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BIO 201 Exam 2
tissues, bones, and joints
108
Biology
Undergraduate 2
10/04/2010

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Term
Macromolecule
Definition
Largest molecules such as proteins, fats, and DNA.
Term
Protein
Definition
Polymer of amino acids.
Term
Carbohydrate
Definition
a hydrophilic organic molecule. Have a 2:1 ration of hydrogen to oxygen. Includes sugars and starches. As well as monosacharides, disacharides, and glycogen.
Term
Lipids
Definition
A hydrophobic organic molecule, usually composed pf carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.
Term
Nucleic Acid
Definition
Polymers of neucleotides. Includes DNA.
Term
Cell
Definition
The smallest unit of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life
Term
Goblet Cell
Definition
Secrete mucous.
Term
Fibroblasts
Definition
Produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of the connective tissue.
Term
Macrophages
Definition
Engulf and destroy bacteria, other foreign particels, and dead or dying cells. Activate the immune system when the sense antigens. Arise from WBC called monocytes. Are able to migrate and reproduce.
Term
Leukocytes or WBC
Definition
Travel in the bloodstream and spend most of their time in connective tissue. Attack or react to bacteria.
Term
Plasma Cells
Definition
Form from lymphocytes that detect foreign objects. Synthesize disease fighting proteins called antibodies.
Term
Mast Cells
Definition
Secrete heparin that inhibits blood clotting and histamine which increases blood flow by dilating blood vessels. In connective tissue.
Term
Adipocytes
Definition
Fat cells. Mainly filled with globules of triglycerides.
Term
Glial Cells
Definition
Excitable cells used to communicate instructions to other cells.
Term
Keratinocyte
Definition
Epidermal cells that synthesize keratin.
Term
Melanocyte
Definition
Only in the stratum basale of the epidermis. Synthesize melanin.
Term
Tactile cell
Definition
Receptors for sense and touch. Found in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Term
Dendritic cell
Definition
Found in the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum. They are macrophages the migrate to the epidermis and epithelia. They stand guard against toxins, microbes, and other pathogens and alert the immune system when they detect invaders.
Term
Stem Cell
Definition
undifferentiated cells that divide and give rise to keratinocytes.
Term
Osteogenic cells
Definition
Stem cells that give rise to most other bone cell types.
Term
Osteoblasts
Definition
Bone-forming cells. Found on the bone surface under the enosteum and periosteum. Baby cell.
Term
Osteocytes
Definition
Former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they deposited. Reside in lacunae. Connected by gap junctions. Maintains matrix-nonmitotic.
Term
Osteoclasts
Definition
Bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface. Formed by the fusion of several stem cells.
Term
Hydroxyapatite
Definition
The inorganic matter of the matrix of osseous tissue. Consists of calcium satls, calcium carbonate, and calcium phosphate.
Term
Chondrocyte
Definition
Chondroblasts secrete the matrix of cartilage and become enclosed in lacunae and become chondrocytes.
Term
Epithelial Tissue
Definition
Covers the body surface, lines body cavities, forms the external and internal linings of many organs.
Term
Connective Tissue
Definition
Functions: Binding of organs, support, physical protection, immune protection, movement, storage, heat production, and transport.
Term
Muscle Tissue
Definition
Exert physical force on other tissues and organs. Anything that has to do with movement is muscle tissue.
Term
Nervous tissue
Definition
specialized for communication by means of chemical and electrical signals.
Term
Organ
Definition
Group of atleast two tissues, but usually four tissues designed to perform a specific function.
Term
Membrane
Definition
Simplest organ made up of two tissues- epithelium and connective tissue.
Term
Types of membranes- wet vs dry and open vs closed
Definition
Cutaneous-dry (epidermis)-open
Mucous- wet (digestive)-open
Serous- wet (line cavities)- closed
Synovial-wet (joint capsule)- closed
Term
Functions of the integument
Definition
Protection- bacteria and dehydration
Thermal regulation
Immunity
Sensation
Vitamin D synthesis
Social communication
Term
Integument Layers
Definition
Epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
Term
Functions of hair
Definition
Warmth, dry lubrication, guard hairs, enhance facial expressions
Term
Intramembranous ossification
Definition
Developed between two connective tissue membranes.
1. Condensation of mesenchyme into soft sheet permeated with blood capillaries.
2. Deposition of osteoid tissue by osteoblasts on mesenchymal surface; entrapment of first osteocytes; formation of periosteum.
