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A & P Biol 224 Exam # 4 Spring 2013
Respiratory and Digestive System
71
Biology
Undergraduate 4
05/19/2013

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Term
Ventilation refers to the
Definition
movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Term
Internal respiration refers to
Definition
gas exchange between the blood and body tissues.
Term
Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract?
Definition
pharynx
Term
Which of the following functions is associated with the nose?
Definition
warming the air and producing mucus to trap debris from the air
Term
A molecule of air enters the nose through the external nares. Which of the following is the correct
pathway to the trachea?
Definition
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea
Term
Which of the following is NOT a function of the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium of the
nasal cavity?
Definition
exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide. The functions of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium are to: trap dirt and remove it from the air and to moisturize and warm the air.
Term
When people aspirate liquids or food into their lungs, the liquid or food most commonly enters the
right lung rather than the left lung. This is because the right primary bronchus is __________ than the
left primary bronchus.
Definition
more vertical
Term
Gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood takes place in the
Definition
alveoli.
Term
Which of the following statements regarding the lungs is correct?
Definition
The left lung contains two lobes while the right lung contains three lobes.
Term
What type of cells make up about 90% of the alveolar surface?
Definition
Type I pneumocytes
Term
Expiration during quiet breathing
Definition
occurs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax.
Term
When the inspiratory muscles contract,
Definition
thoracic volume increases.
Term
Which of the following statements is true?
Definition
As alveolar volume increases, alveolar pressure (Palv) decreases.
Term
Surfactant facilitates alveolar ventilation by
Definition
decreasing the surface tension between water molecules on the lining of the alveoli.
Term
During inspiration, contraction of the diaphragm causes the volume of Mr. Jones' thoracic cavity to
increase and the pleural pressure to decrease. The pressure in his alveoli (Palv) will
Definition
decrease below atmospheric pressure (PB), causing air to move into his lungs.
Term
In which of the following situations is compliance greatest?
Definition
emphysema
Term
Vital Capacity - (Expiratory Reserve Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume) =
Definition
tidal volume.
Term
If the total pressure of a mixture of gases was 760 mm Hg and its composition is 20% oxygen, 0.04%
carbon dioxide, 75% nitrogen, and 5% water vapor, then the partial pressure of oxygen would be
Definition
152 mm Hg.
Term
Physiological dead air space is anatomic dead space plus
Definition
the volume of any alveoli where gas exchange is diminished.
Term
Mr. Huff and Puff exhales normally; then, using forced expiration, he exhales as much air as possible.
The volume of air still remaining in his lungs is called
Definition
residual volume.
Term
Which of the following individuals will have the highest vital capacity?
Definition
a well-trained athlete (male or female)
Term
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the respiratory membrane by the process of
Definition
diffusion.
Term
As the result of an asthmatic attack,
Definition
ventilation is inadequate to oxygenate blood.
Term
Which of the following results in an increase in shunted blood (blood not completely oxygenated)?
Definition
pulmonary edema
Term
Normally, the partial pressure of oxygen gas is higher in the
Definition
alveoli.
Term
During exercise, the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
Definition
shifts to the right.
Term
The Bohr effect refers to the
Definition
effect of pH on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.
Term
Most oxygen is carried in the blood _______; but most carbon dioxide is _______.
Definition
bound to hemoglobin; associated with bicarbonate ions in the plasma
Term
Mr. Jones has a blood pH of 7.00 and a temperature of 100.5°F. His oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation
curve would
Definition
shift to the right, causing more O2 to be released to his cells.
Term
When 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) levels increase, hemoglobin
Definition
releases more oxygen to tissues.
Term
How does carbon monoxide affect red blood cells (RBCs)?
Definition
The hemoglobin within the RBC bind to carbon monoxide.
Term
Why is fetal hemoglobin very efficient at picking up oxygen?
Definition
The fetal oxygen-dissociation curve is to the left of the maternal oxygen-dissociation curve.
