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Chapter 0 Section 3 Keyterms
Modern WH McDougal Chapter 0 Section 3 Keyterms
8
Social Studies
9th Grade
09/11/2012

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Term
common law
Definition
England's single legal system that was used throughout the whole Kingdom. Common law had reflected customs and principles established over time rather than expressing the will of a ruler. Established during the time of King Henry II, between 1154 and 1189, it had gradually developed over multiple jury trials. Because common law was based off of not only royal justices but also jury trials, it had been the basis of legal systems in many English-speaking countries such as the US.
Term
Magna Carta
Definition
A list of political rights, or demands, written by English nobles in 1215. The Magna Carta is the major source of traditional English respect for individual rights and literties. It had limited the power of the English monarch where he could not do whatever he pleased to the subjects. Signed by King John, it had 63 clauses and established 2 basic legal principles. Since this was a very important event in English, or overall, independence, it was also considered when making the US Constitution.
Term
due process of law
Definition
Established when the Magna Carta was signed by King John in 1215. Due process of law states that a person has the right to a jury trial and the protection of law. This was implemented from a clause of the Magna Carta in England. Since this was used and expanded a long period of time, it is naturally part of many other countries' law, such as the US.
Term
Parliament
Definition
England's national legislature. Parliament consisted of members of nobility who acted as a council for the KIng. In the mid-1300s, knights and burgesses had gained an official role in government by creating the House of Commons. Since it had limited the power of the King, Parliament established the principle of representation
Term
divine right
Definition
A claim that Monarchs had the right to rule with absolute power. Believers in this say that kings' powers came from God. This belief had sprouted in the 1600s when European monarchs asserted more power than lords had int he Middle Ages. Since this practice had an authoritarianism style of belief, it was not liked by the people and eventually stopped.
Term
Glorious Revolution
Definition
The turning point in English constitutional history. T His had occurred in 1689, when William and Mary became crowned as co-rulers of the England. This was sparked in fear that Catholicism would become the official religion of England. During this time, Parliament had also established its right to limit the English monarch's power and control the throne's succession. Since the Glorious Revolution was from Parliament, or the people, the powers of rulers had become restricted.
Term
bill of rights
Definition
a formal summary of the rights and liberties essential to the people. Signed by William and Mary, the current monarchs of England at the time, it limited the monarchs' power and protected free speech in Parliament. It had also specifically done many other things. Since it was a singular document describing people's rights, another version similar to it had been done in the US Constitution.
Term
constitutional monarchy
Definition
the state of England was in during 1689 when William and Mary had taken the throne. In this monarchy, the powers of the ruler had been restricted by the constitution ad laws of England. Since this type of monarchy had started, Parliament was able to limit the monarchs' power by creating the English Bill of Rights.
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