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A & P Biol 224 Exam # 3 Spring 2013
Lymphatic System and Immunity
97
Biology
Undergraduate 4
05/19/2013

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Term
The lymphoid system is composed of all of the following, except
Definition
the venae cavae. The lymphoid system is composed of the lymph nodes, lymph, the spleen, and the lymphatic vessels.
Term
Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
Definition
transporting respiratory gases. The functions of the lymphatic system include: transporting dietary fats, draining excess interstitial fluid, and carrying out immune responses.
Term
The thymus is most active during ________.
Definition
childhood
Term
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.
Definition
skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory
movement
Term
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
Definition
lymphocytes
Term
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
Definition
lingual tonsils
Term
Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
Definition
red blood cells. The normal components of lymph include: water, ions, and plasma proteins.
Term
The lymphocytes are most important in
Definition
fighting infection.
Term
Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the
Definition
thoracic duct.
Term
Lymphocytes are produced and stored in all of the following, except
Definition
the brain. Lymphocytes are produced and stored in the lymphoid nodules, the spleen, the thymus, and the lymph node organs.
Term
Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with
Definition
blood vessels.
Term
Lymphocytes
Definition
respond to antigens.
Term
Lymphocyte production involves
Definition
bone marrow.
Term
T is to ________ as B is to ________.
Definition
thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived.
Term
Lymph nodes do all of the following, except that they
Definition
produce antibodies. Lymph nodes remove excess nutrients from the lymph, remove debris and pathogens from the lymph, monitor the contents of lymph, and detect pathogens.
Term
Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as
Definition
white pulp.
Term
Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except
Definition
complement.
Term
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the
Definition
phagocytes.
Term
Nonspecific defenses include
Definition
all of the above:
A) phagocytic cells.
B) physical barriers.
C) inflammation.
D) interferons.
Term
The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except
Definition
inhibition of the immune response. The effects of activating the immune system include: enhancing phagocytosis, histamine release, stimulation of inflammation, and destruction of target cell plasma membranes.
Term
Inflammation produces localized
Definition
all of the above:
A) swelling.
B) redness.
C) heat.
D) pain.
Term
Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by
Definition
specific immunity.
Term
Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.
Definition
naturally acquired active
Term
The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to
Definition
all of the above:
A) activate T cells.
B) display antigen fragments.
C) process antigens.
Term
Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is not true?
Definition
bind complement. MHC proteins:
A) allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells
B) function in antigen presentation
C) fall into two major classes
D) are found on all nucleated cells
Term
The cells responsible for antibody-mediated immunity are the ________ cells.
Definition
B
Term
In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies.
These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is
an example of
Definition
passive immunity
Term
When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a ________ cell.
Definition
helper T
Term
Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.
Definition
cytotoxic T
Term
Cytotoxic T cells can attack target cells with which of these chemical weapons?
Definition
trigger apoptosis
Term
The cells responsible for the production of circulating immunoglobulins are ________ cells.
Definition
plasma
Term
Cells that help regulate the antibody-mediated immune response are ________ cells.
Definition
helper T
Term
B cells are primarily activated by the activities of
Definition
helper T cells.
Term
Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in
response to infection and also are the class that characterize anti-A and anti-B antibodies, are
Definition
IgM.
Term
All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity, except that
Definition
it is delayed by the memory cell stage. The primary response of humoral immunity requires B cell differentiation into plasma cells, it depends on antigen triggering the appropriate B cell, circulating antibodies undergo a gradual, sustained rise, and it peaks 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.
Term
Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has
already been exposed are known as
Definition
memory responses.
Term
A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of
IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably
Definition
tears.
Term
Diapedesis is the process in which
Definition
cells squeeze through the lining of capillaries to attack invading microbes.
Term
The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in
Definition
none of these: neutralization of the antigen, agglutination or precipitation, or complement activation and opsonization.
Term
MACs are
Definition
the end result of complement system.
Term
Opsonization is
Definition
the coating of a pathogen by complement.
Term
The leukocytes called natural killer lymphocytes
Definition
are nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.
Term
The complement cascade results in
Definition
damage resulting in cell lysis.
Term
Class II MHC (major histocompatibility antigens) are found on
Definition
antigen-presenting cells.
Term
The perforin-granzyme pathway involves
Definition
the synthesis of special cell-killing proteins that act on infected or abnormal cells and the D) binding CD95L to infected cells, which eventually leads to cell apoptosis.
Term
Activation of tBid protein leads to
Definition
caspase cascade
Term
CD4 recognizes and binds to MHC II antigens and helps stabilize the binding of antigenic determinants to which T cell receptors? CD4 is a marker found on what cell?
Definition
Helper T cell
Term
Lacteals are
Definition
lymphatic vessels in the lining of the small intestine.
Term
What is the purpose of lacteals?
Definition
Absorb lipids from the digestive tract.
Term
Structurally, lymph vessels are most similar to
Definition
veins.
Term
A woman has her right breast and right axillary lymph nodes removed. Which of the following might
occur?
Definition
Right lymphatic duct drainage decreases causing edema in the right arm.
Term
Which of the following organs does NOT contain lymphatic tissue?