Term
The chloride shift refers to the
Definition
exchange of chloride ions for bicarbonate ions across the red blood cell membrane.
Term
If there is an accumulation of acidic products in the plasma, one would expect
Definition
an increase in respiration rate.
Term
Direct stimulation of neurons within the dorsal respiratory group would cause an increase in the
frequency of action potential in the
Definition
phrenic nerve that innervates the diaphragm.
Term
Rhythmicity of breathing involves
Definition
the pre-Bötzinger complex of the ventral respiratory group.
Term
Which of the following is an accessory organ of the digestive tract?
Definition
liver
Term
Which of the following is NOT a type of propulsion in the digestive tract?
Definition
segmental contraction. Types of propulsion in the digestive tract include: peristalsis, mass movement, and deglutition.
Term
The movement of molecules out of the digestive tract into circulation or the lymphatic system is
Definition
absorption.
Term
Which digestive activity is NOT correctly matched to its location?
Definition
killing microorganisms with lysozyme - stomach. The digestive activities that correctly match include: digestion of carbohydrates - mouth, absorption of nutrients - small intestine, and production of mucus - esophagus.
Term
Which of the following occurs in the large intestine?
Definition
mass movements
Term
In order to remove a tumor in the muscular tunic of the stomach, a surgeon must cut through the
Definition
serosa.
Term
The enteric plexus
Definition
controls movement and secretion of the digestive tract.
Term
Beginning at the lumen, the sequence of layers of the digestive tract wall is
Definition
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.
Term
Parasympathetic nerves extend to the digestive tract through the ____________ nerve.
Definition
vagus
Term
Which of the following attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?
Definition
falciform ligament
Term
The tongue
Definition
plays a major role in swallowing.
Term
Saliva
Definition
moistens food and begins starch digestion in the mouth.
Term
Which of the following components of saliva is mismatched with its function?
Definition
salivary amylase - begins protein digestion. The components of saliva that are matched correctly include: mucin - lubricant, lysozyme - antibacterial properties, bicarbonate - neutralizes acid, and IgA - prevents infection.
Term
Why does the superior part of the esophagus contain skeletal muscle instead of smooth muscle?
Definition
The first phase of swallowing is under voluntary control.
Term
The esophagus
Definition
has upper and lower sphincters to regulate movement of food.
Term
Which of the following cell types of the stomach is correctly matched with its function?
Definition
parietal cells - produce hydrochloric acid
Term
Reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus occurs because of
Definition
relaxation of the cardiac sphincter.
Term
Inability of the pyloric sphincter to open would prevent
Definition
food from entering the small intestine.
Term
Intrinsic factor
Definition
facilitates the absorption of vitamin B12.
Term
Why doesn't the stomach digest itself?
Definition
The stomach wall is protected by large amounts of mucus.
Term
The formation of HCl in the stomach involves the
Definition
active transport of hydrogen ions from parietal cells into the lumen of the stomach.
Term
Pepsinogen
Definition
is packaged in zymogen granules.
Term
The gastric phase of gastric secretion
Definition
leads to the greatest volume of gastric secretion.
Term
Which of the following would stimulate gastric secretion?
Definition
gastrin
Term
Fatty acids and certain lipids in the duodenum initiate the release of
Definition
cholecystokinin (CCK).
Term
Enzymes secreted by the small intestine include
Definition
disaccharidases.
Term
The gallbladder
Definition
stores bile.
Term
What is the purpose of segmental contractions of the small intestine?
Definition
mixing of intestinal contents
Term
Which of the following enzymes is found in inactive form in pancreatic juice?
Definition
trypsin
Term
When chyme enters the duodenum, ____ is released and stimulates the pancreas to secrete bicarbonates.
Definition
secretin
Term
A proteolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas is
Definition
chymotrypsin.
Term
Monosaccharides
Definition
use a symport process in their absorption.
Term
Small droplets of digested lipids surrounded by bile salts are called
Definition
micelles.
Term
Chylomicrons
Definition
are synthesized in intestinal epithelial cells.
Term
Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
Definition
LDL
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