3. honeycomb of bony trabeculae formed by continued mineral deposition; creation of spongy bone.
4. Surface bone filled in by bone deposition, converting spongy bone to compact bone. Persistence of spongy bone in the middle layer.
Term
Endochondral Ossification
Definition
1. Early cartilage model
2. Formation of primary ossification center, bony collar, and periosteum. Chondrocytes die.
3. Vascular invasion, formation of primary marrow cavity, and appearence of secondary ossification center.
4. Bone at birth; enlarged primary marrow cavity and appearence of secondary marrow cavity in one epiphysis.
5. Bone of child; epiphyseal plate at distal end.
6. Adult bone; a single marrow cavity and closed epiphyseal plate.
Term
Osteoblast in bone development
Definition
Osteoblast must have contact with nourishment (glucose) and O2 to burn the glucose.
Term
Hypercalcemia
Definition
Levels of blood calcium above normal. Thyroid secretes calcitonin.
Term
Hypocalcemia
Definition
levels of blood calcium below normal. Parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone.
Term
Calcitrol
Definition
Converted in the skin from cholesterol to vitamin D, and to the liver and kidney for conversion to calcitrol which is used to raise blood calcium concetration.
Term
The breakdown of glucose in a chondrocyte is termed?
Definition
Glycolysis
Term
Mast cells and macrophage cells function in ____ for ____?
Definition
Connective tissue; immunity
Term
This type of gland secretes sebum and is of the type known as____?
Definition
Holocrine
Term
Heparin is a substance secreted by_____ cell and and serves to ____?
Definition
Mast; inhibit blood clotting
Term
This high energy molecule adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is...
Definition
Water soluble
Synthesized during glycolysis
Term
A physiological tissue is best described as?
Definition
A group of cells performing a specific function.
Term
Which of the following are classified as lipid macromolecules? Cholesterol, amino acids, steroids
Definition
Cholesterol & Steroids
Term
In the adult, the ischium and the pubis are united by what kind of joint?
Definition
bony joint
Term
Which of the following cells participate in the immune or allergy responses? White blood cells, mast cell, macrophage
Definition
All of the above
Term
Intramembranous bone formation occurs in which of the following? Tibia, femur, parietal bones of the skull
Definition
Parietal bones of the skull
Term
Serous membranes are located in...
Definition
the knee joint & lining of cavities
Term
The protein produced by keratinocytes is?
Definition
Keratin
Term
Osmosis is a special case of
Definition
simple diffusion for water
Term
The most important solvent in your body is?
Definition
Water
Term
Melanocytes
Definition
Are secretory cells
Produce a substance called melanin
Are activated by UV light
Term
The functional unit of bone is called...
Definition
Osteon
Term
What are the functions of bone?
Definition
Calcium mineral storage
Lipid storage in yellow marrow
Red blood cell manufacturer in red marrow
support
Protection- bones enclose and protect organs
Movement- limb movements, breathing, etc.
Acid base balance
Term
What cells secrete collagen as part of their matrix?
Definition
Fibroblasts, chondrocyte, and osteoblast.
Term
The integument can thermoregulate the body by?
Definition
Controlling blood flow above and below the subcutaneous layer and vasoconstriction of and vasodilation of blood vessels.
Term
If Ca++ levels in the blood increase above normal...
Definition
The thyroid gland secretes calcitonin that targets osteoblasts and bone tissue is deposited.
Term
Hair, nails, and the epidermis all have what in common?
Definition
Composed of dead protein
Highly keratinized cells
Term
The ground substance of the matrix of osseous tissue is?
Definition
Hydroxyapatite
Term
The ground substance of the matrix of osseous tissue is?
Definition
Hydroxyapatite
Term
Osteoclasts secrete two chemicals; _______ degrades away hydroxyapatite, while _________ degrades away ______.
Definition
HCl; acid phosphatase; collagen
Term
Diaphysis
Definition
the shaft of a long bone made primarily of compact bone.
Term
Epiphyses
Definition
the end of a long bone made primarily of spongy bone.
Term
Medullary Cavity
Definition
internal space of the diaphysis of a long bone filled with marrow.
Term
What is a cell with an immunological function?
Definition
Dendritic
Term
The flexible strength of the bone matrix comes from?
Definition
Collagen
Term
If it were not for the _______, osteocytes in the outer lamallae of an osteon would not be able to transport their wastes to the blood stream for removal.
