitive therapy and Ellis's RET
Definition
cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT)
Term
the group of participants in an experiment that receives no treatment or perhaps a placebo treatment. Participants in the control group are compared with participants in the experimental group (who are given an active treatment)
Definition
control group
Term
partners who are involved in an intimate relationship are seen together in psychotherapy; sometimes called marital therapy or marriage counseling. Improving communication and negotiation are common goals
Definition
couple therapy
Term
the outcome that is hypothesized to vary according to manipulations of the independent variable in an experiment
Definition
dependent variable
Term
a treatment that involves the deliberate induction of a convulsion by passing electricity through one or both hemispheres of the brain. Modern ECT uses restraints, medication, and carefully controlled electrical stimulation to minimize adverse consequences. Can be an effective treatment for severe depression, especially following the failure of other approaches
Definition
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Term
emotional understanding. Empathy involves understanding others' unique feelings and perspectives. Highlighted by Rogers but basic to most forms of psychotherapy
Definition
empathy
Term
a powerful scientific method that allows researchers to determine cause-and-effect relations. Key elements include random assignment, the manipulation of the independent variable, and careful measurement of the dependent variable
Definition
experiment
Term
the group of participants in an experiment who receives a treatment that is hypothesized to cause some measured effect. Participants in the experimental group are compared with untreated participants in a control group
Definition
experimental group
Term
treatment that might include two, three, or more family members in the psychotherapy sessions. Improving communication and negotiation are common goals, although family therapy also may be used to help well members adjust to a family member's illness
Definition
family therapy
Term
the treatment of three or more people in a group setting, often using group relationships as a central part of therapy
Definition
group therapy
Term
an approach that assumes that the most essential human quality is the ability to make choices and freely act on them (free will). Promoted as a "third force" to counteract the deterministic views of psychodynamic and the behavior approaches to psychotherapy
Definition
humanistic psychotherapy
Term
a prediction about the expected findings in a scientific study
Definition
hypothesis
Term
the variable in an experiment that is controlled and deliberately manipulated by the experimenter (e.g., whether a subject receives a treatment). Affects the dependent variable
Definition
independent variable
Term
self-understanding; the extent to which a person recognizes the nature (or understands the potential causes) of his or her disorder. In psychoanalysis, insight is the ultimate goal, specifically, to bring formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness
Definition
insight
Term
an evidence-based approach to treatment emphasizing the historical importance of close relationships to the development of both normal and problematic emotions and patterns of relating to others. Used particularly in the treatment of depression, IPT uses the past to better understand and directly make changes in the present
Definition
interpersonal therapy (IPT)
Term
a tool in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in which the therapists suggests new meanings about a client's accounts of his or her past and present life
Definition
interpretation
Term
a statistical technique that allows the results from different studies to be combined in a standardized way
Definition
meta-analysis
Term
the improvement in a condition produced by a placebo (sometimes a substantial change). An overriding goal of scientific research is to identify treatments that exceed placebo effects
Definition
placebo effect
Term
Freud's orthodox form of psychotherapy that is practiced rarely today because of its time, expense, and questionable effectiveness in treating mental disorders. Freud viewed the task of psychoanalysis as promoting insight by uncovering the unconscious conflicts and motivations that cause psychological difficulties
Definition
psychoanalysis
Term
an "uncovering" form of psychotherapy in which the therapist typically is more engaged and directive; the process is considerably less lengthy than in psychoanalysis
Definition
psychodynamic psychotherapy
Term
the study of the effects of psychoactive drugs on behavior. Clinical psychopharmacology involves the expert use of drugs in the treatment of mental disorders
Definition
psychopharmacology
Term
the use of psychological techniques in an attempt to produce change in the context of a special, helping relationship
Definition
psychotherapy
Term
any of several methods of ensuring that each subject has a statically equal chance of being exposed to any level of an independent variable
Definition
random assignment
Term
a statistical statement that a research result has a low probability of having occurred by chance alone. By convention, a result is said to be statically significant if the probability is 5 percent or less that it was obtained by chance. This probability is often written as p=.05
Definition
statistically significant
Term
a treatment for overcoming fears and phobias developed by Joseph Wolpe. Involves learning relaxation skills, developing a fear hierarchy, and systematic exposure to imagined, feared events while simultaneously maintaining relaxation
Definition
systematic desensitization
Term
the emotional bond of confidence and trust between a therapist and client believed to facilitate therapy
Definition
therapeutic alliance
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