Definition
liver. The organs that contain lymphatic tissue includes: the spleen, lingual tonsils, thymus, and the pharyngeal tonsils.
Term
Lymphatic tissue contains an interlaced network of reticular fibers that functions to
Definition
trap microorganisms.
Term
Tonsils
Definition
provide protection against bacteria entering the oral and nasal cavities.
Term
Bacteria and debris are actively removed from the lymph by _____ in the sinuses of lymph nodes.
Definition
macrophages
Term
Lymph exits a lymph node via the
Definition
efferent lymphatic vessels.
Term
The only structures that filter lymph is/are the
Definition
lymph nodes.
Term
The spleen
Definition
filters damaged red blood cells from the blood.
Term
The white pulp of the spleen
Definition
contains lymphocytes that can stimulate an immune response.
Term
What is the function of thymosin?
Definition
maturation of T-cells
Term
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of adaptive immunity?
Definition
You are born with it. The characteristics of adaptive immunity include: it has memory, specificity, and it is acquired throughout your lifetime.
Term
Which of the following is true of adaptive immunity?
Definition
The second response is faster and stronger than the first response.
Term
Complement proteins
Definition
can form holes in the plasma membrane of target cells.
Term
Which of the following most accurately describes how foreign substances can activate complement?
Definition
Antibodies can bind to foreign antigens and activate complement through the classical pathway and
foreign substances can bind to spontaneously activated C3 and stabilize it.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of complement action?
Definition
produces cytokines. The mechanisms of complement action include: opsonization, attracts other immune cells to the site of infection, and forms a MAC that leads to cell lysis.
Term
Interferon production is stimulated by
Definition
a viral infection.
Term
The movement of leukocytes to the source of certain chemicals is called
Definition
chemotaxis.
Term
Lysozyme is
Definition
an enzyme found in body fluids that destroys certain bacteria.
Term
Which of the following statements concerning neutrophils and macrophages is false?
Definition
Both release histamine when activated.
Term
Histamine and leukotrienes are released from
Definition
basophils and mast cells.
Term
Which of the following is usually the first cell type to leave the blood and enter infected tissues
Definition
neutrophil
Term
Natural Killer (NK) cells
Definition
secrete enzymes that kill tumor or virus-infected cells.
Term
During the inflammatory response,
Definition
chemical mediators are released.
Term
In systemic inflammation, pyrogens
Definition
stimulate fever production.
Term
Adaptive immunity is stimulated by
Definition
antigens.
Term
____ are part of cell-mediated immunity while ____ are part of antibody-mediated immunity.
Definition
T cells, B cells
Term
Which of the following is a subpopulation of T cells?
Definition
cytotoxic
Term
T cells are divided into two primary groups, effector and regulatory. Which of the following are regulatory T cells?
Definition
helper T cells
Term
The MHC class I antigen complex displays a foreign antigen on the cell surface. This prompts the immune system to destroy
Definition
the displaying cell.
Term
MHC class II molecules are found on
Definition
B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
Term
Cells that process antigen and present antigens to other immune cells are called
Definition
antigen-presenting cells.
Term
Frequently, several different signals or molecules are needed in order to produce an immune response
by a B cell or T cell. The second signal in this process is called
Definition
costimulation.
Term
T helper cells possess a glycoprotein called CD4. This molecule binds to
Definition
MHC class II molecules.
Term
Which of the following might occur after a helper T cell is presented with a processed antigen and
costimulated?
Definition
Helper T cells release interleukins that stimulate B cells to clone.
Term
Once cytotoxic T cells are produced, which of the following is (are) consistent with their ability to
attack intracellular viruses?
Definition
Most nucleated cells process antigens through the MHC class I mechanisms, viral antigens are processed by the MHC class I mechanism and are presented to the cell surface, and cytotoxic T cells bind to MHC class I processed antigens.
D. Cytotoxic T cells bound to the MHC class I processed antigens release lymphokines.
Term
Lymphocyte proliferation begins by increasing the number of
Definition
helper T cells.
Term
Antibodies are produced by
Definition
B cells that differentiate to form plasma cells.
Term
Antibodies
Definition
have a variable region that binds to a specific antigenic determinant.
Term
Antibodies secreted in breast milk
Definition
are IgA antibodies.
Term
As a result of opsonization,
Definition
antigens are more susceptible to phagocytosis.
Term
Several days after an initial contact with an antigen, antibody blood levels increases. This is a
Definition
primary response.
Term
The secondary or memory response
Definition
provides better protection than the primary response.
Term
In the cell-mediated immune response, T cells secrete ___, which activate additional components of the immune system.
Definition
cytokines
Term
Cell-mediated immunity would be least effective against
Definition
extracellular antigens. Cell-mediated immunity would be more effective against tumor cells, virally infected cells, intracellular bacteria, and intracellular parasites.
Term
The HIV virus infects
Definition
helper T cells.
Term
Several research groups are working on vaccines that will be effective against the AIDS virus. When a
successful vaccine is produced, it is likely to be injected to produce
Definition
active artificial immunity.
Term
An abnormal, exaggerated response of the immune system is called
Definition
hypersensitivity.
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