Definition
Canaliculi
Term
Blood vessels often penetrate bone through?
Definition
Foramen
Term
The single layer of cells that make up the stratum basale of the epidermis contains what cells?
Definition
Melanocytes
Keratinocytes
Tactile cells
Term
The reaction that forms glycogen from glucose is termed:
Definition
glycogenesis
Term
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Definition
External ears and epiglottis
Term
How many electrons are found in the ionic form of chlorine (Cl)
Definition
18
Term
. The first stage of cellular respiration, called ___________, takes place in the _________ and needs no oxygen
Definition
glycolysis; cytosol
Term
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Definition
Costal cartilages, ends of long bones, embryonic skeleton
Term
The number and arrangement of electrons in an atoms outer energy level (shell) determines its
Definition
chemical properties
Term
The tissue responsible for the movement of food substrates through your digestive tract (from mouth to anus) is
Definition
muscle
Term
DNA is a(n) __________ and is the code for the production of ___________
Definition
nucleic acid; proteins
Term
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin we would expect?
Definition
an elevated level of osteoblast activity. Laying down more bone.
Term
Water has a high surface tension resulting from its...
Definition
polarity
Term
One primary function of the tissue known as epithelia is
Definition
to control permeability of substances wanting to get in and out of the body
Term
DNA could code for synthesis of which of the following
Definition
protein
Term
The first step in the formation of calcitrol is?
Definition
Conversion of cholesterol to vitamin D sunlight
Term
The lunule is
Definition
The mitotic portion of the finger nail
Term
An articular cartilage composed of _______ cartilage covers the _________ of a long bone
Definition
hyaline; epiphysis
Term
The term "weeping lubrication" refers to?
Definition
How the fibrocartilage in synovial joints acts to distribute oxygen and nutrients
Term
of the following are classified as lipid macromolecules?
Definition
steroids and Cholesterol
Term
Which of the following DO NOT influence the rate of diffusion through a membrane?
Definition
ATP concentration
Term
A catalyst (enzyme)
Definition
is often a protein, and is not altered by the reaction process
Term
Which of the following are hydrophillic?
Definition
water
Term
The process of ________ would stop if a poison blocked ATP synthesis
Definition
active transport
Term
Where are Parietal pleura, visceral pleura, parietal peritoneum, and visceral peritoneum found?
Definition
Parietal pleura- walls of the thoracic cavity
Visceral pleura- Organs of the thoracic cavity
Parietal peritoneum- Walls of the abdominal cavity
visceral peritoneum- Organs of the abdominal cavity.
Term
Gasses move according to the laws of physics. Since this is true, where will the highest concentration (pressure) of CO2 be located inside a cell?
Definition
in the mitochondria
Term
A physiological tissue is best described as
Definition
a group of cells performing a specific function
Term
ATP produced by a cell will move from place to place within the cell by the process of
Definition
simple diffusion
Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true about all enzymes?
Definition
operate at the same optimum pH
Term
When you eat a tortilla, the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the tortilla are chemically broken down in your small intestine. This is an example of
Definition
catabolism
Term
Which of the following will affect the RATE of a chemical reaction?
Definition
a) concentration of substrates and/or products
b) enzyme catalysts
c) temperature
d) b and c
e) all of the above
Term
All organisms display a hierarchy of organization. Which of the following sequences is an accurate example of that sequence starting from the small end of the hierarchy and getting more complex?
Definition
electron, hydrogen, glucose, Golgi complex, muscle cell, smooth muscle tissue, uterus, reproductive system
Term
The final electron acceptor during aerobic respiration is
Definition
O2
Term
In a sample of nucleic acid, 15% of the nitrogenous bases are thymine and 30% are cytosine. Which type of molecule could this be?
Definition
DNA
Term
Cells in a fish's gills pump out salt even though the salt water the fish lives in has a greater concentration of salts than the cells themselves do. What process do you think these cells must use to remove the salt?
Definition
active transport
Term
An enzyme is a _______________ with a conformation specific to the ____________ it catalyses
Definition
protein; substrates
Term
Given these characteristics of a transport process: 1. moves down the concentration gradient AND 2. does not require energy AND 3. requires carrier molecules, which of these processes is described?
Definition
facilitated diffusion
Term
The first reaction in glycolysis is a(n) __________reaction that uses an enzyme called __________ and requires ________
Definition
dehydration synthesis; hexokinase; ATP hydrolysis
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