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Abnormal Test 4
n/a
55
Psychology
Undergraduate 3
11/13/2012

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Term
Psychosis
Definition
A state defined by loss of contact with reality.
Term
Downward Drift Theory
Definition
Schizophrenia causes victims from higher social levels to fall to lower social levels and remain at lower levels.
Term
1. Positive Symptoms
2. Negative Symptoms
3. Psychomotor Symptoms
Definition
Three categories of symptoms in schizophrenia.
Term
Positive Symptoms
Definition
These pathological excesses are bizarre additions to a person's behavior.
Term
1. Delusions
2. Disordered thinking and speech
3. Loose associations (derailment)
4. Neologisms (made-up words)
5. Perseveration
6. Clang (rhymes)
7. Heightened perceptions
8. Hallucinations
9. Inappropriate affect
Definition
Types of Positive Symptoms
Term
Delusions
Definition
Faulty interpretations of reality.
Term
Disordered Thinking and Speech
Definition
May include loose associations, neologisms, perseverations, and clang.
Term
Loose Associations (derailment)
Definition
"The problem is insects, my brother used to collect insects, he's now a man 5 foot 10 inches, you know 10 is my favorite number"
Term
Neologisms
Definition
Made up words
Term
Perseveration
Definition
Patients repeat their words and statements again and again.
Term
Clang
Definition
Rhymes: "How are you? Well it's hell to tell!"
Term
Heightened Perceptions
Definition
People may feel their senses are being flooded by sights and sounds, making it impossible to attend to anything important.
Term
Hallucinations
Definition
Sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli. Most come are auditory but can also be tactile, somatic, visual, gustatory, or olfactory.
Term
Inappropriate Affect
Definition
Emotions that are unsuited to the situation.
Term
Negative Symptoms
Definition
These pathological defects are characteristics that are lacking in an individual.
Term
1. Alogia
2. Blunted and flat affect
3. Anhedonia
4. Loss of volition
5. Social withdrawal
Definition
Types of Negative Symptoms
Term
Alogia
Definition
Poverty of speech. Reduction of quantity of speech or speech content. May also say quite a bit but convey little meaning.
Term
Blunted and Flat Affect
Definition
Show less emotion than most people. Avoidance of eye contract. Immobile, expressionless face. Monotonous voice, low and difficult to hear. Anhedonia.
Term
Anhedonia
Definition
General lack of pleasure or enjoyment.
Term
Loss of Volition (motivation or directedness)
Definition
Feeling drained of energy and interest in normal goals. Inability to start or follow through on a course of action. Ambivalence.
Term
Ambivalence
Definition
Conflicted feelings about most things.
Term
Types of Psychomotor Symptoms
Definition
Awkward movements, repeated grimaces, odd gestures.
Term
Catatonia
Definition
Extreme forms of psychomotor symptoms, includes stupor, rigidity, posturing, and excitement.
Term
1. Prodromal
2. Active
3. Residual
Definition
Three phases of schizophrenia.
Term
Prodromal Phase
Definition
Beginning of deterioration: mild symptoms
Term
Active Phase
Definition
Symptoms become apparent.
Term
Residual Phase
Definition
A return to prodromal-like levels.
Term
1. Disorganized
2. Catatonic
3. Paranoid
4. Undifferentiated
5. Residual
Definition
Five Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Term
Disorganized Subtype
Definition
Characterized by confusion, incoherence, and flat or inappropriate affect.
Term
Catatonic Subtype
Definition
Characterized by psychomotor disturbance of some sort.
Term
Paranoid Subtype
Definition
Characterized by an organized system of delusions and auditory hallucinations.
Term
Undifferentiated Subtype
Definition
Characterized by symptoms which fit no subtype; vague category.
Term
Residual Subtype
Definition
Characterized by symptoms which have lessened in strength and number; person may continue to display blunted or inappropriate emotions as well as social withdrawal, eccentric behavior, and some illogical thinking.
Term
Type 1 Schizophrenia
Definition
Dominated by positive symptoms, seem to have better adjustment prior to the disorder, later onset of symptoms, and greater likelihood of improvement. May be linked more closely to biochemical abnormalities in the brain.
Term
Type II Schizophrenia
Definition
Dominated by negative symptoms. May be tied largely to structural abnormalities in the brain.
Term
Diathesis-Stress Relationship
Definition
People with a biological predisposition will develop schizophrenia only if certain kinds of stressors or events are also present.
Term
Genetic Factors of Schizophrenia
Definition
Following the principles of a diathesis-stress approach, genetic researchers believe that some people inherit a biological predisposition to schizophrenia.
Term
Dopamine Hypothesis
Definition
Certain neurons using dopamine fire too often, producing symptoms of schizophrenia. This theory is based on the effectiveness of antipsychotic medications.
Term
Abnormal Brain Structure
Definition
Brain scans have found that many people with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles. This enlargement may be a sign of poor development or damage in related brain regions. People with schizophrenia have also been found to have smaller temporal and frontal lobes, smaller amounts of gray matter, and abnormal blood flow to certain brain areas.
Term
Ventricles
Definition
The brain cavities that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Term
Moral Treatment
Definition
Hospitals were located in isolated areas to protect patients from the stresses of daily life and to offer them a healthful psychological environment.
Term
Social Breakdown Syndrome
Definition
A pattern of decline which involved extreme withdrawal, anger, and physical aggressiveness, loss of interest in personal appearance and functioning.
Term
Milieu Therapy
Definition
The premise is that institutions can help patients make clinical progress by creating a social climate that promotes productive activity, self-respect, and individual responsibility.
Term
Token Economies
Definition
Patients are rewarded when they behave in socially acceptable ways and are not rewarded when they behave unacceptably. Acceptable behaviors likely to be targeted include care for oneself and one's possessions going to a work program, speaking normally, following ward rules, and showing self-control.
Term
Extrapyramidal Effects
Definition
Disturbing movement problems caused by antipsychotic drugs. They are caused by the drugs' impact on the extrapyramidal areas of the brain.
Term
Parkinsonian Politics
Definition
Reactions that include muscle tremor and rigidity, bizarre movements of the face, neck, tongue, and back, and great restlessness, agitation, and discomfort in the limbs.
Term
Tardi Dyskinesia
Definition
A side effect of conventional antipsychotic drugs involves writhing or tic-like involuntary movements, usually of the mouth, lips, tongue, legs, or body.
Term
Atypical Drugs
Definition
New antipsychotic drugs whose biological operation differs from that of conventional antipsychotics.
Term
Agranulocytosis
Definition
A life-threatening drop in white blood cells.
Term
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Definition
Provide education and evidence of the biological causes of hallucinations. Help clients learn about the comings and goings of their own hallucinations and delusions. Challenge clients' inaccurate ideas about the power of their hallucinations.
Term
Family Therapy
Definition
Attempts to address such issues, create more realistic expectations, and provide psychoeducation about the disorder.
Term
Community Mental Health Act
Definition
Patients should be able to receive care within their own communities, rather than being transported to institutions far from home.
Term
Coordinated Services
Definition
Community mental health centers provide medications, psychotherapy, and inpatient emergency care.
Term
Partial Hospitalization
Definition
These programs provide daily supervised activities and programs to improve social skills.
Term
Occupational Training and Support
Definition
Paid employment provides income, independence, self-respect, and the stimulation of working with others.
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